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Texas A&M - BIOL 112 - Class Notes

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Texas A&M - BIOL 112 - Class Notes

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background image Campbell Biology Chapter 22  Descent with Modification: A Darwinian view of Life  Basic Concepts/ Misconceptions:    Beings do not evolve to be better, only more suitable 
  Evolution is not a change in an individual, rather, change in generation of reproduction 
  Not random, directed by environment/selection 
Observations about Life- lead to theory of evolution    Different ways organisms are suited to their environment 
  Shared characteristics between organisms 
  Rich diversity of life 
Charles Darwin comes up with explanations for above observations    Hypothesis of evolutionary biology presented in The Origin of Species 
  Evolution (descent with modification): present day species are descendants from 
ancestral species that are different because of adaptations    Evolution is also change in genetic composition  22.1 Darwin Challenges Traditional Views 
 
Scala Naturae and Classification of Species 
  Aristotle 
  Time of the Judeo-Christian Bible, young Earth 
  Viewed species as unchanging, but recognized similarities between them 
  Arranged life forms on a scale of complexity called scala naturae 
  Ideas agreed with Old Testament- each species designed by God for particular purpose 
  Linnaeus (Age of Reason)    2 part/binomial naming of species (genus, species, etc.) 
  Developed orderly classification system, species grouped in categories according to 
similarity    These grouping allowed Darwin to point out evolutionary relationships    Ideas about Change over Time 
  Fossils are remains/traces of organisms- records of change over time 
  Can be found in sedimentary rock- layers of rock called strata- marks relative ages 
  Paleontology: study of fossils- older fossils are less similar to present day life forms 
  Georges Cuvier (developed paleontology) 
  Opposed evolution 
  Proposed that boundary between each dissimilar species was caused by extinction- 
because of catastrophic event (believed that Earth was only a few  thousand years old) 
background image   James Hutton    Believed that slow, continuous processes causes geological features 
  Ex: canyons slowly eroded by rivers 
  Charles Lyell    Father of geology (wrote Principles of Geology
  Believed that geological processes occurred at the same rate in the past that it does 
now    This would mean that the Earth is very old    Erasmus Darwin    Physician and natural philosopher 
  Might have thought about evolution 
 
Lamarck’s Hypothesis of Evolution 
  Linked evolution to adaptation 
  Proposed the incorrect mechanism for evolution 
  Believed in “use and disuse”: body parts that were sued would become larger and stronger 
  These acquired traits would be passed on (Lamarckism) 
  Called “inheritance of acquired characteristics” 
  However, what is acquired, cannot be passed on, only genes can 
  Ex: expecting a trimmed bonsai bush’s offspring to have the same shape 
  Believed that evolution occurred because organisms wanted to be more complex 
  Was completely wrong about all of this 
 
22.2 Descent with Modification by Natural Selection   
Darwin’s Research 
  Interested in nature since childhood, quit medical school 
  Enrolled in Cambridge to become a clergyman/scholar of science 
  The Voyage of the Beagle 
  Went on a voyage around the world- emphasis on South American coastlines 
  Observed and collected plants and animals- observed what made them suitable to their 
environment    Describes similarities in animals 
  After studying Principles of Geology and seeing an earthquake push layers of rocks up, 
he decided that the Earth was a lot older than believed at the time    At the Galapagos (volcanic islands), he observed mockingbirds that were unique to their  specific island but still had similarities    Darwin’s focus on adaptation (took idea from Lamarck)    Adaptation: inherited characteristics that enhance survival/reproduction 
  Can a new species arise from accumulated adaptations? 
  Diverse group of fiches found by Darwin- unique beaks according to the specific foods 
found on the different islands    Natural Selection (NS): when individuals have specific traits that allow them to survive  and reproduce at higher rates 

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School: Texas A&M University
Department: OTHER
Course: Introductory Biology II
Professor: Christopher Lee
Term: Spring 2017
Tags:
Description: Campbell Biology Chapter 22 Descent with Modification: A Darwinian view of Life Basic Concepts/ Misconceptions:  Beings do not evolve to be better, only more suitable  Evolution is not a change in an individual, rather, change in generation of reproduction  Not random, directed by environment/selection Observations about Life- lead to theory of evolution  Different ways organisms are suited to
Uploaded: 01/22/2018
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