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JMU - HTH 245 - Class Notes - Week 3

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JMU - HTH 245 - Class Notes - Week 3

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Vocabulary words
Important Facts Types of Microbes  Chapter 3 - Beneficial Aspects of Microbes    ● Microbes = largest component of earth’s biomass, foundation of biosphere  ○ Many act as scavengers or decomposers 
○ Bacteria are important for the basis of biogeochemical cycles 
○ Bioremediation  = use of microorganisms to clean up polluted 
environments  Microbes in the Environment  Microbes as Decomposers:  ● Ecosystem  = a population of organisms in a particular physical and chemical  environment  ○ Abiotic components  = chemical and physical environment 
○ Using an aquarium as an example: 
■ Primary producers - green plants (because they photosynthesize,  resulting in production of organic compounds and oxygen)  ■ Consumers - fish (take oxygen from environment & exhale carbon  dioxide & use organic compounds as energy source)  ■ Decomposers -  bacteria and fungi  (are also the link between  producers and consumers)  ● Microbes = best recyclers in an ecosystem  ○ Ones involved in  scavenging are nonpathogenic & free-living  Microbes and the Biogeochemical Cycles:  ● Carbon Cycle  ○ Carbon atoms found in proteins, carbohydrates, fats, & DNA 
○ Photosynthetic organisms harness the sun’s energy & convert it into 
glucose from carbon dioxide and water  ○ Hydrogen & water = vital reactants in photosynthesis 
○ Chlorella =  photosynthetic algae  found on ocean water’s surface 
○ Cyanobacteria = photosynthetic bacteria 
○ Cellulose  = polymer (chain) of glucose (sugar), energy rich product from 
photosynthesis  ○ Bacteria produce enzymes that break down cellulose into a single  molecule of glucose  ● Nitrogen Cycle  ○ Nitrogen is a part of amino acids, which are building blocks of proteins &  nucleic acids  ○ Only bacteria can convert nitrogen into a usable form & recycle it back into  the atmosphere 
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Vocabulary words
Important Facts Types of Microbes  ○ Leguminous plants fixate nitrogen & its converted product to ammonia.  They also contain  rhizobium (nitrogen-fixing bacteria)  on their nodules 
(this works as a symbiotic relationship) 
○ 2nd step - nitrification - ammonia is converted into nitrates by bacterial  genera Nitrobacter & Nitrosomonas.  Bacteria can also decompose 
organisms, which causes nitrogen to be released back into the 
atmosphere 
○ Urine - waste product rich in nitrogen 
○ 3rd step - denitrifying bacteria return nitrogen back into the atmosphere as 
nitrous gas  ● Other Cycles  ○ Sulfur, phosphorous, & iron cycles also rely on microbial communities to  complete the cycle  Microbes in Food Production  ● Foods  ○ Mushrooms - some extremely toxic, some not 
○ Antimicrobial agents, anticholesterol agents, cognitive stimulants, vitamin 
source, & aiding in lowering blood sugar  ● Algae  ○ China consumes a large amount of algae  ● Food Production  ○ Fermentation  = series of chemical reactions mediated by enzymes of a  variety of strains of bacteria & yeasts that break down sugars into smaller 
molecules.  Is a metabolic pathway where yeasts can utilize anaerobic 
conditions to produce ATP.  End products are lactic acid, carbon dioxide, & 
ethanol. 
○ Ethanol & lactic acid - acts as a food preservative by inhibiting growth of  undesired microbes  ● Bread Products  ○ Release of carbon dioxide in yeast fermentation causes bread to rise  ● Dairy Products  ○ Fermented milk products 
○ Different species of lactobacillus & some streptococcus species are used 
for things like sour cream & buttermilk  ○ Carbon dioxide is what causes the holes in swiss cheese  ● Wine, Beer, & Other Alcoholic Beverages  ○ S. cerevisiae & other yeasts ferment & produce alcohol 
○ Enology  = study of wine making - during the aging, different qualities of 
the wine come from the metabolism of the yeast  

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School: James Madison University
Department: OTHER
Course: Foundations of Infectious Disease
Professor: Kimberlee Hartzler-Weakley
Term: Spring 2018
Tags: infectious, infectiousdisease, Foundations, foundationsofinfectiousdisease, Biology, cells, Viruses, disease, diseases, HTH354, Microbes, and micrbiomes
Name: Foundations of Infectious Disease week 3 notes
Description: This covers material from the book for chapter 3 as well as class notes
Uploaded: 01/22/2018
5 Pages 16 Views 12 Unlocks
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