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Ecology and Evolution 11216486 - Class Notes - Week 2

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Ecology and Evolution 11216486 - Class Notes - Week 2

Department: OTHER
Course: PRINC OF EVOLUTION
Professor: P. SMOUSE
Term: Spring 2018
Tags: evolution and Biology
Name: Week 2 Notes
Description: These are class note from Week 2 from Principles of Evolution
Uploaded: 01/22/2018
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background image To start using this template, click “File” -- “Make a Copy”     MM/DD/YYYY  COURSE ### Principles of Evolution     
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From previous sections     - Term/Concept ​ -  Evolution Before Darwin,The Age of Reason,The idea of change,  Lamarckian Thought,Darwinian Thought,The Paradigm,Changing of the Guard,Post 
Darwinian Thought, 
 
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Chapter 02: Systematics and Evolution   - Term ​ - Linnaean Classification   - Term ​ - Evolutionary Classification   - More explanation  - Linnaeus published his Systema Naturae and he introduced binomial  nomenclature, Genus and species. (Homo sapiens)   - Category:   Linnaeus introduced a series of nested categories each more  inclusive that the last species → genus → family → order → class →  phylum → kingdom.     - Taxon:  a particular species say Betula lenta is a taxon. A particular genus  say Pinus is alos a more inclusive taxon. Taxon=unit. Plural is taxa.   - Linnaeus and his contemporaries mean, created on the same general  plan by God, small (or large) variations on a central theme. Small 
background image To start using this template, click “File” -- “Make a Copy”     MM/DD/YYYY  variations for species within a genus, larger variation for genera within a  family, and so on.   - More explanation  - Darwin took a different view, that a close relationship of different species  in one genus was due to their recent descent from a  common ancestor.   - Phylogenetic trees:  all organism sprung from a vast tree of life. Darwin's  point was that Linnaean classification worked, precisely because it was  depiction of that historical lineage-based tree.   - Cladogenesis vs Anagenesis:   Cladogenesis ( the splitting of one lineage  into two or more descendent lines) and Anagenesis ( the evolutionary  change of various characters within each of the descendants)   - Monophyletic taxa:    it would be evolutionary reasonable to include  species (A-E) within a single genus. Monophyletic (same only one source)  and the grouping is natural phylogenetic coherent. Species (G-K) form  another monophyletic group, labeled as another genus.  What about F?  Can be related as monotypic (single species) or included with (G-K).  - Paraphyletic Taxa:   ​Should not be included with the (A-E) grouping. In  point of fact, all organisms can be traced back to a common ancestor. We  try to avoid this group. It is  unnatural ​to include (C-E) & F&(G-H) in one  genus.      - Term-  ​Phenetics vs Cladistics: 
background image To start using this template, click “File” -- “Make a Copy”     MM/DD/YYYY  - More explanation   - Phentics : the idea to tally up the number of shared characters between  each pair of taxa, and then group on overall similarity. (help build a  phenetic tree)    - Phenetic similarity matrix:  by character matches (0-0 and 1-1) and mis  matches (0-1 and 1-0).  We link the most similar pair (A-B score=5) and  (C-D score =5)  - How does O match with the A-B pair? We note that O-A pair score =3  O-B score = 2. (3+2 dividing by 2 = 2.5)  - O-C score =3 O-D score =4 (3+4 dividing by 2 = 3.5)  - O is closer to the C-D mammal group than to the A-B bird group.   
background image To start using this template, click “File” -- “Make a Copy”     MM/DD/YYYY    - Cladistic: ​ Willi Henning we should use those characters that conveyed  evolutionary information.  if you let zero to be ancestral 1 by the derived  state you can do better than that.  ​0-0 ​match has no evolutionary  information  ​1-1 ​that was a single change that is important.    - A trait that has evolved twice, from different sources, is a shared trait but  it is  not​ derived from shared ancestry it represents parallel evolution  (wings in bats,birds, and insects)   - Took the view that only  shared derived traits​ should be counted. I set  the dinosaur character states to 0 so all of the 1 states are derived.     - A-B score = 3 C-D score =2 with birds and mammals as paris showing an  average score of (¼)(1)=.25.  But with O showing no similarity to either  group yields this tree    

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Department: OTHER
Course: PRINC OF EVOLUTION
Professor: P. SMOUSE
Term: Spring 2018
Tags: evolution and Biology
Name: Week 2 Notes
Description: These are class note from Week 2 from Principles of Evolution
Uploaded: 01/22/2018
15 Pages 25 Views 20 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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