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TEXAS STATE / Anthropology / ANTH 2414 / How are traits passed along from generation to generation?

How are traits passed along from generation to generation?

How are traits passed along from generation to generation?

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School: Texas State University
Department: Anthropology
Course: Biological Anthropology
Professor: Nicholas herrmann
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Darwinism, evolution, natural selection, and biological anthropology
Cost: Free
Name: ANTH2414, Week 2
Description: Theories of Human Origins
Uploaded: 01/23/2018
8 Pages 40 Views 13 Unlocks
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Texas State University


How are traits passed along from generation to generation?



Spring 2018

Professor: Dr. Jill Pruetz

ANTH 2414

BIO. ANTHROPOLOGY Notes

Anthropology​- is the study of culture, biology, history, and prehistory (Everything Human).

(1/22/18)

Misconceptions About Evolution: 

● Evolution explains CHANGE

○ Evolution does NOT negate the concept of a Creator

■ However, evolution does not support a literal translation of many

religious texts.

● Social Darwinism

○ Misused Darwin’s model of Evolution

■ Suggested that cultures were evolving


What were the sources of variation?



Don't forget about the age old question of What are the three foundations of finance?

● “Primitive” cultures were not as far in the evolutionary process as

“complex” Western cultures.

○ Social Darwinism was eventually disregarded

● “Primitive” species are no less evolved than more “complex” species If you want to learn more check out How are vectors defined in a coordinate system?

History: 

Precursors to the history of evolutionary thought in Western European Science- ● Greeks

● Arabs

● Indians

Theories of Human Origins: 

-Anthropocentric view of the universe (idea that: We are the center of the universe) ● Europe Middle Ages If you want to learn more check out Why is it problematic to claim pgd and selection help to prevent harm to the child?

○ Pre-Scientific Creation narratives


What forces are most significant to the evolutionary process?



■ Fixity of species (Species do NOT change - or go extinct)

■ The Great Chain of Being

■ Grand Design (Creation & no extinction)

● Circa 1600 ya: Archbishop Ussher

○ 4004 B.C. origin of Earth

-Entering Exploration

● 15th Century

○ Biological diversity

○ Copernicus

■ Polish mathematician

● 17th century

○ Galileo

○ Law of Physics, Motion,

-English Scientist

● Robert Hooke (1635-1703) If you want to learn more check out What are the usual challenges of production?
Don't forget about the age old question of Do return strategies truly make consumers happy?

○ Microscope

○ Fossils

-SCIENCE IN THE MID-1700s: 

● John Ray

○ Species concept

○ And genus

■ Homo Sapiens Sapiens

● Linnaeus

○ System of binomial nomenclature

■ Systema Naturae

● 1735

■ Class, Order: Mammalia, Primates (HUMANS)

● Comte de Buffon

○ Recognized change in the universe, species

○ Natural History

■ 1749

■ Context of the environment are important

● Saw the new world as underdeveloped

● Erasmus Darwin (Charles Darwin’s Grandfather)

○ Zoomania

■ 1794

■ ‘E conchis omnia’ (everything from seashells) We also discuss several other topics like Where are microglia produced?

● Lamarck (1744-1829)

○ 1st attempt to explain the evolutionary process Theory of Acquired

characteristics coined by the term biology.

■ Example: Giraffe would grow a long neck and pass this on to their offspring ■ No one recognized genetics during this time period

-18th CENTURY 

● Cuvier

○ Recognized the concept of extinction

○ Catastrophism

■ An essay on the principle of Population

● Was key to Darwin’s ideas of Revolution

● Malthus

○ 1798

● James Hutton & Charles Lyell

○ Geology & “Deep Time”

○ Principles of Geology

■ 1830-1833

○ Theory of Unitarianism

■ Uniformity of:

● Law, Process, Rate, State

● Mary Anning

○ English woman, who was a fossil hunter

○ “Fossilist”

■ Supplied museums, etc.

○ Ichthyosaurus

○ Plesiosaurus

-Evolutionary Theory

● Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

○ HMS Beagle (1831-1836) - ship he took to go see new species

■ Galapagos Islands

○ On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859)

■ Interest in breeding grew

● Bred Finches and other birds from the islands

● Alfred Russell Wallace (1823-1913)

○ Came up with almost the same concept as Darwin

● Darwin-Wallace Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection

○ Favorable traits... (Survival of the Fittest)

■ Traits that are favorable to a specific context (environment)

○ Reproductive Success

○ Variability

○ Operates at the level of the Individual! (A population evolves, an individual does not)

Evolution By Means of Natural Selection:

● Population increase

● Limited resource

● Population stability

○ Competition between individuals

○ Heritability

○ Individual variation

■ Differential Survival

● Evolution

Evolution by means of Natural Selection:

● Microevolution

○ Change in gene frequency in a POPULATION over generations

○ Differential survival & reproduction of INDIVIDUALS

■ Competition of Resources

(1/24/18)

Variability = genetic variability (what natural selection is based off of)

● Variation is what selection operates on - see examples of finches and beak size

Context = evolutionary context

● Or in the case of living species, things like the type of habitat they live in, the type of social group they live in, etc.

Natural Selection & Macroevolution or Speciation 

● Long-term = accumulated change

○ May result in new species

○ Life expectancy depends on where you live

■ Example: A strand of malaria that evolved to its vaccination

● Geographical isolation & new species

○ Selective pressures lead to new species

■ Example: a hobbit; found on an island in Southeast Asia

REVIEW:

● Darwin-Wallace Theory of Natural Selection

○ Survival of the fittest - individuals w/ favorable variations would survive and reproduce.

○ “Not only do you have to survive, but so do your offspring”

■ Differential reproduction - some survive at greater rates than other (most fit for that particular environment)

● Reproduction proceeds faster than food supply

○ In other words, offspring are produced faster than food supply increases ○ Based on Malthus’ writing

● Competition over resources

KEY CONCEPTS:

● Environment

○ Context of trait

● Heritability

○ Present in sex cells

○ Biological variation*** is what natural selection operates on...

■ BUT IT MUST BE INHERITABLE

● Selective Pressure = something driving evolutionary change

Darwin’s Gaps… Evidence of Natural Selection: 

-Example: Domestication = Artificial Selection (Think of different breeds of dogs; dachshunds and basset hounds)

-Example: Peppered moth pigmentation in England (Chpt 4 in textbook) ● Mottled gray before industrialization (dark moths)

● Melanistic moths (lighter moths) were being picked off because the could not camoflauge w/ the trees.

○ Birds = selective agent (ate the moths they could see)

-End of 1800s - Melanistic form became dominant

-Selective Pressure

-Example: Evolution of Darwin’s Finches (microevolution)

● Grants’ study of medium ground finch (small & deep beaks)

○ Galapagos Islands

■ Seed-eating birds (studied the beaks)

■ Deep beak = eats larger seeds

■ Smaller beak = only eats small seeds

● N=1500 birds (banded and measured)

● Behavior, morphology, environment

● Recorded extreme environmental change

○ Drought

■ Reactions:

● Change in plant production (produced fewer seeds)

● Small soft seed were eaten first

● Many finches didn’t survive

○ Population changed from 1200 to 180

○ The ones that died were the ones with smaller

beaks

● 4% average increase in beak depth size

-How does variation come along?

-How are traits passed along from generation to generation? (Back then they thought it was through blending)

19th CENTURY EVOLUTIONARY THEORY

● Mechanisms of evolutionary change unknown...

○ What were the sources of variation?

● Consensus

Mechanisms of Inheritance

● Gregor Mendel (1822-1884)

○ Problem of heredity

■ Pea plant experiments

● 7 different types & how they were expressed

○ Heredity principles

■ Principles of segregation

● Genes controlling a trait separated into sex cells and are united at

fertilization

■ Principles of independent assortment

● Genes aren’t necessarily linked but assort randomly during

meiosis

■ Mendel rediscovered...

● Around the 1900s he rediscovered the importance

Modern Synthesis in Biology: 

● Evolution as a 2-stage process​: variation is produced & rediscovered and natural selection acts as the variation (source of new genetic material)

○ Important Scientists, Figures, Mathematicians, etc. - Fisher, Haldane, Wright, Dobzhansky

Mendelian Inheritance 

VOCABULARY:

● Mendelian Traits -traits influenced by alleles at only 1 locus (discrete) ● Genotype - individual’s genetic makeup

○ Only the same in identical twins

● Phenotypes - observed physical manifestations of genes (how you look) ○ Example: hair, bones, behaviors, etc.

● Genotype + Environment = Phenotype

Mendelian Inheritance in Humans: 

● <21,000 known (discrete traits)

○ Traits influenced by alleles at only 1 locus

■ Majority don’t have visible phenotypes

● Genetic disorders

○ Example: albinism (recessive trait)

● ABO blood system

Unnatural Selection: 

-Non-Darwinian mechanisms of evolution:

➢ Mutation & Recombination = INCREASE​ variation ➢ Gene flow, Natural Selection, Gene drift = DECREASE​ variation

● Genetic Drift

○ Founder effect

○ bottlenecks

● Gene Flow

What forces are most significant to the evolutionary process? ● Mutation

○ The only​ source of new​ genetic material

■ Modular alteration

■ Must occur in sex cells

■ Increases variation

● Recombination (Sexual Reproduction)

○ During Meiosis

■ Increases variation

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