PRENATAL GENETIC TESTING (PGD TO RULE OUT DEFECTS)
Q: Besides healthrelated concerns, identify and explain two significant concerns (objections) regarding preimplantation genetic diagnosis and selection. (There are more than two correct answers.)
∙ And objection to pregenetic testing is that since it is expensive, this procedure can only be accessed by people with money, therefore if there is a genetic mutation resulting in a disease or disability will become a thing related to low socioeconomic standing furthering the divide between rich and poor.
∙ Genetic testing allows doctor to choose desired traits the will result in the lowest chance of disease or disability. By allowing this, there are no regulations to whatever else a doctor can choose. Thus resulting in a couple being able to “build their own baby” and play god with traits.
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Q. Some argue that preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and selection are important because they prevent the harm of passing on defective genes to one’s (or the couple’s) child. (Similarly, the HFEA at one time claimed it is legitimate for embryos to be selected for tissue matching only if the PGD and selection conferred a therapeutic advantage upon the embryo.) Why is it problematic to claim PGD and selection help to prevent harm to the child (or help to confer a therapeutic advantage upon the embryo)? If you want to learn more check out Do return strategies truly make consumers happy?
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∙ The embryo is already created and it’s genetic makeup is already set, so if they show signs of disability or disorder there is no prevention of the disorder, there is just the choice not to implant that embryo into the mother.
Q. Explain the disability and/or eugenics critique of selecting some embryos/fetuses while discarding/aborting disabled embryos/fetuses. (That is, how might such selection disrespect and/or negatively affect persons with disabilities?)
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● Eugenic Attitude
○ Is it ethical for people to make the choice of who is "fit to be born?"
○ Does the value of human embryos boil down to the value of their specific traits/abilities
○ Does poor quality of life imply the embryo should not be given chance to live ○ False assumptions of the quality of life toward those with genetic diseases ○ Pressure on parents to only have healthy children
○ Sends a message that certain people should never have been born
○ Society has reduced imperative to find cures/ support services
○ If fewer with disabilities, less likely to be heard. Don't forget about the age old question of How did race and ethnicity cause division among americans?
Q. How does Steinbock respond to the disability critique?
● Steinbock's DISAGREES
○ Women may be simply "choosing between 2 possible future"
■ Having child under these conditions
■ Having a different child under different condition later on
○ Why should it be discriminatory/hurtful to prefer to have a child without a disabling condition? If you want to learn more check out What is the structural model of personality?
Q. According to the assigned reading by Skoto, Levine, and Goldstein, how do persons with Down Syndrome perceive their quality of life?
∙ According to the reading 95%99% of people with down syndrome described their lives as happy and their quality of life as great.
Q. Explain three reasons against embryo selection (tissue matching) to save a sibling’s life. ∙ There is no direct benefit to the child being born for tissue matching outside of “helping their sibling”.
∙ In the early stages of the savior siblings life there is little to no autonomy or informed consent so the child is subjected to needles and other procedures authorized by the parent.
∙ The “savior sibling” may only feel important when they are being asked for tissue donation for the other siblings, causing rifts in the family.
Q. Identify three responses to support embryo selection (tissue matching) to save a sibling’s life.
∙ According to the Utilitarianism approach, by prenatally selecting a tissue match more lives are benefitted than harmed.
∙ A savior sibling can heal and mend a family, bring them closer and increasing the bond shared
∙ Using prenatal genetic testing, there is a life being born and a life being saved instead of one life being lost.