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BYU - PHY S 100 - PS 100 Exam 1 Study Guide (minus ch. 9) - Study

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BYU - PHY S 100 - PS 100 Exam 1 Study Guide (minus ch. 9) - Study

School: Brigham Young University
Department: OTHER
Course: Physical Science
Professor: Patricia Ackroyd
Term: Spring 2017
Tags:
Name: PS 100 Exam 1 Study Guide (minus ch. 9)
Description: These notes cover most of what will be on Exam 1.
Uploaded: 01/24/2018
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background image Physical Science 100 Exam 1 Study Guide 
 
Ch. 1: Knowledge, Science, and the Universe 
  
● 4 shared sources of knowledge 
1. Authority: an accepted source of expert information or advice 
2. Intuition: knowledge imparted to us through methods other than our physical senses 
3. Reason: knowledge derived from assumptions and conclusions 
4. Sensory data: experience obtained through the 5 physical senses: sight, hearing, smell, 
taste, touch     ● The scientific method: uses all 4 sources of knowledge, but focuses on reason and  sensory data  ○ Hypothesis: a first guess, a set of assumptions 
○ Theory: a well-tested and refined hypothesis 
○ Law: theories that have been proven accurate 
○ Models: schematic descriptions of physical systems 
○ Scientific research is always a test of a hypothesis, theory, law, or model against 
the behavior of nature     ● 6 self-evident truths in science: 
1. Existence: there is a real physical world separate and distinct from our minds 
2. Causality: cause must always precede effect 
3. Position symmetry: the laws of nature are the same everywhere in universe 
4. Time symmetry: the laws of nature do not change over time 
5. Principle of non-contradiction: of 2 contradictory propositions, both cannot be true 
6. Occam's Razor: when 2 or more explanations exist for the same physical phenomenon, 
we choose the simplest one that satisfies all observations     ● The 4 interactions in nature: 
1. Strong nuclear: Interactions between nucleons, found at the atomic level 
2. Weak nuclear: Interaction between nucleons, atomic level, attempts to break nuclei apart 
(radioactivity)  3. Electromagnetic: Interaction between charged objects, dominates the world in which we  live  4. Gravity: Interaction between anything with mass, dominant force with planet-size objects    
  
Ch. 2: Laws Governing Motion 
background image    ● Forces are always necessary to create or change motion, but force is not necessary to  sustain motion    
Newton's Three Laws of Motion 
1. Every object at rest, or in uniform motion, will remain in that state of motion unless  compelled to do otherwise by forces acting upon it  1. Uniform motion: motion at a constant speed in a straight line 
2. Force: a push or pull on an object 
2. Force=mass x acceleration (F=ma, a=F/m)  1. Mass: the characteristic of an object that determines how much it will accelerate  in response to an applied force  1. Smaller mass=less force required to accelerate the object 
2. Larger mass=more force required to accelerate the object 
2. Acceleration: a change in an object's velocity; the rate at which speed or direction  changes  1. Accelerations are caused by unbalanced forces (the net force is not zero) 
2. Acting whenever an object moves faster, slower, changes direction, or 
experiences any combination of speed and direction change  3. Inertia: the property that makes it hard to move an object from rest, or that  keeps it moving once it has started  3. All forces result from interactions between pairs of objects, each object exerting a force  on the other. The two resulting forces have the same strength and act in exactly opposite 
directions. 
1. A single-sided interaction cannot exist; it takes 2 objects to interact and when they  do, each object feels a distinct force  2. These 2 forces will have the same strength but act in opposite directions    
  
Ch. 3: The Gravitational Interaction 
  
Forces result from interactions between objects 
● Uniform acceleration  ○ Near the Earth the acceleration caused by the force of gravity is constant (at least  it is so close that for most problems we can consider it a constant)  ○ A ball thrown up in the air: the velocity is changing, but the acceleration due to  gravity is constant  ○ Note: we use arrows to represent the sizes and directions of forces, velocities, and  accelerations 
background image ● How do 2 objects of different mass accelerate?  ○ The force of gravity is different on objects with different mass!!  ● Why do objects fall at the same rate when they have different masses?  ○ F=ma or F=mg, so g=F/m. The ratio must always remain the same (big mass=big  force, small mass=small force). Acceleration is constant! The force must 
increase/decrease in proportion to the mass! 
● What is weight?  ○ The force of gravity acting on an object  ● The gravitational acceleration is not constant as you more farther away from the earth; it  gets lower and lower the farther away from the earth you go  ● Universal law of gravitation  ○ F=GmM/d^2 
○ Every object in the universe attracts every other object in the universe 
  
  
Ch 4: The Electromagnetic Interaction 
  
● Electric charge  ○ Like charges repel, opposite charges attract  ● Early models for charges  ○ Ben Franklin: one type of charge was "fluid" and the other was fixed 
○ Other scientists thought both types of charges were fluid 
○ Today we know Franklin was closer to the truth (the fluid part=electrons, which 
move)  ● Electromagnetic interaction  ○ Determined by Charles-Augustin Coulomb and called "Coulomb's Law" 
○ F=kQq/d^2 (same layout as the gravitational law!!) 
● Electrical model of matter  ○ J.J. Thomson- gas discharge tubes, plum pudding model of the atom  ● Contact forces  ○ When 2 charged objects get close to one another, their charged parts at the  surfaces repel  ○ Not produced by some new interaction, but are just another manifestation of the  electromagnetic interaction  ● Insulators and conductors  ○ Glass vs copper  ■ Glass=insulator, electrons placed on it do not readily move on or through  the material  ■ Copper=conductor, electrons move very easily through the material 

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School: Brigham Young University
Department: OTHER
Course: Physical Science
Professor: Patricia Ackroyd
Term: Spring 2017
Tags:
Name: PS 100 Exam 1 Study Guide (minus ch. 9)
Description: These notes cover most of what will be on Exam 1.
Uploaded: 01/24/2018
7 Pages 32 Views 25 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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