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GWU - ANTH 1004 - ANTH 1004: Language Culture and Society; Lecture 4

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GWU - ANTH 1004 - ANTH 1004: Language Culture and Society; Lecture 4

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background image January 25, 2018    Lecture 4: Revisiting Value and Paradigmatic and Syntagmatic, Linguistic Relativity  and Grammar!    Review ● Value Things in a language are defined in relation to one another   ○ Words are related to one another in the same way pieces on a chess board are  related  ○ Example: a Cat  ■ A small domesticated animal, that is furry and says “meow”  ○ Pick a domain in a specific language, in order to understand one word in that  domain you must understand other words in that domain   ■ Contrastive positing  
■ In order to understand a 
cat  you must first understand a  dog  ○ Terms are defined as what they are, but also as what they are not 
○ Value has a lot to do with contrast  
■ “I am drinking tea right now because it doesn’t have caffeine”  ● Paradigmatic  vs  Syntagmatic   ○ Another way of thinking about syntax 
○ Happens in words and sounds 
● What is the relationship between language culture and cognition  
● LINEAGE:
 Boas’ student was Supir. Supir’s student was Whorf  ○ Whorf fully develops language relativity theory by focusing on Native American  languages  Whorf and His Ideas  ● Whorf  argued that “Language shaped habitual thought”  ○ What is the relationship between language and consequences 
○ Didn’t argue that languages can be reduced to one another 
● Distinction between formal and informal forms address  ○ In Spanish; tu vs usted  
○ In English, we don’t have a formal way to do this 
■ May do this through tone and inflection   ● Modern Greek, you must pay attention to  aspect  ○ Completed action or ongoing action   ● TMA; Tense, Mood and Aspect  ○ Important concept! We will revisit this   ● Aspect  ○ “I wrote a book” vs “I am writing a book” 
○ Perfect vs Imperfect tense  
○ English doesnt make this distinction mandatory, Greek does  
● Tense  ○ Past vs Present vs future 
background image ● Mood  ○ What is the speaker’s position with respect to the actio 
○ Speaker's level of certainty 
○ Statement of possibility, statement of fact, Most certain of all 
■ Statement of Possibility : unsure   ● “He might be out running”  ■ Statement of Fact : positive it happened  ● “He is running”  ■ Most Certain of All : Definitely saw it happen  ● “I am positive he is running, I saw him”  ○   ● With respect to habitual behaviors, language carves the universe up in different ways 
● Example: Water 
○ Water falling from the sky = rain  
○ Water on the ground = puddle  
○ Water in a glass for drinking = water 
● We are very channeled to think about  time   ○ We frame time in a very special and material way  
○ Some languages perceive time in a 
cyclic  way   Malinowski  ● Malinowski  is an important figure  ○ Polish   
○ Argued strongly for 
fieldwork   ■ Long-term, immersive research  ○ Argued for the importance of  context  ■ You must look at a particular circumstance in which something is circulating  
■ Inflection when you are speaking  
● Ex, “Nice belt buckle”  ○ Genuine compliment or sarcasm??  ■ You will not understand the sentence if you don’t know the context  ● Who is talking to whom? 
● Where? 
● Primacy of context  Chomsky   ● Linguistic anthropologists constantly argue with Chomsky 
● Doesn’t care about context or culture  
● Deeply critical of the American Linguistic tradition  
○ Boas, Bloomfield, Whorf 
○ Viewed their work as “
Discovery   Procedure ”  ● Interested in developing the deep underlying  structure of language   ● Interested in  human universals  at the  core of all language production  ● Generative Grammar  ○ You can basically simplify language down to a set of basic common denominators  

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School: George Washington University
Department: Sociology
Course: Language in Culture and Society
Professor: Dent
Term: Winter 2015
Tags: Language and Anthropology
Name: ANTH 1004: Language Culture and Society; Lecture 4 (1/25/18)
Description: Important Notes for next weeks Quiz!! Learn about Whorf, Malinowski and Chomsky's Ideas!
Uploaded: 01/25/2018
3 Pages 25 Views 20 Unlocks
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