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UM / International Studies / INTL 101 / What are the benefits of globalization?

What are the benefits of globalization?

What are the benefits of globalization?

Description

School: University of Michigan
Department: International Studies
Course: Introduction to International Studies
Professor: Greta uehling
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Diplomacy
Cost: 25
Name: International 101 - weeks 1.5-3
Description: Cover both guest speakers and past the first 1.5 weeks also with the first weeks notes included
Uploaded: 01/25/2018
22 Pages 61 Views 3 Unlocks
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MODULE 1 


What are the benefits of globalization?



Globalization: The process through which regions have become more  interdependent through intensified communication, transportation, and trade

1) Economic: integration of commodity, capital and labor markets 2) Political: increasing role for supra-state organizations like WTO and  regional organizations like EU

3) Cultural: transmission of cultural products like music, cuisine, and  film; identities like global citizenship

 Through global flows of people, goods, capital, and information

Benefits of Globalization 

- Spread of info, ideas, tech, knowledge  

-Diversified/expanded innovations

-Increased trade and investment development and economic growth


What are the categories of motivations for migration internationally?



Harms of Globalization 

- Rapid hostile/harmful communication

- Loss of indigenous traditions

- Exploitation of workers

- Critics argue globalization creates domination If you want to learn more check out What are the problems with coalitions?

- Homogenization  

Net Migration Flows 

∙ 3% of world population is currently in migration

∙ 640 million would like to permanently migrate

∙ US is preferred destination for 23%  

∙ 1 million receive Legal Permanent Resident Status in US annually

Why Individuals Migrate Internationally 

∙    War

∙    Prosperity/Opportunity


How globalization facilitates human trafficking?



We also discuss several other topics like What is the main definition of capillary action?

∙    Family Reunification

∙    Religious Persecution

Categories of Motivations for Migration Internationally 

∙ “Voluntary”

o Subject t meeting requirements for range of visas

∙ “Forced”

o Eligible for significant protection under international law

o Asylum seekers and refugees have well founded fears of  persecution

∙ Countries have obligation to national security, yet also to international  law and Migrants’ Rights – providing protection of generally vulnerable  migrants while simultaneously restricting unwarranted migrants to  ensure safety

Enforcement First Philosophy 

∙ Border enforcement (BPE)

∙ Detaining & removing non-citizens (ICE)

∙ Visa requirements

∙ Workplace enforcement

∙ Data sharing

∙ Creates HUGE spending on Border Enforcement  

∙ CONSEQUENCES

o Difficult to come and go for unauthorized people for work and  border tightens  Unauthorized immigrants don’t leave 

unauthorized and overall population increase Don't forget about the age old question of How do we observe the mind?

o Harder border to cross  more inclined to use human smuggler  more smuggler charges  more resources for smuggler/more  illegal opportunities  creates potential for increased harm and  violence to society

o Families separated

Human Smuggling 

∙ The facilitation/transport/attempted transport of person(s) across an  international border, in violation of 1+ countries’ laws If you want to learn more check out What refers to the process of change that can be observed by science?

Human Trafficking 

∙ Combination of the Act + Means + Purpose

∙ Act

o Recruitment

o Transfer

o Transport

o Harboring

o Receipt

∙ Means

o Threat

o Use of force

o Abduction

o Coercion

o Fraud

∙ Purpose

o Exploitation

o Prostitution

o Forced Labor

o Removal of Organs

Trafficking vs Smuggling 

1 Role of border

a. Smuggling = Crossing border

b. Trafficking not necessarily across border or anywhere We also discuss several other topics like What refers to the body’s ability to maintain a constant environment?

2 Nature of Relationship

a. Smuggling = Consensual – mutual agreement – fee for service b. Trafficking = no consent/fraudulent/coercive conditions -  exploitative

3 Type of Crime

a. Smuggling = collusion to break a countries’ border law – crime  against state

b. Trafficking = violation of human rights

Regional Human Trafficking Patterns 

∙    China “trade model”

o High cost  

o Vulnerability

∙    Post-Soviet “Natural Resource” Model

o Treat people as resource for sale

o Small operations that look to turn quick profit

∙    ISIS “war model”

o Ideological agendas in selection If you want to learn more check out What is the nature of science?

o Look for non-muslims

∙    US-Mexican “Supermarket” model

o Trying to move as many people as possible for as little cost as  possible

o Bulk trafficking

o Profit motive

Reintegration Factors 

∙    Psychological

o Identification w/ trafficker

o Build relationship w/ trafficker to make things better after  conclusion that escape is impossible

o Family loyalty – don’t want to ruin financial arrangements  trafficker made for purchase of child

o Religious belief – karma by being trafficked

∙    Gender Inequality

o Poor female conditions leaving them vulnerable to accepting  fraudulent offers

∙    Stigma/HIV

o Embarrassed/Scared to go back because of stigma of  

prostitution/ disease

Human Trafficking and Globalization – How globalization facilitates Trafficking 1) Long Supply Chains

a. Practice that links supply of product to demand for product  through multiple intermediaries  

2) Privatization of Formerly State Enterprises

a. Job Loss  vulnerable to traffickers

b. Union stops subsidizing state enterprises  

3) Technological innovation

a. New private/secret/able to scheme banking to move profits  without detection

∙ Positive Trends

o Supply chain monitoring – every step

o Good corporate citizenship – ethical responsibilities

o Government advertising campaigns

o Technological advances

∙ International Legal Response

o UNODC – United Nations office on Drugs and Crime

o UN Convention on Suppression of Transnational Organized Crime o Supplemental Palermo Protocols – 2003/2004

o Includes all forms

o Recognized interdependence

o Holistic: Prosecution, protection & prevention

∙ International Framework

1) Prosecution  

a. Pass legislation

b. Bring perpetrators to trial

2) Prevention  

a. Increase awareness

b. Reduce demand

c. Address economic factors in countries of origin

3) Protection

a. Visas and immigration status

∙ Domestic Response

o State Department Tier Ranking

 Enactment of Laws

 Victim Identification

 Funding & Partnerships

∙ Victims/Survivors

o Nobody who has been trafficked considers themselves a  victim

o Think of themselves as people who made bad choices with  trafficking as the consequences

o Just want resources to restart their lives

TEXTBOOK CHAPTER 1: 

∙    Increasing global interdependence

 ∙     Globalization  

o Process through which regions have become more  

interdependent through communication, transportation, and  trade facilitated by intensified transnational movement of ideas,  info, people, goods, and capital

o Processes that bring parts of the world into greater  

interdependence

o Has facilitated waves of democratization

o Striking trends indicating loss of diversity

 ∙     Flows 

o One of most important is transfer of cultural products

 IE: Cuisine, fashion, music, film etc.  

 Film is agent of globalization

∙    Bring people, ideas, and technology together

∙    Both a cause AND effect of globalization

 ∙     What’s in a Dumpling? 

 o Seanon Wong 

o Argues that local cultures have thrived in today’s globalization  environment by benefitting from enlarged markets and modern  business management  

o American’s should not hesitate to promote their culture  worldwide because it is “fundamentally different” and provides  “the best model for the future”

o COMMON ASSUMPTION: Indigenous cultures are giving way to  the uniform culture of “McWorld”

 Entry of Western fast food has altered dietary habits of  many Chinese

 Globalization is means of propagating elements of  

traditional cultures in novel/modern ways

o “McWorld”

 Some Chinese restaurants, including  

traditional/local/generational favorites, soon driven out of  business in favor of Western food

∙    Alarming invasion to both local food industry and  

national pride of Chinese culinary culture

 Globalization has made china susceptible to foreign ideas,  and culinary preferences have shifted accordingly

 Chinese have welcomed and internalized invasion

∙    Most Chinese eat American fast food b/c the  

experience satisfied curiosity for American culture

∙    Eating fast food is integral part of new lifestyle for  them to participate in transnational cultural system

 Cultural Identity is changing in modernity and is from  abstractions in other localities

o Globalization produces people’s consciousness of their cultural  environment  not victimize

 By successfully incorporating important institution of  modernity – market economy – globalizing societies are  empowered to revamp and promote their cultures beyond  their geographical confines  

o A culture’s influence abroad has less to do with inherent strength than with society’s level of economic development and  integration with global order

o Globalization progresses in accordance with the degree of  development in each society, and the traditions and culture each country/society are reflected in the process

o Foreign entrepreneurs could employ Western technology and  create an industry with “Chinese Characteristics”

 Reinvention of Chinese cuisine in the form of fast food was  better path to business success  

 Western restaurants gave restaurant frequenters a  stronger consumer consciousness and created a Chinese  notion of fast food and an associated culture  rising  

consumerism

 Ability to combine modern methods of preparation and  hygiene with traditional Chinese cuisine

 Franchising helped proliferate Chinese chains

∙    New franchise location opened in foreign territory  Food Consumed  Associated culture propagated  

among host ` community

 o CONCLUSION 

 Globalization facilitates the spread of cultural diversity  rather than creating homogenization

Reading 1.2 – Clash of Globalizations 

∙    1990’s – Dominant tension was clash b/n fragmentation of states  and progress of economic, cultural, and political integration o AKA Globalization

∙    Globalization makes an awful form of violence easily accessible  to hopeless fanatics  Terrorism  Bloody link b/n interstate  relations and global society

∙    Francis Fukuyama

o “End of History” thesis

o Predicted end of ideological conflicts and triumph of  political and economic liberalism

o Failed to note that nationalism very much alive  

o Ignored Explosive potential of religious wars  Islamic  world  

∙    Huntington

o Predictied violence resulting from international anarchy  and the absence of common values and institutions would  erupt among civilization rather than among  

states/ideologies

o Failed to sufficiently account for conflicts within civilizations and overestimated impotance of religion in behavior of non western elites

Realistic Barriers to Models 

∙ Rivalries among great powers and capacity of smaller states to  exploit such tensions have not disappeared

o Nuclear warfare threat

∙ If wars b/n states are becoming less common, wars within them  are on the rise

o Uninvolved states first tend to hesitate to engage in  complex conflicts, but sometimes intervene to prevent  conflicts from turning into regional catastrophes

o Interveners seek help of UN/regional organizations to  rebuild these states, promote stability, and prevent future  fragmentation and misery

∙ States’ foreign policies are shaped not only by realist geopolitical factors, but also by domestic politics

o Forces such as biased passions, economic grievances, and  transnational ethnic solidarity can make policy making les  predictable  

o States have to combat frequent interplay of competing  government branches

o Importance of individual leaders and personalities often  underestimated  

Forms of Globalization 

1) Economic

a. Results from recent revolutions in technology, info, trade,  foreign investment, and international business

b. Main actors are companies, investors, banks, private sector  industries, States, and International organizations

c. Present form of capitalism poses dilemma between efficiency  and fairness

i. Specialization and integration of firms allow increase in  aggregate wealth

ii. Logic of pure capitalism doesn’t favor social justice

d. Has become formidable cause of inequality among and within  states

e. Concern for global competitiveness limits states’ ability to  address problem

2) Cultural

a. Stems from technological revolution and economic  

globalization  Together produce flow of cultural goods

b. Choice between uniformity and diversity

c. Result is disenchantment of world and reaction against  uniformity

i. Renaissance of local cultures and languages  

ii. Assaults against Western cultures  

iii. Secular/revolutionary ideology and mask for US  

hegemony

3) Political

a. Product of Economic and cultural globalization

b. Characterized by the overpowering of US and its political  institutions and by vast array of international and regional  organizations/trans governmental networks

c. Marked by private institutions that are neither governmental  nor purely national

i. Many agencies lack democratic accountability and are  weak in power/authority

∙ International and transnational cooperation is necessary to ensure that globalization will not be undermined by rising inequalities from market  fluctuations, weak state-sponsored prrotections, and incapacity of  many stated to improve fates themselves

o BUT  Cooperation presupposes that many states and rich  pricate players operate altruistically  

o Most rich states still refuse to provide sufficient development aid  to intervene in crisis situations  

o Weakness of humanitarian impulse when national interest is  saving non-American victims is absent  

∙ “Global Society”

o Seeks to reduce potentially destructive effect of national  regulations on forces of integration

o Seeks to ensure fairness in world market and create international regulatory regimes in areas such as, trade, communication,  human rights, migration, and refugees

 Main obstacle is reluctance of states to accept global  

directives that may constrain market/further reduce  

sovereignty  

 Weak global governance that does exist does not help  

times when economic globalization deprives states of  

independent monetary fund/fiscal policies or obliges them  to choose b/n economic competitiveness and preservation  of social safety nets

∙ Globalization has not challenged enduring national nature of  citizenship

o Strong resistance to cultural homogenization

∙ Relationship Between Globalization and Violence

o Globalization fosters conflicts and resentments  

o Lowering of various barriers/Spread of global media makes  possible for most deprived/oppressed to compare with free/well off  Common resentments gang together  Globalization uproots many and may seek revenge and self-esteem through terrorism ∙ Globalization and Terror

o Product of globalization  

o Transnational terrorism made possible through communication  tools  

o Antiterrorist measures restrict mobility and financial flows  New  terrorist attacks could lead to anti-globalist reactions

o Terrorism is global phenomenon that reinforces state while  attacking it

 Reading 1.3 – Experiences of Human-Trafficking Survivor – Mae’s Story  Criminalization of the Victim 

∙    US society increasingly equates the immigrant experience with  criminality

∙    The restrictive parameters and hostile attitudes of immigration system  encourage prosecution of immigrants rather than determination of  asylee status

∙    Classic experience of human trafficking  caught before able to start  repaying debt agreement  

∙    Shows unwillingness of immigration enforcement system to accept  realities of forced marriage, domestic violence, and other oppressive  conditions that cause women to flee

∙    Immigration system is devoted to defining each individual’s  immigration story as an economic necessity

o Misses fact that even when economic circumstances are motives  for leaving home, many immigrants fall to exploitative,  

dangerous, and coercively powerful human-trafficking rings o Especially for women b/c they lack economic self-sufficiency and  are vulnerable to traffickers’ promises to save them from  

desperate situations at home

o Sophisticated trafficking ring ensures victims do not possess  sufficient details to give prosecutors ammunition for successful  conviction  

∙    Government is implementing harsh enforcement strategy, mixing  immigration law and criminal law, and turning a blind eye to legitimate  attempts of trafficking survivors to enter USA with safety, dignity, and  appropriate legal status  

Reading 1.4 – Policy Issues and Obstacles for Undocumented Migrant  Children 

∙    2 sides of unaccompanied minor migrants

o Child Welfare Advocates

 Unaccompanied children are at great risk and deserve  

special protection as some of the most vulnerable migrants o Security Advocates

 Children who cross borders without documentation are still  unauthorized migrants who pose a security threat to US

 Offering special protection may create additional incentive  to attempt entry w/o documents

∙    Every child has certain basic rights – CRC

∙    Worsening violence by gangs and spread of transnational criminal  organizations from Mexico primarily responsible for increase in  undocumented child migrants from countries other than Mexico –  mostly in central America

∙    Importance of Transnational Social Networks

o Once migration flow begins a social infrastructure develops  Migration becomes self-perpetuating process after conditions in  countries change because every new migrant reduces cost of  migration for friend/relative

∙    Department of Homeland Security and The Office of Refugee  Resettlement tasked with handling children migrants

o Two organizations experience coordination challenges with  regard to transfers of children and legal custody

 ∙     Unaccompanied Alien Children (UAC) = Individuals under 18 who come to US without authorization or overstay visa and are without a parent  or legal guardian

∙    Why do Children Migrate Unaccompanied?

o Reunite with family members

 Parents find it too risk to return to country of origin to  reclaim children once established in US due to increased  border security

 Choose to pay human smugglers to bring children

 Caused by lack of human security in countries of origin ∙    Physical violence – gangs and police warfare

∙    Economic  

o Government debt, corruption, and overall  

mismanagement of economy lead to economic  

instability and high poverty rates in countries  

of origin

o Migrants return home to country of origin with  

high valued consumer items and create  

incentive for others to leave

 Most desirable consumer goods only  

available to higher income brackets

o Migration becomes a way to achieve  

socioeconomic mobility

o Enhanced communication tech ease flow of  

info across borders

o Shrinking opportunities for legal migration

 Increased usage and fees for human  

smugglers

 o Human Smuggling = Facilitation, transportation, or attempted  transportation or illegal entry of a person or persons across an  international border, in violation of one or more country’s laws   Civil infraction/crime against the state in US

 UN takes stance that smugglers are liable – not migrants  ∙     Children’s Migration risks 

o Injury/death by train hopping  

o Fear of smuggler kidnapping

o Lack of food/water

o Sexual assault on females – Rape

 Used as form of payment

o Gender Based Murder – “Femicide”

 2nd highest cause of death for women of reproductive age  in Central America

o Capture with release only through payment

o Easy theft targets

o Animal attack

o Disease

 ∙     Trafficking 

o The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, or receipt of  persons, by means of threat/use of force/other forms of  

coercion/abduction/fraud/deception/abuse of power/abuse of a

position of vulnerability/ giving or receiving of payments or  benefits to achieve consent of person having control over  

another person, for purpose of exploitation

o When smugglers hold migrants pending full payment/Determine  it is lucrative to keep migrant in slavery-like conditions for  enhanced benefit

o May not involve crossing of border

o Distinguished from smuggling through use of force, fraud, or  coercion

 o Palermo Protocols 

 Trafficking is the exploitation of a person’s vulnerability and as such a violation of human rights

∙    Standard Procudeure for Apprehended Child by Customes and Border  Patrol (CBO)/Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE)  

o 1) Determination if child is with parent/guardian

 If unaccompanies, given to Department of Homeland  

Security (DHS) and detained separate from adults  

o 2) Determines Nationality, age, and background check

 ∙     Refugee = Someone owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted  for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular  social group or political opinion, is outside the country of nationality,  and is unable to, or owing to such fear, unwilling to avail themselves of protection of that country

1/16/17 – Global Citizenship

 ∙     Diogenes 

o Critical of his society

o Context of geopolitical expansion

o “I am a citizen of the world”

o 412-323 BC

 ∙     Cosmopolitanism 

o Expansion of a sense of belonging, from local and national to  “global humanity”

o Moral commitments are to the human community

o Mutual respect

o Tolerance for difference

 ∙     Global Citizen 

o Aware of the wider world and has sense of own role as world  citizen

o Respects and values diversity

o Has understanding of how world works

o Outraged by social injustice

o Participates in community at range of levels; local to global o Willing to act to make world more equitable and sustainable o Takes responsibility for actions

o Additional outlook on citizenship, not replacement

 o Debate: 

 Idea is:

∙    Vague

o More of metaphor than way of citizenship

∙    Lacks Institutional support

o Holds no real world value outside of  

morality/ethics

∙    Elitist and ethnocentric

o Not much meaning to those who have no  

means to act on it

o Most likely to benefit are least likely to identify  

o Levels of Intensity

 Basic

∙    Opportunity to be culturally sensitive

∙    Welcoming difference/Increasing sensitivity

∙    IE: encounter in public education

 Moral

∙    Promote equality and human rights when possible

∙    Act on behalf of fellow human beings when  

possible/appropriate

∙    Emphasizes social justice

 Critical

∙    Challenges underlying assumptions within global  

citizenship

∙    Advocate for cognitive justice

 ∙     Geography of Global Citizenship 

o Low income countries emphasize form that empowers  individuals/young individuals in particular

o More wealthy/developed countries place more emphasis on  needs of nation-state and maintaining economic and political  competitiveness

 IE: Maintaining status of US as global leader

 ∙     Transnational Social Movements 

o Rising importance of non-state actors

o Conscious strategic efforts by groups of people to fashion a  shared understanding that legitimate and motivate their  collective action

o IE: Time-space compression, disembedding

o Form when:

 Other communication channels blocked with a state  government

 Activists believe in change and recognize openings

∙    Realistic end goal/idea

 Real or virtual platforms for collaboration

 ∙     The Boomerang Effect 

o Keck and Sikkink

o Blockage from government  Alliances with local/national NGO’s   Work with states/governmental orgs to create pressure  Creates a greater influence from those initially blocked

∙    The Frame

o What kind of problem are we trying to solve?

 Must fit with existing values/priorities

 IE: Trafficking/Slavery

∙    The Message

o Personal Testimonial

 Personal tragedy becomes social problem

 Human face to personify a problem

o Symbols

 Visual language and commonalities

 Communicate across languages and time

o Parody and Satire

 Challenges authority

 Humor to break down fear/reduce apathy

 Effective when interactive to draw attention

∙    The Performance

o “Repertoires of Contention”

 Whenever a strategy/symbol is successful it tends to  proliferate

 Extent to which social networks borrow from each other o Marches

o Hunger Strikes

o Vigils/Boycotts/Camps

MODULE 2 

Lecture 1: The Continent and international law – Guest Speaker  Barbara Koremenos, Professor of Political Science, University of  Michigan 

International Law:  

∙ Constantly modified in order to aid citizens

∙ Very tense World

o Many states/countries do not trust each other

o Many fear potential partners in cooperation may cheat

o Many worry about unpredictable shocks in international  environment

 Regime change etc. - will alter basic interests in  

cooperation

∙ Formal international law is not just forum for international cooperation  but it advances international cooperation

∙ Differences between success and failure of cooperation lie in details  such as voting rules, monitoring, and duration of agreement.  ∙ Cooperation Problems

o Distrust of partner’s regime

∙ Design Solutions

o Specific solutions to each problem – treaty

∙ Incorporation of monitoring provisions b/c cannot observe the  cooperation/noncooperation

o Monitoring delegated to third party not based on self-reports b/c  the uncertainty about cooperation is intensified by underlying  incentives to cheat

 When a lot of countries at play

∙ Both the substantive terms and monitoring are necessary for treaty to  be an equilibrium institution

∙ Overall Findings of Treaty Provision workings

o Self-interested states, while not wanting to give up control  needlessly, will usually impose mutual self-constraints through  international law when helps them solve their problems

o Design provisions match the underlying cooperation problems o Creating/delegating to international org helps state realize goals  b/c solve obstacle/problem

o Incorporate provisions that insure themselves against  

unwelcome outcomes

o If among most powerful in subject matter, may give themselves  weighted voting/imposeone-sided monitoring

 If fear of uncertain outcomes, leave open possibility of  renegotiating, escaping, completely withdrawing from  

agreements

∙ HYPOTHESIS

o Idea that distributional consequences of a new agreement may  not be known with certainty at time agreement is first negotiated  Uncertainty about the State of the World

∙ Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT): 

o Signed 1968  Implemented 1970  25 years

o Article 1

 Nuclear weapons cannot be at all transferred by Nuclear  Weapon States (NWS) – states in red – in NPT or not

o Article 2

 Prohibits Non-Nuclear Weapon States (NNWS) from  

receiving/manufacturing nuclear devices

o Article 3

 Requires the negotiation of safeguards agreements with  International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA)

o Article 4 & 5

 Assure NNWS they will be able to peacefully use nuclear  energy and nuclear explosives without discrimination

 NWS obliged to provide both tech and material assistance  to NNWS

o Article 6

 Demands progress by existing nuclear powers on  

controlling arms race

o 1967

 US/USSR pushing for treaty with unlimited duration while  Germans/Italians would not accept

∙ Countries that already had Nuclear weapons wanted  this forever while those without nuclear weapons do  

not at all

o Uncertainty About the State of the World

 Security-related uncertainties

∙ Consequences of treaty

∙ Effort NWS would put into nuclear disarmament

∙ Extended deterrence

 Economic Uncertainites

∙ NNWS concerned about effect of NPT on  

development and tech development

∙ Treaty may restrict ability to peacefully use nuclear  

energy

∙ Increased and more intense economic competition  

for nuclear materails

∙ NNWS that joined NPT worries those that didn’t  

wiould have less restrictions to tech and nuclear  

resources

 Political Uncetainties

∙ Benefits and costs of agreements in political powers

∙ NPT makes NNWS peacueful nuclear tech  

creators/importers  Uncertain about situation  if  

would give NWS political leverage  

 Renegotiation: The Compromise

∙ 25 year duration and then renegotiate again

∙ NPT parties planned for review conferences every 5  

years  

∙ 1995  

o After 4 review conferences  All NPT countries  

meet to decide to extend  Consensus  

resolution to extend forever

∙ Antarctic Treaty 

o Series of treaties concerning Antarctica

o Internationalized and demilitarized Antarctica  

o First Post-WWII arms limitation agreement  “Non-armament  treaties”

o Contentious in US b/c first treaty where US and USSR cooperating during cold war

o 1957-58 – International Geophysical Year

 US proposed conference to formalize informal agreements  on Antarctica

 Maintaining peace, cooperating scientifically, and making  such territorial claims did not become contentious

 Treaty implemented June 23, 1961

 Leaves out some contentious issues on grounds that some  cooperation, even excluding some big issues, is better than none - IE: mining for resources

∙ Agree on some things rather then none

∙ Some issues handled later in order to immediately  

enjoy benefits

o Goals/Articles:

 1) Just for peaceful purposes  no military action at all  2) Territory will be used for freedom of scientific  

investigation

 3) Parties must agree to exchange info regarding  

plans/experiments etc

 4) This treaty does not recognize nor renounce any  

previously asserted claims to land

 5) Prohibition of any nuclear explosions/disposal of  radioactive waste material

o Cooperation Problems

 Uncertainty about preferences  not sure what countries  really want out of this

∙ Cold War Climate

∙ Fixed by:

o US only invited states with proven scientific  

interest through costly investment during  

Geophysical Year

o Costly requirement could help determine  

wether state was in Antarctica for right reasons

o Distribution Problems

 Territory

∙ Overlapping territorial claims

∙ To Fix:

o Declared continent accessible to all and  

prohibited all arms on grounds that arms build

up is easier than controlling after the fact

o Article 4 – nor forcing immediate solution

 No winners/No losers

o Uncertainty of Behavior

 Hard to tell what is going on in installation for peaceful  purposes

 To Fix:

∙ Treaty allows inspections at any time to determine  what states are actually doing

∙ 1993 – over 100 uneventful inspections

∙ Compliance Monitoring

o Article 7: Members have right to designate  

observers to carry out any inspection

 Aerial inspection allowed at any time

o Conclusion:

 Chaos may make international law quantitatively different  than domestic law

∙ Less enforcement, less monitoring in international  law

 Same theoretical framework explains institutional design in both areas

 Scientific testing confirms appropriate design in  international case

 If 2 endpoints are Anarchy and Domestic law 

International law closer to domestic law than to  anarchy

Lecture – 1/25/18 – The Sovereign State System and International  Cooperation 

Hobbs – “madness in the multitude” Solution is sovereign state centralized  in authority and pluralistic in speech

Modern Problem  A world Shaped by violent struggle 

∙ IE: WWII, Syria, Ukraine

Solution  Tools of International Relations 

∙ International Law

∙ Diplomacy

o Tool of Choice

∙ Sanctions

o First resort after failure of diplomacy

o Impose restrictions on trade/commerce to persuade entities to  return to negotiations

o HOWEVER, Most impact on poor citizens and working citizens ∙ War

o Countries may use force when Security Council determines it is in order to restore peace/security

∙ Mobilization of international Shame

o Public naming of violations/bad behavior

∙ Benefits

o If all rules followed  Great benefits to joining EU

Political Perspectives:

∙ Realism

o Explains International relations in terms of power

o States are ultimate actors and pursue power in order to survive o No real higher authority than state  “Anarchic” b/c no higher  power

 Created/Developed by Thucydides, Machiavelli,  

Morgenthau

∙ Liberalism

o States are self-interested

o War is so destructive that it is in states interests to cooperate o Effective governmental organizations will be more important  than power

o Agreements more important than power

∙ Constructivism

o Politics not fully explained through power or interests in  cooperation

o A middle ground between realism and liberalism

o What are states objectives and how did they come into existence at first?

o What is socially constructed reality that leads a country to  perceive the world as it does?

United Nations 

 Primary Goal: Maintain international peace/security

 Security Council

o Most powerful branch

o May adopt compulsory resolutions

o Most Criticize

o “P5” = Permanent Five Security Council

The Sovereign State System: 

∙ Legal equal entities

o All states

∙ Mutual Recognition

o States mutually recognize each other as legal equals

∙ Internal/External Sovereignty

o Must control affairs domestically and abroad

∙ Territorial definition of politics

∙ Main Point

o Helps solve some issues in world politics, while making it harder  to solve others

What is a State:

 Fundamental political units of modern world politics

 IDEAL STATE INSITITUTIONS 

o Internal autonomy with a monopoly on legitimate use of force o States are legally equal with external autonomy

o States respect one another’s territorial integrity and  

maintain/respect boundaries

 REALITY 

o Often compromise of internal and external autonomy

 Pressure from other states

 “Finlandization” - USSR/Finland Cold War relations

o Practical Politics

o State-like polities and entities

 Legal Definition in International Relations 

o Defined territory

o Permanent Population

o Effective control by a government

o Ability to enter into relations with other states

The Nation-State:

 Fusing of state with a national identity to bring full force to state o National identity creation

o Nationalism Increases power of state

o Self-Determination: Idea that every nation should have its own  state

 Difficulties of nationality in multiethnic states

 What groups of people qualify as nations?

 Nations without states, states without a nation

Human Security: 

 Globe

 Region

 State

 Community

 Individual

 Practical, ethical dimensions

 Identify spectrum of risks, avoid, and mitigtate threats

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