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GSU - Pathophysiological Concepts in Nursing 2060 - Study Guide - Midt

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GSU - Pathophysiological Concepts in Nursing 2060 - Study Guide - Midt

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background image NURS 2060 Pathophysiological Concepts in Nursing Key Concepts in Pathophysiology Altered Cellular Function Fall, 2017 Objectives: I. Key Concepts in Pathophysiology 1. Define the following terms:  etiology, pathogenesis, and morphology: Etiology – cause of disease; what sets the disease process in motion Pathogenesis – how the disease process evolves; the sequence of cellular and 
tissue events that take place from the time of initial contact with an etiologic agent 
until the expression of the disease
Morphology – structure or form of tissues 2. Differentiate between intrinsic and extrinsic causes of disease. Intrinsic Genetic factors Age Gender Extrinsic Infectious agents  Injury Inactivity Smoking Stress 3. Explain the difference between incidence and prevalence of a disease. Incidence – number of new cases arising in a population during a specified 
time
Prevalence – number of people in a population who have a particular disease
at a given point in time
4. Explain the meaning of risk factors, primary prevention, secondary  prevention, and tertiary prevention. Risk factors – conditions suspected of contributing to the development of 
a disease
Primary prevention – actions aimed at prevention of disease Secondary prevention – actions aimed at early detection and prompt 
treatment of disease
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background image Tertiary prevention – treatment and rehabilitation measures aimed at 
preventing further progress of the disease
5. Define the term homeostasis and describe the mechanisms for  maintaining homeostasis.
Dynamic, steady state of internal balance.
Every cell in the body is involved in maintaining homeostasis
Homeostatically regulated factors:
Concentration of nutrients
Concentrations of O
2  and CO 2 Concentration of waste products
pH
Concentrations of water, salt, and other electrolytes
Volume and pressure
Temperature 
Maintained by feedback mechanisms – these mechanisms have three 
components:
A sensor mechanism that senses disruptions in homeostasis A control center that regulates the response to the disruption And effector mechanisms that act to restore homeostasis Types of feedback mechanisms: Negative – works to restore homeostasis by correcting the disruption High blood glucose levels Positive – moves the system further away from homeostasis Intensifying labor contractions during childbirth II. Cell Structure and Function (Briefly review the following) 1. Composition and function of the plasma membrane Lipid bilayer Phospholipids Hydrophilic polar head groups
Hydrophobic fatty acid chains
Highly selective barrier Impermeable to electrolytes Endocytosis
Exocytosis
All material that enters or leaves cells must cross the cell membrane 
which is highly selective barrier
Impermeable to Na+, K+, Ca++ and large polar moelcules.
Ions, polar moelcules, and large molecules enter or leave by specific 
transport proteins.
Cells can carry out bulk exchange of materials with the extracellular 
speace by endocytosis and exocytosis.  This allows material to enter 
the cell without passing through the membrane.
2
background image Endocytosis – cell membrane surrounds the extracellular material then 
pinches off of a forming an intracellular vesicle.
Exocytosis – fusion of cytoplasmic vesicles with cell membrane 
resulting in release of vesicle materials into the extracellular space 
( enzymes, hormones, neurotransmitters). Membrane proteins Transport proteins Receptors Miscellaneous 2. Major organelles inside the cell and their function Endoplasmic reticulum Rough
Smooth 
Golgi complex
Lysosomes
Peroxisomes 
Mitochondria 
3

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School: Georgia State University
Department: OTHER
Course: Pathophysiological Concepts in Nursing
Term: Spring 2018
Tags: pathophysiology
Name: Pathophysiology, Week 3 notes
Description: These notes cover chapter 1-2 on the exam.
Uploaded: 01/25/2018
7 Pages 34 Views 27 Unlocks
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