Test 1 study guide - PY 352
Test 1 study guide - PY 352 PY 352
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Helen Hardin on Saturday August 29, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PY 352 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jeffrey Parker in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 118 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psych in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 08/29/15
Psychology 352 Study Guide Test 1 Normative Development the ages we expect certain skills and qualitiesthe skills and qualities that define certain ages Linear pathways start when something happens and understand its development Equifinality some significant experience event or achievement occurring at the same time for different people with different backgrounds Multifinality some significant event experience or achievement will have different effects on individuals Seductive Ideas 1 Thinking linearly 2 Misrepresented specificity a Follow back vs follow forward fallacy i Follow backwards from outcome to learn a common possible cause 3 Excessive abstraction a Donald Trump way of thinking i thinking about child development in abstract analogies and metaphors ii ex apple doesn t fall far from the tree iii not actually good at explaining things 4 Early determinism a Tendency for people to think that children are products of their early childhood experiences i Not true ii Early experiences do help shape the way we think but our behavior is determined by more recent events as we continue to adapt and evolve 5 Adultomorphism a Projecting adult concerns and thinking into young people i Children do not have the same understanding and concerns that adults do The constructivist revolution When babies are under 4 months old they cannot find an object when you cover it up and take it out of plain View however after 8 months they can but they only look for it in the first location This is called A not B error it occurs until after 12 months of age Models of development describe 0 Role of child environment genetics human evolution and the need for past as prologue Change happens 0 Superficial vs fundamental 0 Continuous vs discrete change The Mechanistic Child passive socialization is oneway change comes from outside and biology and genetics are irrelevant this was before Piaget Tabula Rasa blank slate 0 Set by John Locke 0 Means that people are born without builtin mental content and experience and perception is how they learn Psychological School of Behaviorism 0 By John B Watson 1925 0 Classical conditioning and its demise 0 Lil Albert and white rat 0 operant conditioning things happen because they are caused Antecedents 1 Reinforcement a Making things happen by making them appealing 2 Extinction a Making things stop happening by removing appeal 3 Punishment a Making things stop from happening by making them hurt or cost Albert Bandura behaviorist responsible for the tenets of social cognitive learning theory 0 People learn observationally 0 But they don t automatically show what they know 0 Behavior is cognitively based 0 Children develop selfstandards called selfefficacy Knowledge direct and indirect tutelage vs performance cues and responsibilities and reinforcement Bandura takes us full circle and into the future Piaget biologist that did not agree with the intelligence movement 0 Rejected ideas that stated 0 Getting smarter is knowing more 0 What we know we know faithfully 0 What we know we accrue additively 0 How does a child s knowledge of the world develop 0 Child is active participant 0 Relation between child and world is adaptive 0 Child is interested in equilibrium 0 What a child learns is constrained by what she already knows 0 Intelligence is how well you think not what you know 0 Children are fundamentally different thinkers Basic Tenets 0 Organizations 0 Development was organized 0 Development proceeded from undifferentiated and compartmentalized to differentiated and integrated 0 Ex growth of human emotions 0 Adaptation 0 Viewed children as adapted to their environment and motivated to return to the state of equilibrium if environment is disturbed or disrupted 0 Humans are born with I Assimilations process of incorporating new info into existing knowledge I Accommodation changing existing knowledge structures to incorporating novel info 0 Child as scientist 0 Active organism working with environment 0 Rather than passively absorbing inputs children were seeking out experiences posing hypotheses and then testing those hypotheses
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