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Texas State - HIST 1310257 - Class Notes - Week 1

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Texas State - HIST 1310257 - Class Notes - Week 1

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background image -oldest map(1540s) to use the expression "New World" -Name "America" came later -Before 1492: Europe had almost no territorial possessions -By mid-1500s, European settlements in Caribbean, Americas and Africa Important European Dates Crusades (there were 8 of them): 1096- 1291 (They didn't win) Benefits: Spice Routes from China and India formed -The Pope said that if you go and die on this Crusades, you will immediately go to heaven and if you don't go and fight the crusades, you are a non-Catholic and it is your neighbor's obligation to loot your home. -Indulgences- a document that says you get off time in Purgatory if you pay a certain amount of money -this was a ploy by the Church to actually raise money The Plague:(1349-51?) -Mongols brought plague to China and followed the trade routes to Europe -1/3 to 1/2 of Europe's population died -Era called the Dark Ages -Also peak of the Mideaval Era Consequences of the Plague: -Europe was no longer over-populated -A large amount of Priests and nuns are killed -the movements against Jews began because people believed that they were poisoning the wells, hence the deaths of entire villages Columbus Sailed to America: (1492) -Spain finished a 300 year war against the Moors -Muslims and Jews were banished from Spain Martin Luther's 95 theses were Published: (1517) -He was a priest in Germany -the Protestant Reformation begins -Luther nailed his these to the doors of his church, gained a following and was eventually excommunicated from the church -In this time, the oldest son would inherit everything. To appease the other sons, the fathers would put hteir sons in places of power in the church. This led to much corruption in the Church -Example: the Pope at one time put his 19 year old son on the council of Cardinals. Problems with this were that the Pope should not have a son in the first place, a 19 year old should not be a Cardinal, and he kept on having orgys in the chamber where the Cardinals would meet. English Reformation: (1534) -Early Modern Era: "One King, One faith, one god" -Martin Luther: Doctrine of works vs. doctrine of grace -John Calvin: Doctrine of Predestination -Challenges to Church in both theology and organization -Martin Luther believed that you cannot earn your way into heaven -Caluin believed that from birth it is determined Whether you are going to heaven or Hell Wars of Religion -1530s: Counter-Reformation splinters (Lutheranism, Calvinism) -Luther's reform succeeded because he had the printing press (invented by the Chinese) -Protestants were often the upper class -1534: England's Break -1560s-1648: Wars of Religion -1572: St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, Framce -All the Catholics rose up and killed many Protestants -1618-1648: Thirty Years' War in France -Ca. 1500-1700: European witch trials -1648: treaty of Westphalia The English Reformation -1534: Broke w/Rome -Church of England. Anglican: theology similar to Catholics -but: priests marry, king in charge -Seized Catholic Church property -Unhappy: Catholics, Reformers (Puritans) The Wives of King George Catherine of Aragon 1. "Bloody" Mary ( C) Anne Boleyn (P) 2. (Elizabeth) 3. Anne of Cleves (P) 4. Kathryn Howard (C ) 5. Catherine Parr (P) 6. C= Catholic P= Protestant -Henry VIII (r. 1509-1547) -3 kids -Edward VI (Protestant): r. 1547-1553 -Mary I (Catholic): r. (1553-1558)
-Elizabeth I (Protestant): r. (1558-1603) DOES NOT MARRY
-Three major religions in England by 1603:
Catholic
Anglican Puritan -Rejected break w/ Rome -Challenge to crown -Locked out of power -(church of England) -Kept much of Catholic Ceremony theology -(Reformed, Calvinist) -Rejected Catholic hierarchy, ceremony -congregationalist European Settlements -Caribbean: mixed European, settled earlier (1502- ) -Portugal: Brazil (1490s- ) -Spain: Spanish America (1492- ) -French: New France (Canada), (1608), Louisiana (1702) -Dutch: New Netherland (New Land) -The reasons countries were setting was for religion, money and/ or fame Portuguese Explorers -1480-90s: Portuguese going east to China and India -Land routes blocked by Muslim empires -motives mixed religious and economic -In the beginning, ships hugged the coast 1492: Turning Point for Spain -Union of Aragon and Castille (marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella): 1469 -End of Reconquista -Columbus' voyages began 1492 -Government deeply Catholic: Expelled Muslims and Jews from Spain same year -The über- Catholics -In the beginning, they tried to map the size of the Earth from the measurements of the skies Christopher Columbus -Italian freelancer -Wanted western route to China (Portugal had a lock an Eastern route) -Working for Spain -Underestimated circumference of Earth -Mistook America for Japan, then India -Died 1506, broke -American coast discovered within a decade The Spanish "Conquistadors" -Generally, younger sons from lower aristocratic family: young men "on the make" -Still literally "knights in shining armor" -Had upper-class arrogance and titles, but no visible means of support (or skills, save welfare) -Expected easy wealth and fame in Americas -It was a great insult for Aristocrats to work on jobs that were below them -The Spanish got lucky because they landed on large, rich, well-established civilization The Caribbean -Caribbean over 100 islands, misc. European govt. -Largely sugar plantations -Most extreme (and profitable) plantation economies -The native population of the Caribbean's dies out fie to disease -by mid-17th African and European -Average life expectancy of Caribbean slave: 3 years -Sugar becomes the main crop there -Becomes the killing crop because it takes a lot of work, hence to slave trade beginning The Empires of America Inca Empire (1200-1535) -Huge multi-language empire -conquered by Francisco Pizarro, 1530s -Weakened by internal rebellions -Fighting into 1570s Aztec Empire (1427-1521) -Mercenary empire -1519: conquered Hernando Cortez (ca. 600 men) -Weakened by wars, small pox -They were able to take over everything easily because they rode out on horses, wore armor and came on "floating islands." Therefore, the natives thought they were Gods. -Each time a new group of Europeans meets a new group of Indians or natives, another epidemic broke out -These epidemics lasted into the late 1800s and early 1900s New Spain and Brazil Spanish Colonies -Spain: god and gold (reasons why it was conquered) -Catholic, very hierarchical -America brought Spain immense wealth -Settlement brutal: nicknamed "The black Hand" -Indian mortality rules in Spanish America: -1492: Indian population was about 80 million -Beginning of the Spanish Empire: population was about 25 million -After 100 years of Spanish rule: Indian population was about 2 million -The soldiers were killing as fast as the priests were converted Portuguese Brazil -Brazilian government: -Less enthusiastic missionaries -Less crown control -Due to trade along African coast, Portugal began importing African slaves -first to bring in slaves and last to get rid of them -Spanish colonies run by Indian labor, Portuguese by Africans -Sugar plantations, mining -Over 100,000 slaves African transported 1450-1500 New European Players: New France -France established Quebec in 1608, Montreal soon after -Trapper economy; too cold for much agriculture -Sparsely settled. Loosely controlled by French Crown -Generally good relations with indigenous people-not forming -Wars with English throughout the 18th century -They had trouble getting families over because it seemed barren and also they shipped their convicts there. -As a results, most of the people who moved there were young men who planned to make their fortunes trapping and then intended to head home. New Players: The Dutch -the Netherlands was young (broke from Spain in 1588) -Like Portuguese, explored mainly in the east -1609 Henry Hudson's trips basis of Dutch claims -1614 Dutch East India Co. established a trading post at Albany -Colony New Netherland established 1624; Capital New Amsterdam -Reason people migrate to new land is for land or to escape religious prosecution but the Dutch had the problem of people not wanting to leave the homeland New Netherland (1624-1664) -Pluralistic from start -18 languages in future NYC by 1630s, many religious -under-settled colony (9000 whites) -Surrounded by English in 1664 Roanoke (English) -1st English colony set up in 1587-90 under Sir Walter -Raleigh, Queen Elizabeth on throne -England sent over 90 men, 17 women, 9 children -Colony disappeared after only 9 months -Disappearance still an unsolved mystery Christianity Est. 33Ad Roman Catholics Greek Orthodox Break 1054 AD Protestant break 1517 Lutherans Anglicans Presbyterians Episcopalians Calyinists (Puritans) Baptists Methodists Etc. Age of Exploration Thursday, January 18, 2018 12:27 PM
background image -oldest map(1540s) to use the expression "New World" -Name "America" came later -Before 1492: Europe had almost no territorial possessions -By mid-1500s, European settlements in Caribbean, Americas and Africa Important European Dates Crusades (there were 8 of them): 1096- 1291 (They didn't win) Benefits: Spice Routes from China and India formed -The Pope said that if you go and die on this Crusades, you will immediately go to heaven and if you don't go and fight the crusades, you are a non-Catholic and it is your neighbor's obligation to loot your home. -Indulgences- a document that says you get off time in Purgatory if you pay a certain amount of money -this was a ploy by the Church to actually raise money The Plague:(1349-51?) -Mongols brought plague to China and followed the trade routes to Europe -1/3 to 1/2 of Europe's population died -Era called the Dark Ages -Also peak of the Mideaval Era Consequences of the Plague: -Europe was no longer over-populated -A large amount of Priests and nuns are killed -the movements against Jews began because people believed that they were poisoning the wells, hence the deaths of entire villages Columbus Sailed to America: (1492) -Spain finished a 300 year war against the Moors -Muslims and Jews were banished from Spain Martin Luther's 95 theses were Published: (1517) -He was a priest in Germany -the Protestant Reformation begins -Luther nailed his these to the doors of his church, gained a following and was eventually excommunicated from the church -In this time, the oldest son would inherit everything. To appease the other sons, the fathers would put hteir sons in places of power in the church. This led to much corruption in the Church -Example: the Pope at one time put his 19 year old son on the council of Cardinals. Problems with this were that the Pope should not have a son in the first place, a 19 year old should not be a Cardinal, and he kept on having orgys in the chamber where the Cardinals would meet. English Reformation: (1534) -Early Modern Era: "One King, One faith, one god" -Martin Luther: Doctrine of works vs. doctrine of grace -John Calvin: Doctrine of Predestination -Challenges to Church in both theology and organization -Martin Luther believed that you cannot earn your way into heaven -Caluin believed that from birth it is determined Whether you are going to heaven or Hell Wars of Religion -1530s: Counter-Reformation splinters (Lutheranism, Calvinism) -Luther's reform succeeded because he had the printing press (invented by the Chinese) -Protestants were often the upper class -1534: England's Break -1560s-1648: Wars of Religion -1572: St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, Framce -All the Catholics rose up and killed many Protestants -1618-1648: Thirty Years' War in France -Ca. 1500-1700: European witch trials -1648: treaty of Westphalia The English Reformation -1534: Broke w/Rome -Church of England. Anglican: theology similar to Catholics -but: priests marry, king in charge -Seized Catholic Church property -Unhappy: Catholics, Reformers (Puritans) The Wives of King George Catherine of Aragon 1. "Bloody" Mary ( C) Anne Boleyn (P) 2. (Elizabeth) 3. Anne of Cleves (P) 4. Kathryn Howard (C ) 5. Catherine Parr (P) 6. C= Catholic P= Protestant -Henry VIII (r. 1509-1547) -3 kids -Edward VI (Protestant): r. 1547-1553 -Mary I (Catholic): r. (1553-1558)
-Elizabeth I (Protestant): r. (1558-1603) DOES NOT MARRY
-Three major religions in England by 1603:
Catholic
Anglican Puritan -Rejected break w/ Rome -Challenge to crown -Locked out of power -(church of England) -Kept much of Catholic Ceremony theology -(Reformed, Calvinist) -Rejected Catholic hierarchy, ceremony -congregationalist European Settlements -Caribbean: mixed European, settled earlier (1502- ) -Portugal: Brazil (1490s- ) -Spain: Spanish America (1492- ) -French: New France (Canada), (1608), Louisiana (1702) -Dutch: New Netherland (New Land) -The reasons countries were setting was for religion, money and/ or fame Portuguese Explorers -1480-90s: Portuguese going east to China and India -Land routes blocked by Muslim empires -motives mixed religious and economic -In the beginning, ships hugged the coast 1492: Turning Point for Spain -Union of Aragon and Castille (marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella): 1469 -End of Reconquista -Columbus' voyages began 1492 -Government deeply Catholic: Expelled Muslims and Jews from Spain same year -The über- Catholics -In the beginning, they tried to map the size of the Earth from the measurements of the skies Christopher Columbus -Italian freelancer -Wanted western route to China (Portugal had a lock an Eastern route) -Working for Spain -Underestimated circumference of Earth -Mistook America for Japan, then India -Died 1506, broke -American coast discovered within a decade The Spanish "Conquistadors" -Generally, younger sons from lower aristocratic family: young men "on the make" -Still literally "knights in shining armor" -Had upper-class arrogance and titles, but no visible means of support (or skills, save welfare) -Expected easy wealth and fame in Americas -It was a great insult for Aristocrats to work on jobs that were below them -The Spanish got lucky because they landed on large, rich, well-established civilization The Caribbean -Caribbean over 100 islands, misc. European govt. -Largely sugar plantations -Most extreme (and profitable) plantation economies -The native population of the Caribbean's dies out fie to disease -by mid-17th African and European -Average life expectancy of Caribbean slave: 3 years -Sugar becomes the main crop there -Becomes the killing crop because it takes a lot of work, hence to slave trade beginning The Empires of America Inca Empire (1200-1535) -Huge multi-language empire -conquered by Francisco Pizarro, 1530s -Weakened by internal rebellions -Fighting into 1570s Aztec Empire (1427-1521) -Mercenary empire -1519: conquered Hernando Cortez (ca. 600 men) -Weakened by wars, small pox -They were able to take over everything easily because they rode out on horses, wore armor and came on "floating islands." Therefore, the natives thought they were Gods. -Each time a new group of Europeans meets a new group of Indians or natives, another epidemic broke out -These epidemics lasted into the late 1800s and early 1900s New Spain and Brazil Spanish Colonies -Spain: god and gold (reasons why it was conquered) -Catholic, very hierarchical -America brought Spain immense wealth -Settlement brutal: nicknamed "The black Hand" -Indian mortality rules in Spanish America: -1492: Indian population was about 80 million -Beginning of the Spanish Empire: population was about 25 million -After 100 years of Spanish rule: Indian population was about 2 million -The soldiers were killing as fast as the priests were converted Portuguese Brazil -Brazilian government: -Less enthusiastic missionaries -Less crown control -Due to trade along African coast, Portugal began importing African slaves -first to bring in slaves and last to get rid of them -Spanish colonies run by Indian labor, Portuguese by Africans -Sugar plantations, mining -Over 100,000 slaves African transported 1450-1500 New European Players: New France -France established Quebec in 1608, Montreal soon after -Trapper economy; too cold for much agriculture -Sparsely settled. Loosely controlled by French Crown -Generally good relations with indigenous people-not forming -Wars with English throughout the 18th century -They had trouble getting families over because it seemed barren and also they shipped their convicts there. -As a results, most of the people who moved there were young men who planned to make their fortunes trapping and then intended to head home. New Players: The Dutch -the Netherlands was young (broke from Spain in 1588) -Like Portuguese, explored mainly in the east -1609 Henry Hudson's trips basis of Dutch claims -1614 Dutch East India Co. established a trading post at Albany -Colony New Netherland established 1624; Capital New Amsterdam -Reason people migrate to new land is for land or to escape religious prosecution but the Dutch had the problem of people not wanting to leave the homeland New Netherland (1624-1664) -Pluralistic from start -18 languages in future NYC by 1630s, many religious -under-settled colony (9000 whites) -Surrounded by English in 1664 Roanoke (English) -1st English colony set up in 1587-90 under Sir Walter -Raleigh, Queen Elizabeth on throne -England sent over 90 men, 17 women, 9 children -Colony disappeared after only 9 months -Disappearance still an unsolved mystery Christianity Est. 33Ad Roman Catholics Greek Orthodox Break 1054 AD Protestant break 1517 Lutherans Anglicans Presbyterians Episcopalians Calyinists (Puritans) Baptists Methodists Etc. Age of Exploration Thursday, January 18, 2018 12:27 PM
background image -oldest map(1540s) to use the expression "New World" -Name "America" came later -Before 1492: Europe had almost no territorial possessions -By mid-1500s, European settlements in Caribbean, Americas and Africa Important European Dates Crusades (there were 8 of them): 1096- 1291 (They didn't win) Benefits: Spice Routes from China and India formed -The Pope said that if you go and die on this Crusades, you will immediately go to heaven and if you don't go and fight the crusades, you are a non-Catholic and it is your neighbor's obligation to loot your home. -Indulgences- a document that says you get off time in Purgatory if you pay a certain amount of money -this was a ploy by the Church to actually raise money The Plague:(1349-51?) -Mongols brought plague to China and followed the trade routes to Europe -1/3 to 1/2 of Europe's population died -Era called the Dark Ages -Also peak of the Mideaval Era Consequences of the Plague: -Europe was no longer over-populated -A large amount of Priests and nuns are killed -the movements against Jews began because people believed that they were poisoning the wells, hence the deaths of entire villages Columbus Sailed to America: (1492) -Spain finished a 300 year war against the Moors -Muslims and Jews were banished from Spain Martin Luther's 95 theses were Published: (1517) -He was a priest in Germany -the Protestant Reformation begins -Luther nailed his these to the doors of his church, gained a following and was eventually excommunicated from the church -In this time, the oldest son would inherit everything. To appease the other sons, the fathers would put hteir sons in places of power in the church. This led to much corruption in the Church -Example: the Pope at one time put his 19 year old son on the council of Cardinals. Problems with this were that the Pope should not have a son in the first place, a 19 year old should not be a Cardinal, and he kept on having orgys in the chamber where the Cardinals would meet. English Reformation: (1534) -Early Modern Era: "One King, One faith, one god" -Martin Luther: Doctrine of works vs. doctrine of grace -John Calvin: Doctrine of Predestination -Challenges to Church in both theology and organization -Martin Luther believed that you cannot earn your way into heaven -Caluin believed that from birth it is determined Whether you are going to heaven or Hell Wars of Religion -1530s: Counter-Reformation splinters (Lutheranism, Calvinism) -Luther's reform succeeded because he had the printing press (invented by the Chinese) -Protestants were often the upper class -1534: England's Break -1560s-1648: Wars of Religion -1572: St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, Framce -All the Catholics rose up and killed many Protestants -1618-1648: Thirty Years' War in France -Ca. 1500-1700: European witch trials -1648: treaty of Westphalia The English Reformation -1534: Broke w/Rome -Church of England. Anglican: theology similar to Catholics -but: priests marry, king in charge -Seized Catholic Church property -Unhappy: Catholics, Reformers (Puritans) The Wives of King George Catherine of Aragon 1. "Bloody" Mary ( C) Anne Boleyn (P) 2. (Elizabeth) 3. Anne of Cleves (P) 4. Kathryn Howard (C ) 5. Catherine Parr (P) 6. C= Catholic P= Protestant -Henry VIII (r. 1509-1547) -3 kids -Edward VI (Protestant): r. 1547-1553 -Mary I (Catholic): r. (1553-1558)
-Elizabeth I (Protestant): r. (1558-1603) DOES NOT MARRY
-Three major religions in England by 1603:
Catholic
Anglican Puritan -Rejected break w/ Rome -Challenge to crown -Locked out of power -(church of England) -Kept much of Catholic Ceremony theology -(Reformed, Calvinist) -Rejected Catholic hierarchy, ceremony -congregationalist European Settlements -Caribbean: mixed European, settled earlier (1502- ) -Portugal: Brazil (1490s- ) -Spain: Spanish America (1492- ) -French: New France (Canada), (1608), Louisiana (1702) -Dutch: New Netherland (New Land) -The reasons countries were setting was for religion, money and/ or fame Portuguese Explorers -1480-90s: Portuguese going east to China and India -Land routes blocked by Muslim empires -motives mixed religious and economic -In the beginning, ships hugged the coast 1492: Turning Point for Spain -Union of Aragon and Castille (marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella): 1469 -End of Reconquista -Columbus' voyages began 1492 -Government deeply Catholic: Expelled Muslims and Jews from Spain same year -The über- Catholics -In the beginning, they tried to map the size of the Earth from the measurements of the skies Christopher Columbus -Italian freelancer -Wanted western route to China (Portugal had a lock an Eastern route) -Working for Spain -Underestimated circumference of Earth -Mistook America for Japan, then India -Died 1506, broke -American coast discovered within a decade The Spanish "Conquistadors" -Generally, younger sons from lower aristocratic family: young men "on the make" -Still literally "knights in shining armor" -Had upper-class arrogance and titles, but no visible means of support (or skills, save welfare) -Expected easy wealth and fame in Americas -It was a great insult for Aristocrats to work on jobs that were below them -The Spanish got lucky because they landed on large, rich, well-established civilization The Caribbean -Caribbean over 100 islands, misc. European govt. -Largely sugar plantations -Most extreme (and profitable) plantation economies -The native population of the Caribbean's dies out fie to disease -by mid-17th African and European -Average life expectancy of Caribbean slave: 3 years -Sugar becomes the main crop there -Becomes the killing crop because it takes a lot of work, hence to slave trade beginning The Empires of America Inca Empire (1200-1535) -Huge multi-language empire -conquered by Francisco Pizarro, 1530s -Weakened by internal rebellions -Fighting into 1570s Aztec Empire (1427-1521) -Mercenary empire -1519: conquered Hernando Cortez (ca. 600 men) -Weakened by wars, small pox -They were able to take over everything easily because they rode out on horses, wore armor and came on "floating islands." Therefore, the natives thought they were Gods. -Each time a new group of Europeans meets a new group of Indians or natives, another epidemic broke out -These epidemics lasted into the late 1800s and early 1900s New Spain and Brazil Spanish Colonies -Spain: god and gold (reasons why it was conquered) -Catholic, very hierarchical -America brought Spain immense wealth -Settlement brutal: nicknamed "The black Hand" -Indian mortality rules in Spanish America: -1492: Indian population was about 80 million -Beginning of the Spanish Empire: population was about 25 million -After 100 years of Spanish rule: Indian population was about 2 million -The soldiers were killing as fast as the priests were converted Portuguese Brazil -Brazilian government: -Less enthusiastic missionaries -Less crown control -Due to trade along African coast, Portugal began importing African slaves -first to bring in slaves and last to get rid of them -Spanish colonies run by Indian labor, Portuguese by Africans -Sugar plantations, mining -Over 100,000 slaves African transported 1450-1500 New European Players: New France -France established Quebec in 1608, Montreal soon after -Trapper economy; too cold for much agriculture -Sparsely settled. Loosely controlled by French Crown -Generally good relations with indigenous people-not forming -Wars with English throughout the 18th century -They had trouble getting families over because it seemed barren and also they shipped their convicts there. -As a results, most of the people who moved there were young men who planned to make their fortunes trapping and then intended to head home. New Players: The Dutch -the Netherlands was young (broke from Spain in 1588) -Like Portuguese, explored mainly in the east -1609 Henry Hudson's trips basis of Dutch claims -1614 Dutch East India Co. established a trading post at Albany -Colony New Netherland established 1624; Capital New Amsterdam -Reason people migrate to new land is for land or to escape religious prosecution but the Dutch had the problem of people not wanting to leave the homeland New Netherland (1624-1664) -Pluralistic from start -18 languages in future NYC by 1630s, many religious -under-settled colony (9000 whites) -Surrounded by English in 1664 Roanoke (English) -1st English colony set up in 1587-90 under Sir Walter -Raleigh, Queen Elizabeth on throne -England sent over 90 men, 17 women, 9 children -Colony disappeared after only 9 months -Disappearance still an unsolved mystery Christianity Est. 33Ad Roman Catholics Greek Orthodox Break 1054 AD Protestant break 1517 Lutherans Anglicans Presbyterians Episcopalians Calyinists (Puritans) Baptists Methodists Etc. Age of Exploration Thursday, January 18, 2018 12:27 PM
background image -oldest map(1540s) to use the expression "New World" -Name "America" came later -Before 1492: Europe had almost no territorial possessions -By mid-1500s, European settlements in Caribbean, Americas and Africa Important European Dates Crusades (there were 8 of them): 1096- 1291 (They didn't win) Benefits: Spice Routes from China and India formed -The Pope said that if you go and die on this Crusades, you will immediately go to heaven and if you don't go and fight the crusades, you are a non-Catholic and it is your neighbor's obligation to loot your home. -Indulgences- a document that says you get off time in Purgatory if you pay a certain amount of money -this was a ploy by the Church to actually raise money The Plague:(1349-51?) -Mongols brought plague to China and followed the trade routes to Europe -1/3 to 1/2 of Europe's population died -Era called the Dark Ages -Also peak of the Mideaval Era Consequences of the Plague: -Europe was no longer over-populated -A large amount of Priests and nuns are killed -the movements against Jews began because people believed that they were poisoning the wells, hence the deaths of entire villages Columbus Sailed to America: (1492) -Spain finished a 300 year war against the Moors -Muslims and Jews were banished from Spain Martin Luther's 95 theses were Published: (1517) -He was a priest in Germany -the Protestant Reformation begins -Luther nailed his these to the doors of his church, gained a following and was eventually excommunicated from the church -In this time, the oldest son would inherit everything. To appease the other sons, the fathers would put hteir sons in places of power in the church. This led to much corruption in the Church -Example: the Pope at one time put his 19 year old son on the council of Cardinals. Problems with this were that the Pope should not have a son in the first place, a 19 year old should not be a Cardinal, and he kept on having orgys in the chamber where the Cardinals would meet. English Reformation: (1534) -Early Modern Era: "One King, One faith, one god" -Martin Luther: Doctrine of works vs. doctrine of grace -John Calvin: Doctrine of Predestination -Challenges to Church in both theology and organization -Martin Luther believed that you cannot earn your way into heaven -Caluin believed that from birth it is determined Whether you are going to heaven or Hell Wars of Religion -1530s: Counter-Reformation splinters (Lutheranism, Calvinism) -Luther's reform succeeded because he had the printing press (invented by the Chinese) -Protestants were often the upper class -1534: England's Break -1560s-1648: Wars of Religion -1572: St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, Framce -All the Catholics rose up and killed many Protestants -1618-1648: Thirty Years' War in France -Ca. 1500-1700: European witch trials -1648: treaty of Westphalia The English Reformation -1534: Broke w/Rome -Church of England. Anglican: theology similar to Catholics -but: priests marry, king in charge -Seized Catholic Church property -Unhappy: Catholics, Reformers (Puritans) The Wives of King George Catherine of Aragon 1. "Bloody" Mary ( C) Anne Boleyn (P) 2. (Elizabeth) 3. Anne of Cleves (P) 4. Kathryn Howard (C ) 5. Catherine Parr (P) 6. C= Catholic P= Protestant -Henry VIII (r. 1509-1547) -3 kids -Edward VI (Protestant): r. 1547-1553 -Mary I (Catholic): r. (1553-1558)
-Elizabeth I (Protestant): r. (1558-1603) DOES NOT MARRY
-Three major religions in England by 1603:
Catholic
Anglican Puritan -Rejected break w/ Rome -Challenge to crown -Locked out of power -(church of England) -Kept much of Catholic Ceremony theology -(Reformed, Calvinist) -Rejected Catholic hierarchy, ceremony -congregationalist European Settlements -Caribbean: mixed European, settled earlier (1502- ) -Portugal: Brazil (1490s- ) -Spain: Spanish America (1492- ) -French: New France (Canada), (1608), Louisiana (1702) -Dutch: New Netherland (New Land) -The reasons countries were setting was for religion, money and/ or fame Portuguese Explorers -1480-90s: Portuguese going east to China and India -Land routes blocked by Muslim empires -motives mixed religious and economic -In the beginning, ships hugged the coast 1492: Turning Point for Spain -Union of Aragon and Castille (marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella): 1469 -End of Reconquista -Columbus' voyages began 1492 -Government deeply Catholic: Expelled Muslims and Jews from Spain same year -The über- Catholics -In the beginning, they tried to map the size of the Earth from the measurements of the skies Christopher Columbus -Italian freelancer -Wanted western route to China (Portugal had a lock an Eastern route) -Working for Spain -Underestimated circumference of Earth -Mistook America for Japan, then India -Died 1506, broke -American coast discovered within a decade The Spanish "Conquistadors" -Generally, younger sons from lower aristocratic family: young men "on the make" -Still literally "knights in shining armor" -Had upper-class arrogance and titles, but no visible means of support (or skills, save welfare) -Expected easy wealth and fame in Americas -It was a great insult for Aristocrats to work on jobs that were below them -The Spanish got lucky because they landed on large, rich, well-established civilization The Caribbean -Caribbean over 100 islands, misc. European govt. -Largely sugar plantations -Most extreme (and profitable) plantation economies -The native population of the Caribbean's dies out fie to disease -by mid-17th African and European -Average life expectancy of Caribbean slave: 3 years -Sugar becomes the main crop there -Becomes the killing crop because it takes a lot of work, hence to slave trade beginning The Empires of America Inca Empire (1200-1535) -Huge multi-language empire -conquered by Francisco Pizarro, 1530s -Weakened by internal rebellions -Fighting into 1570s Aztec Empire (1427-1521) -Mercenary empire -1519: conquered Hernando Cortez (ca. 600 men) -Weakened by wars, small pox -They were able to take over everything easily because they rode out on horses, wore armor and came on "floating islands." Therefore, the natives thought they were Gods. -Each time a new group of Europeans meets a new group of Indians or natives, another epidemic broke out -These epidemics lasted into the late 1800s and early 1900s New Spain and Brazil Spanish Colonies -Spain: god and gold (reasons why it was conquered) -Catholic, very hierarchical -America brought Spain immense wealth -Settlement brutal: nicknamed "The black Hand" -Indian mortality rules in Spanish America: -1492: Indian population was about 80 million -Beginning of the Spanish Empire: population was about 25 million -After 100 years of Spanish rule: Indian population was about 2 million -The soldiers were killing as fast as the priests were converted Portuguese Brazil -Brazilian government: -Less enthusiastic missionaries -Less crown control -Due to trade along African coast, Portugal began importing African slaves -first to bring in slaves and last to get rid of them -Spanish colonies run by Indian labor, Portuguese by Africans -Sugar plantations, mining -Over 100,000 slaves African transported 1450-1500 New European Players: New France -France established Quebec in 1608, Montreal soon after -Trapper economy; too cold for much agriculture -Sparsely settled. Loosely controlled by French Crown -Generally good relations with indigenous people-not forming -Wars with English throughout the 18th century -They had trouble getting families over because it seemed barren and also they shipped their convicts there. -As a results, most of the people who moved there were young men who planned to make their fortunes trapping and then intended to head home. New Players: The Dutch -the Netherlands was young (broke from Spain in 1588) -Like Portuguese, explored mainly in the east -1609 Henry Hudson's trips basis of Dutch claims -1614 Dutch East India Co. established a trading post at Albany -Colony New Netherland established 1624; Capital New Amsterdam -Reason people migrate to new land is for land or to escape religious prosecution but the Dutch had the problem of people not wanting to leave the homeland New Netherland (1624-1664) -Pluralistic from start -18 languages in future NYC by 1630s, many religious -under-settled colony (9000 whites) -Surrounded by English in 1664 Roanoke (English) -1st English colony set up in 1587-90 under Sir Walter -Raleigh, Queen Elizabeth on throne -England sent over 90 men, 17 women, 9 children -Colony disappeared after only 9 months -Disappearance still an unsolved mystery Christianity Est. 33Ad Roman Catholics Greek Orthodox Break 1054 AD Protestant break 1517 Lutherans Anglicans Presbyterians Episcopalians Calyinists (Puritans) Baptists Methodists Etc. Age of Exploration Thursday, January 18, 2018 12:27 PM

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School: Texas State University
Department: Engineering
Course: History to US 1877
Professor: Shannon Duffy
Term: Spring 2018
Tags: American history to 1877
Name: HIST 1310- Week 1 Notes
Description: These are the notes from week one of class
Uploaded: 01/26/2018
13 Pages 24 Views 19 Unlocks
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