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OK State - GEOL 1014 - Class Notes - Week 2

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OK State - GEOL 1014 - Class Notes - Week 2

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background image Geology and Human Affairs – Week 2 1/22/18
Earth Systems
­ Lithosphere ­ Atmosphere
­ Hydrosphere
­ Biosphere Sphere: Denoting an area of activity, section of society; distinguished by a particular  characteristic The Earth System: Described as a group of interacting, interrelated, or interdependent 
parts that together form a whole
Lithosphere (Geosphere): Consist of rocks (solid and molten) and material derived from
rock that make up the earth
Atmosphere: Consist of gases that surround the earth Hydrosphere: All the water (liquid and frozen) on the earth’s surface and underground Biosphere: All the living organisms that inhibit the earth The Compositional Structure of the Geosphere Core: Solid inner and liquid outer core (Fe and Ni) Mantle: Consists mainly of Mg, Si, O2, Fe Crust:
1. Continental crust: Si rich (Granite)
background image Geology and Human Affairs – Week 2 2. Oceanic crust: Iron rich (Basalt)
The Internal Structure of the Earth
The Earth is layered: Interior differentiation and concentric layers 1. Chemical model by composition and density (heavy or light): crust, mantle, core, and  Moho discontinuity between the crust and mantle
2. Physical property model (solid or liquid, weak or strong)
How do we know the internal structure of the Earth? Seismology: Study of earthquakes and seismic waved through Earth Use of seismic waves affected by different layers because of different physical  properties Some waves move through solid and liquid materials, while others move through solid, 
but not liquid materials
The boundaries that delineate the internal structure of Earth are determined by studying seismic waves Crust:
1. Continental crust: Varies between 10 ­  70 km thick, consists of minerals silica and 
alumina
2. Oceanic crust: Varies between 5 – 10 km thick, composed of silica, iron and 
magnesium. Denser than the continental crust
background image Geology and Human Affairs – Week 2 Moho: The mohorovicic discontinuity is the boundary between the Earth’s crust and the 
mantle and is part of the lithosphere
Lithosphere: Layer that includes the crust and the upper mantle. Approximately 100 km  thick. It is the zone where earthquakes, mountain building, volcanoes, and continental 
drift activity takes place.
Mantle: ­ The upper mantle: Lies between 70 and 400 km below the surface of the earth ­ The asthenosphere: A semi­fluid layer beneath the lithosphere (within the upper  mantle), between approximately 100 and 600 km ­ Behaves “plastically” and can mechanically detach from the lithosphere
­ Able to flow vertically and horizontally and move independently of the 
lithosphere. Most magmas (molten rock) are generated in this zone. ­ Lower mantle: Lies between 400 and 2,900 km below the earth’s surface. The  rock is solid because of the high pressures Core: ­ The inner part of the earth ­ A dense ball of iron and nickel
­ The outer core: Hot metal is always molten, lies at 2,900 and 5,150 km below the
earth surface ­ Liquid state consists of iron, nickel, sulfur, and oxygen ­ Due to earth’s rotation, it spins around the inner core and that causes the earths  magnetism ­ The inner core: The center of the earth and lies 5,150 – 6,370 km below the  earth’s surface ­ Consists of iron, nickel, and some lighter elements probably sulfur, carbon,  oxygen, silicon and potassium ­ Because of the high pressure, the core is sold Plate Tectonics
background image Geology and Human Affairs – Week 2 Tectonics: Large scale geologic processes that deform the earths lithosphere producing
landforms, ocean basins, continents, and mountains
Plate Tectonics: The lithosphere is subdivided into large pieces known as lithosphere  plates that move relative to each other Plate Boundaries Three major types of plate boundaries:
1. Divergent: plates moving apart and new lithosphere produced in mid­oceanic ridge
2. Convergent: plates collide, subduction and mountain building
3. Transform: two plates slide past one another
Each interior convection is mechanism for plate tectonics Divergent plate boundary ­ Plates move away from each other ­ Mid­oceanic ridges form
­ Continental rift valleys form
­ Creates new seafloors
­ Extensional stress and shallow earthquakes
­ Basaltic volcanism Convergent plate boundary: Plates collide with each other Three subtypes (continental, oceanic): 1. C­C boundary: Major young mountain belts and shallow earthquakes
2. C­O boundary: Major volcanic mountain belts, subduction zone and oceanic trench, 
earthquakes
3. O­O boundary: Subduction zone, deep oceanic trench, volcanic island arc, wide 
earthquake zones

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School: Oklahoma State University
Department: Geology
Course: Geology and Human Affairs
Professor: Pride Abongwa
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: Geology, Human, and Affairs
Name: Geology and Human Affairs Notes - Week 2
Description: Lecture notes
Uploaded: 01/26/2018
13 Pages 38 Views 30 Unlocks
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