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UF - CLAS 3160 - Class Notes - Week 3

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UF - CLAS 3160 - Class Notes - Week 3

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background image Reading Notes for Quiz One: (Module One: Ch. 1 (p.1-19,32-46), Ch.  2 (p. 57-62)) Egyptology: the study of Ancient Egypt  Decipherment of Egyptian hieroglyphs by Jean-Francois Champollion  Interest in Ancient Egypt developed during the Renaissance  Environmental conditions of the north of the country have preserved 
monuments and antiquities much less than the south 
We may have an imbalanced view of Egyptian civilization due to the fct
that some fixtures may have survived better than others 
- i.e. stone tomb and temples survive better than mud brick buildings
since archeology is biased, we have modernly made it balanced with 
pottery analysis, carbon dating techniques, palaeopathology, and 
dietary surveys 
Arab Conquest of Egypt and Medieval Travelers  Egypt was conquered in AD 640 when Amr ibn al-‘As, general of Caliph
Umar I established new Muslim capital at Al-Fustat (later part of Cairo) 
-amazing conqueror who achieved objective with fewer than 4,000 
troops 
Arabs considered monuments magical and as potential sources of 
treasure, so they were torn apart to salvage their goods 
Because of the Crusades, people couldn’t travel in the Middle East  - Only account of that time period is Muslim Abd ‘El-Latif  Guidebook for pilgrimage to Holy Land in 14 th  century was “The Voiage  and Travaille of Sir John Mandeville Knight” 
- actually written by Jean d’Outremeuse 
- wildly inaccurate 
Renaissance Antiquarians  1517 Ottoman ruler of Constantinople Sultan Selim I invaded Egypt 
and established it as Turkish governate (pashalik) 
15 th  century, 2 classical texts were rediscovered  1. Horapollo’s Hieroglyphica 
- Sought to show that hieroglyphs were symbols rather than spoken 
language  2. Hermetic Corpus 
- Philosophic texts believe to preserve the wisdom of the Ancient 
Egyptians  One of the earliest travel writers was Englishman George Sandys 
- He published “Sundys’ Travells: A relation of a Journey begun an. 
Dom 1610”  Italian Pietro della Valle combined sightseeing with practice of 
collecting antiquities 
Francois Savary: French diplomat/ambassador to Constantinople visited
Giza in 1605 
Benoit de Mallet: French consul general traveled extensively 
background image - Suggestion that a proper scheme should be established to initiate  the scientific exploration of Egypt  John Greaves published his Pyramidographia, or a Discourse of the 
Pyramids in Aegypt 
- Made measurements for the first scientific and systematic survey 
ever undertaken on one of the pyramids  - First scientific, firsthand attempt to investigate the facts about an  Egyptian monument  Reverend Richard Pococke wrote “A Description of the East and Some 
Other Countries” 
- Included first description of a decorated, nonroyal (private) tomb in 
Thebes - Produced clear plans of the Valley of the Kings  Earliest known reference in modern times to a rpviate tomb on the 
West Bank of Thebes is attributed to a Danish naval marine architect 
and traveler, Frederick Lewis Nordern 
- “Nordern’s Travels” 
Early Egyptology  epigraphy: making exact copies of inscriptions on the standing 
monuments exposed aboveground 
squeeze: type of impression using paper-mâché and producing plaster 
casts 
Howard Carter photographed large relief scenes on temple walls, then 
produced large prints on which the scenes and inscriptions are inked in
with permanent ink. Print is then immersed in iodine solution so that 
the photograph disappears while the line drawing remains (Epigraphy) 
Three year French commission when Napoleon took over Egypt 
resulted in 19 volume publication “Description de l’Egypte” 
- Individual account “Voyage dans la Basse et la Haute Egypte” by 
Vivant Denon  Champollion’s pupil = Ippolito Rosellini  Largest Egyptological work ever produced= “Denkmaler aus Aegypten 
and Aethiopien” 
Nina de Garis Davies’ artwork set new standards; she introduced 
innovative techniques, using egg tempura instead of simply 
watercolors 
Evacuation in Egypt  First “excavators”= tomb robbers  Muhammad Ali issued an ordinance that was the first serious attempt 
to prohibit the export of antiquities 
- Only partly successful 
First Egyptologist to adopt a more scientific approach to excavation: 
Auguste Marriette 
-established world’s first National Antiquities Service 

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School: University of Florida
Department: Classical Studies
Course: Ancient Egypt
Professor: Robert Wagman
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: ancient and Egypt
Name: Notes leading up to Quiz One
Description: includes lecture and individual reading notes
Uploaded: 01/27/2018
5 Pages 29 Views 23 Unlocks
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