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FSU / Engineering / BSC 2010 / How do plants adapt to poisonous elements?

How do plants adapt to poisonous elements?

How do plants adapt to poisonous elements?

Description

School: Florida State University
Department: Engineering
Course: Biological Science I
Professor: Kevin dixon
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Science and Biology
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 1 Review
Description: This is an Exam 1 Study Guide.
Uploaded: 01/28/2018
9 Pages 40 Views 1 Unlocks
Reviews


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Chapter 2: The Chemical context of Life (my notes)If you want to learn more check out What is josquin des prez's significant contribution in music?

2.1

matter - anything that takes up space and has mass

element - substance that cannot be broken down

Compound - substance having a or more elements (NaCl)We also discuss several other topics like What is close relationship?

Essential elements - of 92 natural elements, 20-25% are essential to an organism.

4 elements → oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen make up 96% of living matter

trace elements - required by an organism in minute quantities We also discuss several other topics like What is the degree of saturation of fatty acids?

plants adapt to poisonous elements through natural selection If you want to learn more check out How do you describe french gothic architecture?

2.2 Don't forget about the age old question of Who is the father of scientific management theory?

Atom - smallest unit of matter

subatomic particles →  Protons, neutrons, electrons

atomic nucleus - center of the atom, protons give nucleus positive charge

electrons form a cloud of negative charge around nucleus If you want to learn more check out How can people learn to resist persuasive efforts?

it is the attraction between opposite charges that keeps the electrons near the nucleus

neutron + proton are almost identical in mass

  • 1.7 * 10^-24 gram (grams aren't useful)
  • so we use dalton - 1 dalton = neutrons and protons masses

atomic number - number of protons in the nuclei (2)He 2 protons in nucleus

unless stated an atom is neutral in charge, meaning protons & electrons must be the same

mass number - total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus written as (4)2He

atomic number =2, mass number = 4

mass # - atomic # = # of neutrons

simplest atom is hydrogen 1/1H (no neutrons)

almost all of an atom's mass is in the nucleus.

neutrons and protons each have mass very close to 1 dalton so mass number is close to, but slightly off from the total mass of an atom, called it's atomic mass

Ex: 23/11 Na mass # = 23, atomic mass = 22.9 daltons

isotopes - some atoms have more neutrons than other atoms of the same element and therefore have greater mass

  • the different atomic forms are isotopes

radioactive isotope - when the nucleus decays spontaneously giving of particles & energy

Ex: when atom (14 C) decays + loses a proton, it becomes an atom of nitrogen (N)

Radioactive isotopes are used in biologically active molecules, used as tracers to track atoms during metabolism

half-life - parent isotope decays into daughter isotope at a fixed rate the time it takes for 50% of the parent isotope to decay

  • not affected by temp., pressure, or any other environmental variable

radiometric dating - scientists measure the ratio of different isotopes & calculate how many half-lives (in years) have passed since an organism was fossilized or a rock was formed

  • range from seconds to 4.5 bil years

energy - the capacity to cause change, by doing work

potential energy the energy that matter possess because of its location or structure

It takes work to move a given electron farther away from the nucleus, so the more distant an electron is from the nucleus, the greater the potential energy

electron can only exist at energy levels, not between them

electron shells - where electrons are found

  • each have a characteristic average distance and energy level

first shell → lowest potential energy

second shell → more energy

third shells → most energy

electrons can move between shells but only by absorbing I losing the amount of energy it took to move from the old shell to the new shell

when an electron absorbs energy, it moves to a farther shell from the nucleus (ex: light energy).

when it loses energy, it falls back to a lower sheil + lost energy is released as HEAT

Periodic tables

  • Rows correspond to # of electron shells
  • L → R – sequential addition of electrons + protons

valence electron's - electrons in the outermost shell

valence Shell - outermost electron shell

an atom with a completed valence shell is unreactive (inert - chemically unreactive)

orbital - the 3D space where an electron is found 90% of the time on

no more than a electrons can occupy a single orbital

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