Donors; Surrogates; New Family Structures1.
Identify two future possibilities that would allow same sex female couples to have children without a donor.
∙ Use somatic cell & enucleated egg to create a cloned embryo and implant in one of the women.
∙ 2. Use somatic cell & enucleated egg to create a cloned embryo. (method 1) Extract stem cells from this embryo and stimulate them to become artificially produced sperm cells. Using artificial insemination or IVF, fertilize the woman’s [normal] egg with the sperm.
2. How can a baby have “two [genetic] mothers?” (See Deech, pp. 1589.) What is the unhealthy condition that would motivate pursuing having a child with two genetic mothers? ∙ By removing the mitochondrial DNA (from the nucleus) from the woman carrying the child and replacing it with mitochondrial DNA from the donor woman, the baby will technically have DNA from two different women, thus having “two genetic mothers”. ∙ Some mitochondrial diseases include:
o Mitochondrial myopathy.
o Diabetes mellitus and deafness (DAD) ...
o Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) ...
o Leigh syndrome, subacute sclerosing encephalopathy. ...
o Neuropathy, ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa, and ptosis (NARP)
3. Identify two key ethical concerns regarding surrogate motherhood. If you want to learn more check out What is the focal length of the normal lens?
1. Is it ethical to “hire out a uterus” and pay another woman for the sole use of her body? 2. Is it ethical to subject another woman to pregnancy complications so another woman can have a biological child?
4. Identify two key ethical concerns regarding sperm donation.
1. Is it ethical to pay a man for his donation of gametes?
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2. Is it ethical for a woman to silicate strangers sperm for the opportunity to have a biological child?
5. Identify two key ethical concerns regarding egg donation, including one that is not present in sperm donation.
1. Is it ethical to offer financial incentives for an “unnecessary” and risky procedure? Does this target lower income families and make them feel obligated to donate for the monetary incentive?
2. Is it ethical to do this procedure considering the high risk of Ovarian Hyper stimulation Syndrome?
6. According to Marquardt, Glenn, and Clark (2010), children of sperm donors indicate several negative experiences in relation to their being children of sperm donors. Identify three that you find most significant.
1. These kids live with an increased fear of falling in love / having a sexual relationship with someone they are related to
2. They have identity issues trying to figure out that half of their DNA is not who they thought it was and that it is a stranger out there somewhere
3. There is a great bother that there was money exchange to create the child’s life and the fact that the mother has never even met the biological father. Don't forget about the age old question of What accounts for date rape?
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