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OSU / Behavioral Science / PSYCH 3313 / What is microdialysis?

What is microdialysis?

What is microdialysis?

Description

School: Ohio State University
Department: Behavioral Science
Course: Introduction to Behavioral Neuroscience
Professor: Wenk
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: research methods, neuroscience, Psychology, anatomy, neuroanatomy, neurons, and restingpotential
Cost: 50
Name: Psych 3313 Midterm 1 Study Guide
Description: research methods, anatomy, neurons, resting potential
Uploaded: 01/28/2018
7 Pages 90 Views 7 Unlocks
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Behavioral Neuroscience 3313 Study Guide for Exam 1


What is microdialysis?



I will post the rest of the material after class on Wednesday

Research Methods

● Lesion - abnormal damage/ change in brain tissue

● Ablation - removal in brain tissue

● Infusion - put chemicals or drugs into a specific part of the brain

● Microdialysis - used to see the amount of neurotransmitters present in a certain part of the brain and how they change over time

● Stains:

○ Golgi - randomly turns about 5% of the cells black, can see complete structure ○ Nissl - shows populations of cells and what layers they’re in

○ Myelin - stains myelin sheath, shows neural connections throughout brain ● Electroconvulsive therapy - induces controlled seizures as a last resort for depression patients


What does the somatic nervous system do?



● Deep Brain Stimulation - stimulates a specific part of the brain by placing an electrode in the part of interest

● rTMS (repeated transcranial magnetic stimuli) - magnetic field is applied in patients with depression or schizophrenia to interrupt brain function

● Summary of imaging techniques:

Technique Description Timing Pros Cons

EEG Recording of the electrical activity

in the brain,

measured

through

electrodes on the

scalp

1ms ● Diagnose epilepsy/

seizures

● Fast, safe,

cheap,

portable


What is the main function of the parasympathetic nervous system?



We also discuss several other topics like What is the difference between a positive and normative statement?

● Poor signal localization ● Sensitive to blinks/

movement

CT Imaging

technique where

x-ray images are

enhanced by

computer

technology

1ms ● Quick picture ● Radiation exposure

MRI Imaging technique that

creates clear,

3-5s ● High resolution

3-D image

● Tight space ● Loud

high resolution

pictures

PET Images are produced by

emissions from

injective

radioactive

materials, such

as glucose

fMRI Detects blood oxygen levels

and tracks Don't forget about the age old question of What are the examples of early cultures?

changing activity

● Better

contrast than

CT

● No radiation

risk Don't forget about the age old question of What is microscopy?

45s ● Localizes activity

1s ● Show changes in

brain activity

during

movement or

stimulation

● Delay

between

stimulus

and picture ● Limited to short tasks

● False

positives

● Subtract important

baseline

● DTI (diffusion tensor imaging) - track water movement through pathways in the nervous system

● MEG (magnetoencephalography) - measures neural activity by generating electrical and magnetic fields, recorded by SQUID sensor

Anatomy

● Somatic Nervous System - controls voluntary motion by releasing acetylcholine ● Autonomic Nervous System - controls involuntary motion by releasing acetylcholine or norepinephrine

○ Sympathetic Nervous System - shuts off unnecessary processes when put into a life threatening situation, produces acetylcholine then switches to norepinephrine ■ Uses chain ganglion so all responses occur at the same time If you want to learn more check out What is the history of disabilities?
Don't forget about the age old question of More than half of the private sector companies in the united states go out of business within how many years?

○ Parasympathetic Nervous System - calms body and produces energy, produces acetylcholine

● Spinal Nerves

○ 31 pairs

○ Cranial

○ Cervical

○ Thoracic

○ Lumbar

○ Sacral

○ Coccygeal

○ Mixed nerve - sensory (dorsal) and ventral (motor)

○ Dermatome - specific spinal nerves apply assigned areas of skin with nerve fibers

● Cranial Nerves - 12 pairs

○ Sensory

■ Olfactory nerve - smell

■ Optic nerve - vision

■ Auditory vestibular nerve - hearing

○ Motor (all move eye)

■ Oculomotor nerve 

■ Trochlear nerve 

■ Abducens nerve 

○ Sensory and Motor

■ Trigeminal nerve - facial sensation and chewing

■ Facial nerve - facial movement and taste

■ Vagus nerve - long distance signal to organs Don't forget about the age old question of What is density?

● Nervous System Protection

○ Meninges

■ Dura mater - thin wet leather on inside of skull and spine bone

■ Arachnoid mater - layer of empty space filled with cerebrospinal fluid ■ Pia mater - thin layer that directly touches the brain and spinal cord ○ Cerebrospinal Fluid

■ Immunological protection, delivers nutrients, excretes waste, keeps brain suspended -> doesn’t compress nerves

○ Blood Brain Barrier

■ Selective permeability - brings in nutrients, oxygen, drugs, but keeps out neurotoxins or other harmful materials

■ Secreteing centers - choroid plexus, pineal gland, pituitary gland

■ Monitoring centers - area posterna, hypothalamus

● Central Nervous System

○ Spinal cord

■ Dorsal - sensory input, toward back

■ Ventral - motor output, toward front

Hindbrain

● Medulla (myelencephalon)

○ Relay between spinal cord and brain

○ Vital processes - breathing, heart rate, blood pressure

● Pons (part of Metencephalon)

○ Connects cerebral cortex to cerebellum

○ Hearing, balance, sleep, arousal, motion sickness

○ Has main nuclei for neurotransmitters

■ Raphe - serotonin

■ Locus coeruleus - norepinephrine

● Reticular Formation 

○ Passes through all structures in hindbrain

○ Stimulates forebrain

○ Consciousness, arousal, attention, movement, pain

● Cerebellum 

○ Speed, intensity, coordination, direction of movement, speech, balance

○ More neurons that the whole brain combined

○ Vulnerable to ethanol

○ Damage to the cerebellum affects speech, movement and balance

Midbrain

(dorsal is top half of the brain, ventral is the bottom half)

● Periaqueductal gray - natural pain management, endorphins ● Red nucleus - motor output

● Substansia nigra - releases dopamine, smaller in Parkinson’s patients ● Superior colliculi - visual stimuli

● Inferior colliculi - localize sound

Forebrain

● Basal Ganglia 

○ Group of structures in forebrain

○ Motor control, reward, and procedural memories

○ Disorders

■ Huntington’s, Parkinson’s -> movement control

■ ADHD, OCD -> cognitive control

● Limbic System

○ Amygdala - detection of threat, fear, excitement and arousal ■ Quickly identifies if a situation is safe or not safe

○ Hippocampus - spatial information processing, long-term declarative memories

○ Cingulate Cortex 

■ Anterior (front) Cingulate Cortex 

● Decision making, error detection, emotion, anticipation of

reward, pain, empathy

■ Posterior (back) Cingulate Cortex 

● Eye movement, memory, spatial orientation

● Affected in Alzheimer’s patients

Cerebral Cortex

● Cortical convolutions

○ Gyri (gyrus) - raised areas, peaks

○ Sulci (sulcus) - lowered areas, valleys

○ Fissure - large sulcus, anatomical landmarks

● Cortical layering

○ 1,2,3 - integrative functions

○ 4 - sensory input

○ 5,6 - output to other brain parts

○ Thickness varies between cortical regions

Frontal lobe 

■ Motor complex, prefrontal cortex, Broca’s Area,

■ Language, short term memory, “executive functions”

■ Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex - attention and planning behavior ■ Orbitofrontal cortex - impulse control and delayed gratification ■ Frontal lobotomy - disconnected prefrontal cortex from the rest of the brain to reduce emotional outbursts

● Resulted in child-like behavior

Parietal lobe 

■ Body position, movement, and spatial perception

■ Primary somatosensory cortex

■ Association cortex - integrate sensory input with motor output Temporal lobe 

■ Primary auditory cortex, visual and auditory association areas, language areas, Limbic System

Occipital lobe 

■ Primary visual cortex

Corpus Callosum - large band of fibers connecting the two cerebral hemisphere Neurons and Glia

● Glia - physical and functional support, no action potentials

○ Astrocytes 

■ Contribute to blood brain barrier

■ Surround synapse to keep neurotransmitters in the right spot ■ Clean up dead neurons and regulate neurons after injury

○ Oligodendrocytes - one cell myelinates ~ 15 axons

○ Schwann - myelinates a single axon segment

○ Myelin - fatty casing around axons

○ Microglia - repair cellular damage and phagocyte debris

○ Ependymal glial cells - produce cerebrospinal fluid

○ Radial glial cells - structures that direct neurons

● Neuron

○ Cell body (soma)

■ Nucleus, organelles, cytoplasm

○ Neural skeleton - neurofilaments, microfilaments, microtubules

○ Dendrites - receives input from other cells

○ Axon

■ Axon hillock - where cell body meets axon

■ Myelinated = faster signal

Resting Potential

● Volt - measure of difference in potentials

An axon, has inner charge of -70mV, negative charge

on the inside, positive charge on the outside

● Semipermeable membrane has different

“gates”

○ Ion channel - passive, lets ions flow

through

○ Mechanical gate - needs physical touch to open

○ Ligand gate - opened by neurotransmitters or products from other cells ○ Voltage gate - sense electrical change, gate opens at a certain voltage ○ Ion pump - uses ATP to send ions against the gradient

■ Sodium-potassium pump

● Send 3 Na+ out for every 2 K+in 

● Local potentials

○ Postsynaptic

○ EPSP - excitatory - depolarization

■ Becomes more neutral, less polarized

○ IPSP - inhibitory - hyperpolarization

■ Becomes less neutral, more polarized

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