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VIRGINIA TECH / Cinema / CINE 2054 / What does one go through the pre-production of film-making?

What does one go through the pre-production of film-making?

What does one go through the pre-production of film-making?


School: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Department: Cinema
Course: Introduction to Cinema
Professor: Steven prince
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: intro to cinema, Cinema, and movies
Cost: Free
Name: Intro to Cinema- Week One
Description: Movie Basics
Uploaded: 01/29/2018
5 Pages 157 Views 114 Unlocks

Week of JAN. 22ND – 24TH 

What does one go through the pre-production of film-making?

JAN. 22ND 

∙ Film Structure

o Film Structure: “elements if image and sound placed in meaningful design”  Show what filmmakers value

o Three Stages of Filmmaking

 Pre­production

∙ Scripting

o Good script is good foundation for movies

 Optioning revisions

∙ Hiring cast and crew

∙ Designing sets and costumes

∙ Plan for cinematography style

∙ Rehearsals 

 Production

∙ Shooting and sound recording of scenes

What does cinematography contribute to film-making?

 Post­production

∙ Editing sound and image

∙ Scoring of music

∙ Foley

o Sound effects Don't forget about the age old question of What is the job of polypeptide backbone?


o Actors re­record audio

∙ Digital Effects

o Color timing/ Digital Intermediate

∙ Camera

o Position

 Long Shot (LS): emphasis on landscape/ environment

 Medium Shot (MS): can see character(s) and environment

 Close­up (CU): Intensify detail; can’t see surrounding

o Angle

What is the focal length of the normal lens?

 Low, eye level, high

 Angle can change within a shot

 Canted angle: camera is slanted to one side

o Movement

 Pan: camera moves left to right

 Tilt: camera moves up and down

 Track/dolly: camera moves with characters

 Crane/boom shot: moves up, down, over, through space

 Steadicam: camera is attached to camera man’s body

 Zoom 

 Track/zoom combo

∙ Opposite directions

∙ Visual cliché

∙ Derives from Hitchcock’s Vertigo (1958) If you want to learn more check out What is the correct format for scientific genus and species' names?

o Rocky ex.

 3 shots, 3 types of optical movement, 2 moving camera shots ∙ Track

∙ Steadicam

∙ Zoom

∙ Magnification only

JAN. 24TH 

∙ Camera cont.

o Virtual Camera

 Digital effect, disconnecting camera from machinery We also discuss several other topics like What are the characteristics of bauhaus design?
We also discuss several other topics like What had occurred in the sewing machine industry after the original howe patent had expired?

 Go beyond what is possible with physical equipment

o Lens

 Telephoto

 Wide angle

 Normal

 Zoom

∙ Cinematography

o Lighting

 Key light: “main source of light on actor’s face”

o The shot 

 Single strip of film

 Interval on screen between edit points

 Basic unit of a film We also discuss several other topics like What accounts for date rape?

o Editing

 Joining together of shots

 Cut: instant transition between shots

 Dissolve: overlapping shots

 Fade: fade into black/ fade out from black

∙ Elements of Film

o Sound

 Dialogue

 Music 

 Effects 

o Production design

 Sets

 Costumes

 Props

o Narrative

 How story was told

o Actors 

∙ Moonstruck

o Referencing “La Boehme”

o Act I on opera board references Act I of movie We also discuss several other topics like Is obesity practically contagious?

o Director’s credit on dead body

o Scripting: creating nuance and subtle character interaction

o Back story: creating character histories

o Meeting Ronnie­opera and film­ Cage’s “aria”

o Poster of opera in Ronnie’s apartment

 Playing opera on record

o Production design: makes usual statements about character

o Sound bridge: shifting between objective and subjective perspectives o Camera moves as visual metaphor

 Family portrait­ “to family”

READING: Movies and Meaning: Chapter One­Film Structure

∙ Elements of Film Structure

o Structure: audio and visual design of a film and the tools/ techniques that are used to help create that design

o Production process

 Pre­production

∙ Planning and preparation

 Production

∙ Filming and recording

 Post­production

∙ Editing 

∙ Re­recording

∙ Recording of effects

o Director’s Role

 Coordinate/ organizes input of artistic members working on the movie  Works with producer: has administrative control on the movie

∙ Makes sure they are on schedule and on budget

o Time and Space in Camera

 Running time: duration of film

 Feature film: run 90­120 min.

 Story time: amount of time covered by the narrative

 Internal structural time: structural manipulations inside the film; slow motion/ fast paced shots

∙ Shot: basic building block of the film

 Composition: art of framing in a film

∙ Structure and the Camera

o Camera position: distance between camera and subject

 Establishing shot: mostly used in film openings

 Handheld camera: camera man physically holds equipment

o Camera angle

 Low, medium (eye­level), high

 Canted angle: camera tilts to one side

o Camera lens

 Lens: device that gathers light and brings it into the camera creating an  image that is recorded on to the surface of the film (emulsion)

 Filmmaker’s choice of lens can affect the image

∙ The size of objects

∙ Depth and distance

 Focal length and depth of field

∙ Focal length: when the lens is focused on a distant object, it’s the  distance between the film inside the camera and the optical center 

of the lens

∙ Normal lens: focal length of 50mm 

∙ Telephoto lens/ long­focal­length lens: lens greater than normal 


∙ Wide­angle lens/ short­focal­length lens: focal lengths less than 


∙ Rack focusing: director changes focus within shot

∙ Angle of view: focal length of a lens related to how much it sees

∙ Depth of field: amount of area from near to far that will stay in 


∙ Deep focus: rich foreground and background detail

 Zoom lenses

∙ Zoom lens: variable focal length

∙ Motion parallax/ motion perspective: zoom shot provides 

magnification while the moving camera can provide a series of 

changing special relationships produced by movement

o Camera movement

 Pan and tilt

∙ Pan: produces lateral movement

∙ Tilt: camera moves up and down

 Dolly, track, and boom

∙ Dolly Track: wheeled platform for moving camera

∙ Tracking/ dolly shots: camera may move towards/ away from 


o Move parallel to the ground

∙ Boom/ crane shots: move through space

∙ The Camera and Human Perception: Cinema’s Dual Capability

o Transforming visual reality

 Perceptual transformation:  the ability to show things in a way that differ  from ordinary visual experience

 Corresponding with visual reality

∙ Perceptual correspondence: the ability to show things in ways that  reference and correspond with the viewer’s visual and social 


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