UNIT 1 (Chapters 1-7)
● The first step in the process of seeing is
● The retina, which is a collection of nerve cells at the back of the eye, extracts basic information, which it then sends to the visual_____.
● The bold vertical lines in Faith Ringgold’s God Bless America represent ○ Prison Bars
● What inspired Le Sun to dig a cave-temple in Dunhuang, China?
○ He had a vision
● In addition to their role as sacred objects, minkisi also served what cultural function? ○ They symbolized resistance to colonial influences
● In preparing for Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, Pablo Picasso originally intended to include which element that would not appear in the final painting?
○ A sailor
● Which artist specializes in portraits of African-American women posed in reclining positions amidst decor dating from the 1960s and 1970s?
○ Mickalene Thomas
● Which of the following are made both for functional purposes and for the art market? ○ Coffins from Kane Kwei's workshop
● What was so controversial about Robert Mapplethorpe's works of art? ○ Sexual content
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the definition of a polar molecule?
● Which artist created a work that was referred to as "an explosion in a shingle factory"? ○ Marcel Duchamp
● The intention of Tilted Arc from the Federal Plaza in Lower Manhattan was to ○ Question political power
● Michelangelo's figure of David represents
○ Republican Florence
● Francis Bacon's artworks are so expensive because they
○ Are relatively rare
● The primary goal of Cai Guo-Qiang's Project to Extend the Great Wall of China by 10,000 Meters: Project for Extraterrestrials No. 10 was to
○ Transform our experience of the world
● Herzog & de Neuron built the Bird's Nest, an Olympic Stadium in
● Which artist has explored the properties of gunpowder as a tool for making works of art? ○ Cai Guo-Qiang
● In using troupe l'oeil for the Oregon Historical Society mural, Richard Haas was trying to convince the audience that the
○ Sculptures are three-dimensional
● Which of the following is a requirement of an artist? Don't forget about the age old question of What is the mucosa in the internal tract?
● What most likely explains Pablo Picasso's imagery in Seated Bather (La Baigneuse) ○ His desire to express revulsion toward the subject
● In Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, Pablo Picasso draws influence from African, allowing him to
○ Depart from exact representation of his subjects If you want to learn more check out What are the two main groups of gases?
● How does Faith Ringgold's God Bless America differ from Jasper Johns's Flag? ○ It addresses racial tensions that spawned the Civil Rights movement Don't forget about the age old question of Which psychological theory is focused on childhood and the unconscious?
● In The Ghent Altarpiece, Jan van Eyck represents many key figures of the Christian religion, thereby primarily fulfilling which role of the artist?
○ Giving form to the immaterial
● Edouard Manet's Olympia assumes which fundamental role of the artist?
○ Making a visual record of the people, places, or events of a time and place
● Which of the following works directly raises politically challenging issues? ○ Andy Warhol's Race Riot We also discuss several other topics like How do you divide tasks among employees?
● What aspect of Renzo Piano's design for the Jean-Marie Tjibaou Cultural Center reflects ideas associated with "green architecture"?
○ His use of wood and bamboo as primary building materials
● How does the Western experience of Oceanic, African, and Native American art typically differ from the experience of the works in their cultures of origin?
○ Westerners typically approach these works in museums as "art," but in their original cultures, they were functional objects Don't forget about the age old question of What are the tall towers adjoining a mosque called?
● Chris Ofili's The Holy Virgin Mary was intended to bring
○ Beauty and ugliness together
● What do Michelangelo's David and Marcel Duchamp's Nude Descending a Staircase have in common?
○ Both were originally rejected by the public
● The bismillah in Islamic texts is
○ The phrase that opens the Qur’an
● The chief form of Islamic art is
● The chief role of the Muslim artist is to
○ Be a vehicle for the expression of Allah
● In islamic religious architecture, representational imagery
○ Is notably absent
● The subject matter of Shirin Neshat’s Rebellious Silence is
○ Herself, the artist
● Naturalism in art is
○ A personal and subjective approximation of reality
● Which term best describes George Green’s style in the last three decades of the twentieth century?
○ Abstract Illusionism
● Wolf Kahn’s painting Afterglow 1 seems to be about
● For the Aborigine, the Dreaming means the
○ Presence of an Ancestral Being
● What did Geoff Bardon suggest to the Aboriginal artists?
○ To make paintings using traditional motifs
● What is the content of a work of nonobjective art?
○ Its form
● Which of the following terms refers to the organization of a work of art? ○ Composition
● What is the intention of Beatriz Milhazes when adding multiple shapes, lines, and colors? ○ To create constant movement
● The African mask appeared to Kenneth Clark to be expressive of
○ A world of fear and darkness
● Iconography refers to
○ A system of symbolic imagery
● Jean-Michel Basquiat’s work is known for
○ A highly personal iconographic system
● In representations of the Buddha, the mudra is formed by the
● The green dress worn by the female figure in Jan van Eyck’s Giovanni Arnolfini and His Wife Giovanna Cenami represents
● What style does Willem de Kooning use in his painting North Atlantic Light? ○ Abstraction
● Visual literacy enables the viewer to
○ Communicate the effects of a work of art
● Muslims and sixteenth-century Protestants share
○ A distrust of religious images
● Iconoclasm is the practice of
○ Destroying images
● The pipe in the Rene Magritte’s The Treason of Images is an example of ○ Subject matter
● What does Rebellious Silence by Shirin Neshat suggest about the role of women in Islamic Iran?
○ They are in solidarity with men in the rejection of Western culture
● What is a characteristic of both Triumphal Entry (a page from a manuscript of Firdawsi’s Shahnamah) and Kazimir Malevich’s Black Square?
○ Both are nonrepresentational works of art.
● Old Mick Tjakamarra’s Honey Ant Dreaming is a good example of which type of art? ○ Abstraction
● The content of a work of art refers to
○ What the work means or expresses
● George Green’s… marooned in dreaming: a path of song and mind would be considered an example of trompe l’oeil because
○ Its painted frame fools the eye
● The white in Kazimir Malevich’s Black Square represents the
○ Void beyond feeling
● Which of the following types of work is most likely to exhibit a significant degree of realism?
○ A portrait photograph from the 1950’s
● The crown, the name “SAMO”, and the letter “X” are all the part of the personal iconography of
○ Jean-Michel Basquiat
● The Amida Buddha and Jan van Eyck’s Giovanni Arnolfini and His Wife Giovanna Cenami share
○ The use of iconography
● In what way is Howling Wolf’s Treaty Signing at Medicine Creek Lodge a more accurate account of the treaty signing than John Taylor’s more realistic drawing?
○ It includes specific details related to the landscape, tribal identity, and the presence of a woman
● What creates a sense not only of enclosure and connection, but also movement and direction?
○ Implied Line
● The primary function of an outline is to
○ indicate a dimensional shape
● The function of contour lines is to
○ suggest a dimensional form
● Titian uses which implied shapes in Assumption and Consecration of the Virgin to link the separate horizontal realms of his composition?
● The Japanese style of "superflat" takes inspiration from
○ Japanese prints
● The area where line almost disappears in Rembrandt van Rijn's The Three Crosses represents
○ divine light
● Which artist described his work as "almost a cry of anguish?"
○ Vincent van Gogh
● Which artist writes instructions allowing placement and arrangement of lines to be determined by museum staff?
○ Sol LeWitt
● The Chinese symbols within a red square on Hung Liu's Relic 12 represents the ○ creation goddess
● One of the basic signatures of contemporary abstract painting is the ○ dripping line
● What helps contribute to the violence seen in Cheri Samba's Calvary? ○ angular line
● In his view, Matthew Ritchie uses straight lines because they
○ represent a wound or direction
● Ellsworth Kelly's Brier exhibits which type of lines?
● For Vincent van Gogh, the figure of The Sower represents
○ longing for the infinite
● What do Vincent van Gogh & Sol LeWitt's lines have in common? ○ They are recognizably their own
● What visual devices create the contrasting symbolic relationship between reality and utopia in Wenda Gu's united nations-china monument: temple of heaven? ○ the cursive writing and the table
● How does Rembrandt create shadow in The Three Crosses?
○ denser line
● What is the source of Chinese artist Hung Liu's painting of women? ○ archival photographs
● How does Pat Steir use line to express pleasure in The Brueghel Series: A Vanitas of Style?
○ by combining a variety of styles
● How does Hung Liu use drips in her painting?
○ to achieve a sense of liberation
● Jacques-Louis David's The Death of Socrates orients line so as to emphasize ○ stability
● What distinguishes Eugene Delacroix's approach to painting from that of Jacques-Louis David?
○ the emotional emphasis of his work
● In Vincent van Gogh's The Sower, the line showing the circular shape of the sun would best be considered a(n)
● How are the lines of Vincent van Gogh's The Sower similar to Eugene Delacroix's Study for the Death of Sardanapalus?
○ they emphasize movement
● How does Robert Mapplethorpe's photograph Lisa Lyon use line to subvert conventional representations of women?
○ It uses strong horizontal and vertical lines
● If an object has mass, it is a
○ solid that occupies a three-dimensional volume
● Which of the following helps the viewer to recognize the importance of both negative and positive shapes to perception?
○ figure-ground reversal
● Which design element can contribute to a viewer's sense of space, as seen in medieval cathedrals?
● What medium did Umberto Boccioni use to create a metaphor for exposing the limitations of a single point of view?
● How has Barbara Hepworth created negative spaces in Two Figures? ○ carving
● What is created when lines are drawn on the picture plane in such a way as to represent parallel lines receding to a single point on the viewer's horizon?
○ vanishing point
● Linear perspective is not considered accurate in depicting how we see "real" space because
○ our vision is not monocular, but rather, binocular
● The stereoscope was invented to imitate
○ binocular vision
● The technique used to counter the oddly weird and disquieting imagery produced when the foreground of an image is up close is known as
● European modernist painters in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries began to stray from the use of perspective because
○ they found the rules of perspective limiting and imaginatively cumbersome
● Why are modern artists interested in new ways of representing space? ○ to draw attention to the complex conditions of contemporary culture
● Henri Matisse almost completely eliminated any sense of three-dimensionality in the painting Harmony in Red (The Red Room) by
○ creating one large field of uniform color and design
● Which allowed artists to move beyond the frame and traditional boundaries of time and matter?
● What medium does Terry Winters use in Color and Information to explore boundaries of chaos and order in our contemporary world?
● Isaac Julien creates juxtaposition in Ten Thousand Waves by
○ using multiple screens in the same installation
● In her series Grey Area, Julie Mehretu used place, space, and time to symbolize ○ the intricacies of communal space
● What formal element does Ellsworth Kelly focus on in Three Panels: Orange, Dark Grey, Green?
● The negative space in the Rubin vase is the
○ in both white and dark areas, depending on how you look at it
● How has Martin Puryear changed his approach to works of art from Self, 1978 to Untitled IV, 2002?
○ He uses a two-dimensional medium to create space
● What trait do Barbara Hepworth's Two Figures and the African feast-making spoon (Wunkirmian) share?
○ they are both based on the human form
● Which of the following is true of both Duccio's Annunciation of the Death of the Virgin and Leonardo da Vinci's The Last Supper?
○ Both have receding lines that emphasize the main figure
● How did Japanese artists such as Utagawa Hiroshige approach the idea of foreshortening? ○ They ignored the middle ground
● What motivated Renaissance artists to mathematically codify a system of perspective? ○ the desire to create the illusion of real space on two-dimensional surfaces
● How does Albrecht Durer create the illusion of space in Draftsman Drawing a Female Nude?
○ He employs a one-point linear perspective
● In order to adjust the distortion created by the point of view in The Dead Christ, Andrea Mantegna utilizes
● What is the effect of two-point linear perspective?
○ The composition becomes more dynamic
● What is Terry Winter's Color and Information attempting to transform into this painting? ○ digital information
● A noticeable visual element in Henri Matisse's Harmony in Red (The Red Room) is ○ lack of spatial depth
● How does Paul Strand emphasize the formal play of visual elements in Abstraction, Porch Shadows?
○ The overhead shot makes real space appear flat
● What do Paul Strand's Geometric Backgrounds, New York and Paul Cezanne's Mme. Cezanne in Red Armchair have in common?
○ They resist traditional perspective
● In chiaroscuro, the highlight is directly next to the
● What material does Dan Flavin use to make art?
● What effect does the atmosphere have on objects placed farther away from the viewer? ○ They appear less distinct
● What defines the relative deepness of a shadow using hatching?
○ the density of the lines
● What is the effect of using greater contrast between light and dark?
○ The dramatic impact is greater
● What kind of light results when the total spectrum of refracted light is recombined? ○ White
● What purpose does simultaneous contrast serve?
○ It makes colors appear more intense
● The range of colors that an artist chooses to use in a work is referred to as ○ palette
● What technique did George Seurat use instead of mixing colors on the palette or canvas? ○ pointillism
● Artists working with either analogous or complementary color schemes are using ○ a restricted palette
● The Impressionists preferred plein-air painting because it allowed them to experiment with
○ perceptual color
● What color is often considered by artists, including Wassily Kandinsky to be a symbol of divinity?
● What medium does Katharina Grosse use in her installation Cincy? ○ luminescent spray paint
● Vincent van Gogh uses the complementary colors red and green in the painting The Night Cafe to create
○ visual tension
● Pierre Bonnard chose to paint with colors that are not "true" and are ○ arbitrary
● Who was the first artist to work with fluorescent light?
○ Dan Flavin
● In Leonardo da Vinci's Madonna on the Rocks, the mountains in the background are an example of
○ atmospheric perspective
● What kind of color scheme did Artemisia Gentileschi use in Judith and Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes?
● In Figure of a Woman, Paul Colin uses
● Which of the following colors is considered a tint?
● What is similar in Shirn Neshat's Fervor and Michaelangelo's Head of a Satyr? ○ They both employ contrast
● What "temperature" is associated with the color blue-green?
● In which of these pairs are the colors analogous? (next to each other on color wheel) ○ blue-violet and blue
● The restoration of Michaelangelo's paintings on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel has revealed that the
○ color was more saturated
● The cool colors in Romare Bearden's She-ba provide
● What kind of color is being used if apples are being painted red? ○ local
● What does the color blue represent in Leonardo da Vinci's Madonna on the Rocks? ○ divinity
● Which of the following artists depends on optical color mixing to construct representational images composed of abstract squares
○ Chuck Close
● What kind of colors are red, yellow, and blue?
● In Rain, Steam, and Speed-The Great Western Railway, J.M.W. Turner employs ○ aerial perspective
● How does Manuel Teri create rough texture in the sculpture from the Mujer Pegada Series?
○ He adds paint
● One of the primary tools of the photographer is the
○ visual texture
● What is involved in the technique known as frottage?
○ a sheet of paper is placed over textured materials, then a pencil or crayon is rubbed across the paper
● What quality of marble led Michelangelo to choose it as his medium for Pieta? ○ Its ability to mimic flesh
● William A. Garnett's stunning aerial view of strip farms stretching across an eroding landscape is a study of
○ visual texture
● Which formal element contributes most to the viewer's awareness of the passage of time? ○ motion
● Jackson Pollock's "drip" paintings are also called
○ action paintings
● What type of art manipulates the viewer's perception to create the sensation of movement in a static image?
○ Op art
● What effect do video artists Teresa Hubbard and Alexander Birchler create by incorporating "long photographs" and sound?
○ Space is extended beyond the frame
● Artists have increasingly turned to photography and video as ways of incorporating what element?
● Texture refers to
○ surface quality of a work
● Which of these artists produced many pieces of kinetic art?
○ Alexander Calder
● Which allows the viewer to understand a larger sequence of events from a single image? ○ implied motion
● What was the inspiration for Grace Ndritu's Still Life: While Textiles? ○ an exhibition of work by Henri Matisse
● How are time and motion treated similarly in Claude Monet's Water Lillies, Morning: Willows and Jackson Pollock's No. 32, 1950?
○ Both compositions force the viewer's eye to keep moving
● Bridget Riley's Drift No. 2 is an example of
○ Op art
● What did Alexander Calder employ to create movement in Untitled (1976)? ○ air currents
● How are Phillip K. Smith III's Lucid Stead and Alexander Calter's Untitled similar? ○ They both rely on actual movement
● What formal qualities do William A. Garnett's Erosion and Strip Farms East Slope of the Tehachapi Mountains and Michelangelo's' Pieta have in common?
○ They both highlight areas of light and dark
● What is similar between Teresa Hubbard and Alexander Birchler's Detached Building and Isidro's Escamilla's Virgin of the Guadalupe?
○ They are both narratives
● How does Manuel Neri's Mujer Pegada Series No. 2 differ from Max Ernst's The Horde? ○ Neri's work has actual texture
● Why does Phillip K. Smith III add mirrors and lights to an old shack in Lucid Stead? ○ to heighten the viewer's awareness of the pace of change within the desert
● Why does Gianlorenzo Berini imply movement in his figure of David? ○ to energize the narrative
● According to Grace Ndritu, Henri Matisse creates a hallucinogenic quality by ○ overlapping patterns
● Why did Jackson Pollock place his canvas on the floor?
○ He wanted to be able to walk all around it and work from all four sides
● The design of the Taj Mahal uses which of the following to express distribution of visual weight?
○ symmetrical balance
● A composition can be asymmetrically balanced by placing
○ two small areas the same distance from the fulcrum as one large area
● What does Childe Hassam use to balance the asymmetrical composition in Boston Common at Twilight?
○ light and dark
● Villa La Rotonda is sited on the crest of a hill to
○ emphasize the radial views
● The symmetrical balance in Frida Kahlo's double self-portrait, Las Dos Fridas (The Two Fridas) was inspired by
● An artist would be most likely to use an afocal composition to
○ encourage the viewer to look at all areas of the work
● Anna Vallayer emphasizes the focal point in Still Life with Lobster through ○ strong color contrast
● How does the artist use the medium of Room No. 2 to deny the viewer a vocal point? ○ The mirror fragments the viewer's body
● Which painting by Diego Velasquez is known for having competing points of emphasis? ○ Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor)
● The focal point in a radially balanced composition is at the
● How does an artist use scale to help the viewer measure visually the space in a scene? ○ Objects meant to appear in the distance are scaled down to help the viewer measure visually the space in a scene
● Doryphoros most thoroughly embodies the principles of Polyclitus's canon in the ○ proportion of the body parts to the whole
● The concept of mathematical harmony was most directly incorporated in the Parthenon in the use of
● What refers to the relationship between the parts of an object and the whole? ○ proportion
● Hokusai creates drama in The Great Wave off Kanagawa by manipulating ○ the scale of Mount Fuji
● What do kente cloths symbolize among the Ewe and Asante societies of Ghana? ○ prestige
● The key function of repetition in art is to
○ create visual rhythm
● Which design principle does Laylah Ali emphasize in her Untitled painting from the Greenheads series?
● Pattern is achieved when an artist
○ repeats a formal element such as a line, shape, or color throughout a composition
● The animal style is most likely to be used in
○ illuminated manuscripts
● Architect Robert Venturi's writings on Las Vegas imply the principle of ○ variety
● Postmodernism stresses the theme of
● Louise Lawler includes a Pollock painting in her photograph Pollock and Tureen to provide
● What design element does Jacob Lawrence use to unify the painting Barber Shop? ○ pattern
● What aspect of Elizabeth Murray's Just in Time contributes to the sense of stylistic coherence?
○ Rounded lines runs throughout the piece
● The primary meaning of design in art is to
○ structure a work into a coherent whole
● What element of design contributes to the religious content of Enguerrand Quarton's Coronation of the Virgin, showing a unified theological universe?
○ symmetrical balance
● What must be considered to achieve balance in sculpture and architecture? ○ actual weight
● Where does Frieda Kahlo introduce variety in her symmetrical composition Las Dos Fridas (The Two Fridas)?
○ her clothes
● What is Diego Velasquez suggesting about our role as the viewer in Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor)?
○ that we are a focal point
● Emphasis is created in both Georges de La Tour's Joseph the Carpenter and Artemesia Gentileschi's Judith and Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes by using ○ light
● Kara Walker's A Sublety manipulates which design principle for expressive effect? ○ scale
● The artist of Doryphoros (The Spear Bearer) and The Vitruvian Man both were concerned with
● An analysis of scale in Do-Ho Suh's Public Figures would most be most likely to address ○ the overall dimensions of the sculpture
● Decorative pattern is commonly associated with
○ utilitarian objects
● Frank Ghery and Vlado Milunic's Raisin Building in Prague employs ○ repetition
● What combination of design principles is used in the cross page from the Lindisfarne Gospels?
○ pattern, symmetrical balance, and variety
● What does Auguste Rodin's The Three Shades suggest about repetition? ○ Identical images can provide variety
● Which of the following elements reflects the postmodern attitude of Elizabeth Murray's Just in Time?
○ the tension between the two panels
● What shows a sense of unity in Claude Monet's The Railroad Bridge? ○ repetitive brushstrokes