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UF / Science / ATE 3319C / What is the lumen in the internal tract?

What is the lumen in the internal tract?

What is the lumen in the internal tract?


Repro test one study guide

What is the lumen in the internal tract?

Female Repro Tract

1. What is the lumen in the internal tract?  

3. What is the submucosa in the internal tract?

4. What is the mucosa in the internal tract?

5. What is the muscularis in the internal tract?

6. What is the serosa in the internal tract?

7. What is the name of the external genitalia in a female?

8. Name 5 anatomical structures of the external genitalia.  

9. Name 2 histological structures of the external genitalia and their functions. 10. Name 3 functions of the external genitalia.  

11. How do you sex kittens?

12. In the anatomical structure of the vagina, name two sections delimited by  urethra opening. Some species can also have what type of vagina?

What is the submucosa in the internal tract?

13. In the vagina, what is the histological structure of the muscularis?  Mucosa/epithelium? Cranial vagina? Vestibule?

14. What is the function of the vagina?

15. What is the function of the vestibular glands in the vagina? 16. What is the function of the vulvo-vaginal sphincter muscle in the vagina? 17. What are the three anatomical sections of the uterus?

18. What are the three classifications of uteri based on anatomical structures?  19. What is the function of the myometrium?  

20. In the histological structure of the uterus what is the serosa? Muscularis?  Submucosa and mucosa?  

21. What hormone is secreted when the uterus is tight? Relaxed?  22. Name 6 functions of the uterus.  

23. What tells the number of offspring that an animal will have? 24. What does Monotocas mean? Polytocas?  

What is the mucosa in the internal tract?

Don't forget about the age old question of What are variable gases (trace gases)?

25. Maternal Caruncles are only in what kind of animal? What are they? 26. Uterine folds are in what two animals? They do what to the placenta surface? 27. Placenta scars occur in what animal? What does it mean?

28. What are the three uterus (cervix) anatomical structures? 29. In the histological structure of the cervix, what is the role of mucus?  30. What are the four functions of the cervix?  

31. What is the anatomical and histological characteristics of the cervix in cows  and ewes?

32. What is the anatomical and histological characteristics of the cervix in sows? 33. What is the anatomical and histological characteristics of the cervix in mares?

34. What is the anatomical and histological characteristics of the cervix in dogs  and cats? Don't forget about the age old question of Which psychological theory is focused on childhood and the unconscious?

35. What are the three anatomical sections of the oviduct? Don't forget about the age old question of How can you promote effective communication and teamwork?

36. Name 5 general functions of the oviduct.  

37. What is the anatomical structure of the uterus infundibulum?  

38. What is the function of the histological structure in the infundibulum,  mucosa?  

39. What is the function of the infundibulum?  

40. What are the two anatomical structures of the ampulla?  

41. What is the histological structure mucosa function in the ampulla? 42. What are two functions of the ampulla?  

43. What is the Ampulla isthmus junction (AIJ)? What is its function in a Mare? 44. What are the two anatomical structures of the isthmus?

45. What is the function of the histological structure mucosa in the isthmus?  46. Name 2 functions of the isthmus.  

47. What is the uterotubal junction?  

48. What are the two functions of the ovaries?  

49. The female gamete is called? What do these gametes do in the ovary? 50. Estrogen is one hormone the ovaries produce, what is its function?  

51. Progesterone is another hormone that the ovaries produce, what is its  function?

52. How many oocytes are available at 100 days of fetal life?

54. The primordial follicle population is what from birth to puberty? It then  decreases or increases? If you want to learn more check out Which king built the lakshmana temple khajuraho?

55. ________ follicle to _______ follicle to ________ follicle to _______ follicle to ______  follicle to ______ follcile to _____ ______ to ______ ______

61. What cells are the only cells involved in reproduction and if mutated can be  passed to offspring?  

62. What is the home of the oocyte?

63. If there is no estrogen, can ovulation occur?

64. In the female, what happens to the primordial germ cells? 65. What are the two parts that the ovary is divided into?  

66. What is ectopic pregnancy?

67. What is atersia?

68. What is a regressed corpus luteum called?

69. What are granulosa cells?

70. What is the job of the zona pellucida? Don't forget about the age old question of How did the industrial revolution change economies?

71. What is the antrum?

72. What is the theca cell?

73. What are cumulis cells? We also discuss several other topics like Why is the shape of a neuron important to its function?

74. What is the ovulation fossa?

75. What is the germinal epithelium of the ovary?

76. What is the tunica albuginea of the ovary?

77. What is the cortex of the ovary?

78. What is the primordial of the ovary? Primary?  

79. What is the medulla in the ovary? How is it different in horses? 81. Name 3 facts about the secondary follicle.

82. Name 1 fact about the tertiary follicle.

83. What is the theca externa?

84. What is the theca interna?

85. What is the cumulus oocyte complete (COC)?

86. What is a corpus hemorrhagicum?  

87. What is the corpus luteum (CL)?

88. What are luteal cells?

89. Progesterone is the hormone of what? What does it block? Stimulate?  Regulate?

90. What is the corpus albicans?  

91. The female reproduction tract is supported by what? Where did this derive  from? What does it provide?  

92. What is the mesoovarium? Mesobarrier? Mesosalphinx? Mesometrium? 93. What is the broad ligament?

94. What is the peritoneum and its functions?  

95. What is the rectogenital pouch?

Male Reproductive System

96. What is the function of the male reproductive system? What does it provide?

97. What does the male reproductive system produce? Support? Control?  Promote?

98. Testoserone is continuous or periodic?  

100. What do testis bear witness too? What is the scrotum? What is the  Epididymis?

101. What is the ductus (vas) deferens? What is the Gubernaculum? 102. What does crpytorchid mean?

103. What is the caput? What is the ampulla?

104. Name the three accessory glands.

108. What is the oxytocin? What is the penis?

109. What does emisson mean?

110. What does ejaculation mean?

111. What is the function of the ishiocavernosus muscle?

112. What is the functions of the bulbospongiosus muscle?

113. What is the function of the sigmoid flexture?  

114. What is the function of the colliculus seminalis?

115. What is the function of the pampiniform plexus?

116. What is the function of the spermatic cord?

117. What are two characteristics of the bull repro system?

118. What are two characteristics of the stallion repro system?

119. What are three characteristics of the boar repro system? 120. What are three characteristics of the dog repro system? 121. What is a copulatory tie?

122. What are three characteristics of a tom repro system?

123. What is the pampiniform plexus?

124. What are the four layers of the scrotum?  

125. What are the three funtions of the scrotum?

126. In most mammals the testes are located where? What are three exceptions?

127. In mammals with external testes, testicular temp is lower or high than the  core body temp?

128. In mammals with external testes, elevation of temp can cause what? 129. Name three things that can cause temporary or permanent sterility. 130. What three systems are responsible for thermoregulation? 131. What is the purpose of thermoregulation of testis?

132. What is the function of the spermatic cord?

133. What is monorchism?

134. Name four structures in the scrotum and functions.  

135. Testes decend at different or the same times across species? 136. What is the function of the tunica vaginalis?

137. What is the function of the spermatic fascia?

140. What is the testicular capsule?

141. What is the parenchyma?

142. What is the mediastinum?

143. What is the rete tubules?

144. What is the funtion of the testes?

145. What are the four functions of testosterone?

146. The testicular capsule is composed of what two layers?

147. The muscularis of the testicular capsule contains smooth muscle fibers that  are important to what?

149. What is the function of the tunica albuginea?

150. What is the function of the testicular capsule?

151. What is the tubular comparment in the parenchyma?

152. What cell is in the interstitial comparment of the parenchyma? What is its  function?

154. What are the semineferous tubules?

155. What are peritubular cells?

157. What cells are in the abluminal comparment?

158. In the basal compartment, what is the juntional complex? 159. In the basal compartment, what is spermatogonium?

160. In the basal compartment, what are sertoli cells?

161. What cells are in the interstitial compartment?

162. The interstitial compartment of the parenchyma consists of what four things? 163. What are rene tubules?

164. What is the mediastinum?

166. What does the excurrent duct system consist of?

167. What is the function of the excurrent duct system?

168. What is the anatomy of the epididymis?

169. What are the three regions of the epididymis?

170. What is the function of the epididymis?

171. Transport of the epididymis

172. Maturation of the epidiymis

173. What percent of total epididymal sperm is located in the tail? 174. Concentration of stored sperm depends on what?

175. Name two other storage facts about the epididymis

176. Name four anatomy characteristics about the ductus deferens 177. What does anorchia mean?

178. What two things make scrotum a super organ?

179. Go over scrotum drawing in notes

180. What are the three anatomical parts of the penis?

181. What three animals have a fiberelastic penis? What does it have? 182. What three animals have a vascular penis? What does it have?

183. Retractor penis relaxes to allow? Retracts either what two things? 184. What is the corpus cavernosum?

185. What is the corpus spongiosum?

186. What causes stimulation of the penis? It is heavily populated with?  Stimulation may trigger?

187. What type of penis does a tom have? Boar? Ram?

188. What is urethralis?

191. What is the function of the accessory glands in the male? Do all species have  them?

192. What are the three accessory glands?

193. What are the vesiculate glands?  

194. How are the vesicular glands in bulls and boars? Stallion? Dogs and cats? 195. What is the only accessory gland in the dog and what is its function? 196. What is the function of seminal plasma? What does it provide? 197. What is the function of immune modulating factors?

Endocrine System

198. Write out the simple neural reflex system from stimulus to target tissue.  199. Write out the neuroendocrine reflex from stimulus to mammary gland.  200. Neural regulation is ________ and _____ acting.  

201. Repro system is regulated by what two things?

202. Neural reactions are?

203. Endocrine reactions are?

204. What do “glands” produce?

205. Name 7 hormone producing glands.

206. What three proteins/peptides are not lipophilic? Explain each 207. What are steriods?

208. What are prostaglandins?

209. What is an example of neural regulation?

211. Example of neuroendocrine regulation.  

212. What is a protein prolactin?  

213. What is a glycoprotein?

214. What is the a subunit?

215. What is the B subunit?

216. a and B chains are both needed for what?

217. What is the anterior pituitary made up of?

218. Name two gonads.

219. What are lipid hormones? What are they from?

220. What are lipid hormones produced the most by? They degrade quickly in  what?

221. What is the function of lipid hormones?

222. What is PGE2?

223. What is PGF2a?

224. Steriod hormones are synthesized from what 3 things? What is the main one? 225. List how cholesterol gets to estradiol.

226. What controls the secretion of hormones? What are the two types? 227. What regulates the degree of stimulation?  

228. Progesterone and estradiol act as feedback in what for what? 230. Hormones are secreted where?

231. What is hydrophilic?

232. What are 4 characteristics of the endocrine system?

234. What is c AMP?  

235. DNA -? - ?

236. What is the pattern of secretion?

237. What is hormone receptor binding?

238. What are steriod hormones?

239. Steriod are not soluble in? Attach to? Hormone what transport proteins? 240. MRNA and protein synthesis are responsible for what 3 things? 241. What is episodic secretion?  

242. What is sustained secretion?

243. What is basal secretion?  

244. All hormones are metabolized in?

246. What is receptor density?

247. What is hormone ½ life? Longer, increases what?  248. What is essential for biological action?  249. What you increase a receptor affinity, you increase?  250. What are agonists or analogs?

251. What are antagonists?  


Repro test one study guide answers

Female Repro Tract

2. Opening of the tube

3. Supports mucose, varried thickness (blood vessels, nerves, lymphatics)

4. Secretory epithelium that lines the lumen (cell type present dependent on  function)

5. Outer longitudinal layer and inner circular layer (contractions:  gamete/embryo transport, partuition)

6. Outer connective tissue. Support and prevents adhesions 7. Vulva

8. Two labia (major & minor), commissures, clitoral fossa, clitoris, vestibular  glands

9. Skin: sebaceous and sweat glands, hair and addipose tissue. Muscularis:  constrictor vulva

10. Minimizes entrance of foreign material into vagina, shows signs of  estrus/heat, lubricate the caudal end of the tract by producing mucus during heat

11. Based on distance between anus and genitals (male longer distance than  females)

12. Cranial (cranial vagina), Caudal (vestibule). Fornix  

13. Poorly organized. Highly adapted. Columnar epithelium, highly secretory.  Stratified squamous epithelium-secretions and thickness depends on stage of  estrous cycle

14. Copulatory organ and expulsion of urine

15. Mucous secretions during estrus (phermones)

16. Contracts to block urine from uterus  

17. Cranial (uterine horns), Middle (uterine body), Caudal (cervix)

18. Duplex (two cervix), Bicornuate (poorly developed uterine body, ruminants),  Simplex (no uterine horns, humans)

19. Induce uterine contractions

20. Called perimetrium, continuous serosa layer from mesosalpinx. Called  myometrium, regulated by estrogen and progesterone. Called endometrium and  contains uterine glands (mucosa varies depending on type of placenta)

21. Estrogen. Progesterone

22. Sperm transport, secretions improve preimplantation embryo development,  supports early embyo growth and maintains pregancy, expels fetus and placenta at  parturtion, control cyclicity, AI semen depostition (cow and mare)

23. Uterine horns compared to body size

24. One offspring, multiple

25. Ruminants. Highly vascularized, non-secretory, attach to fetal placenta 26. Sow and mare. Increase

27. Queens. Previous placental attachments (births)

28. Cervical canal surrounded by single or multiple layers of rings/folds.  Significant variation across species. Thick wall

29. Differ across species  

30. Barrier for sperm transport (except for mare and sow), isolates uterus from  external environment during pregnancy, produce mucus during estrus (cow and  ewe) lubricate, AI semen deposition (pig,sheep,dog)

31. Rings interlocking finger-like projections (crypts and folds- sperm  barrier/reservoir)

32. Rings interdigitating pads facilitate spiral end of boars penis 33. No rings- longitudinal cervical folds-protrudes into vagina 34. No rings or folds, protrudes into cranial vagina

35. Cranial (infundibulum), Middle (ampulla), Caudal (isthmus)

36. Gamete transport: muscle contractions, ciliated epithelial cells. Sperm  capacitation: ampulla secretions prepare sperm for fertilization. Early embryo  development: secreations increased by estrogen. Embryo transport (muscle  contractions). Embryo remains in oviduct 2-5days  

37. Funnel shaped opening that forms a pocket  

38. Covered with many velvety, finger-like projection called fimbriae  39. Capture egg upon ovula and tranport through the ostium into the ampulla  40. First half of the oviduct, large diameter

41. Folds and ciliated epithelium  

42. Transport oocyte to isthmus. Secretions prepare sperm for fertilization  

43. Site of fertilization. AIJ in a mare regulates only fertilized oocytes that pass  into the isthmuc and uterus.  

44. Caudal half of the oviduct ovaries. Smaller in diameter compared to ampulla. 45. Thick muscular wall and few mucosal folds.

46. Contractions move sperm to amipullary-isthmic junction (AIJ). Possible sperm  reservoir

47. Regulates sperm into ovidcut (prevent polyspermy in pig), transport embryo  into uterus, regulated by estorgen and progesterone  

48. Produce gametes and hormones

49. Oocyte. They reside and grow in follicles and are surrounded by supporting  cells called granulosa and theca cells

50. Regulate follicular growth and promote ovulation; control sexual behavior;  promote secondary sex characteristics (mammary development, body size and  shape). Main estrogen is Estradiol-17B

51. Inhibits ovulation; maintains uterus in a state to support fetal development 52. 2.9 million

54. Constant. Decreases.

55. Primordial to Primary to Secondary to Tertiary to Antral to Ovulating to Corpus Luteum to Corpus Albicans  

61. Germ cells

62. Follicle

63. No

64. Become oogonia, divide mitotically, then enter meiosis (called oocytes) and  become arrested

65. Medulla (inside, keeps ovary alive and functioning), Cortex (outside, oocytes)  (in horses this is switched)

66. Pregnant in wrong area (body cavity)

67. When animal is pregnany and cannot ovulate it goes to corpus luteum 68. Corpus Albica

69. Antral follicle. Estrogen to follicle development

70. Keeps more than one sperm fertilizing the egg. Also separates ovum from  granulosa cells (Latin- transparent zone)  

71. Fluid filled space in follicle

72. Connective tissue cells that surround follicle. Take cholesterol and convert it  to testosterone, testoserone diffused to granulosa cells and converts to estrogen

73. Were granulosa cells, follow egg when ovulated

74. Where cortex reaches surface or ovary

75. Surface continous with peritoneum. Single layer cubodial cells, prevents  adhesions broken at ovulation. Not orgina of germ cells.

76. Dense connective tissue, provides structure  

77. Outer 2/3 ovary

78. Immature, single layer squamous cells, fixed number at birth. Single layer  granulosa cells

79. Inside 1/3 of ovary, vascular, lymphatics, nerves. Cortex inside and medulla  outside, ovulate only at ovulation fossa

81. More than or equal to two layers granulosa cells, no atrium, zona pellucida 82. Multiple layers granulosa cells, antrum  

83. Connective tissue, blood vessels end

84. Testosterone (case or sheath)

85. Granulosa cells around oocyte, released at ovulation, assist in ovum transport in oviduct

86. “Bloody body”. Ovulation cavity, blood vessels, granulosa and theca cells 87. “Yellow body” has luteal cells

88. Orgin of theca interna and granulosa cells

89. Pregnancy. Ovulation, estrus and myometrial contractions. Endometrial  secretions- nutrients early embryo. Luteinizing hormone (LH)

90. “White body” Degenerated CL, scar tissue, no function  

91. Broad ligament. Dorsal wall. Support and supply of nerves and blood vessels  

92. Supports and connect ovary to broad ligament, forms hilus. Supports ovary.  Supports and surrounds oviduct. Supports uterus.  

93. Suspensury tissue surrounding tract

94. Abdominal connective tissue. Support, prevents adhestions, vascular supply,  lymphatics, nerves

95. Allows rectal palpation (cattle, horses)

Male Reproductive System

96. Manufacure and delivery of male gametes- sperm. Provides male shate of  genes to the embryo  

97. Androgens and other hormones, main androgen is testosterone. Supports  function of male repro tract. Controls secondary sex characteristics. Promotes  sexual behavior (mating/agression)

98. Continuous

100. Virility. Skin or hide “air conditioner”. On testes, stores sperm (in tail) and  transports it from testes

101. Carrying away duct or vessel. Aids in decent of testes.

102. A testicle that has not dropped before birth

103. Head of epididymis. Continuation of vas defernes.

104. Prostate, seminal vesicles (both liquid part of semen), bulbourethral gland  (cowpers)

108. Smooth muscle contractions. Tail

109. Movement of sperm to penile urethra

110. Expulsion of sperm from penis

111. Stabilizes erect penis

112. Covers bulb of penis, contributes to erection and ejaculation, pumps blood  into penis

113. Relaxes during erection to extend penis

114. Blocks urine from entering semen

115. Promotes cooling

116. Faciliates passage of semen. Supplys blood to testicles  

117. Pendulous scrotum, fibroelastic penis (sigmoid flexture)

118. Ventral scrotum, vascular penis

119. Ventral scrotum, fibroelastic penis, corkscrew glans penis 120. Ventral scrotum against body, bulbus glandis, os penis

121. Swelling of the bulbus glandis and contraction of the vagina muscles 122. Scrotum slightly ventral to anus, penis ventral to scrotum, penile spines 123. Vascularized structure in penis to help with temperature regulation in testes

124. Skin (high sweat glands, reduced fat), Tunica Dartos (contraction adjusted by  temp), Scrotal fascia, Parietal vagina tunic

125. Thermosensor, swamp cooler, protective sac

126. Ousite the body core. Seals, marine mammals, elephants 127. Lower

128. Temporary inferlility (reduced sperm output, decreased sperm quality) or  permanent sterility

129. Cryptochidism (teste in abdominal cavity), Fever, Heat stress

130. Pampiniform plexus, testicular artery and cremaster muscle

131. Cool blood entering testis. Exchange heat with scrotum and surrounding air  ( increase heat loss when air temp high, decrease when low)

132. External cremaster muscle (moves closer and away from body), paminiform  plexus. Holds testes outside of body

133. Only one testicle

134. Tunica Dartos (contraction muscle in skin and sweat glands), Smooth muscle  (temp regulation), Support, Smooth muscle lines scrotum and prevents adhesions  (outer layer of testis)

135. Different

136. Protect and support scrotal contents

137. Protects spermatic cord

140. Dynamic “suborgan” covering testes

141. Funtional tissue 60-70% of cellular mass where spermatogenisis takes place 142. Central connective tissue housing rete tubules (sperm conducted here) 143. Channels through which spermatozoa are transported out of testis 144. Produce spermatozoa (thermosensitive), synthesis of testosterone

145. Stimulates 2° sex characteristics. Increase muscle development. Promote  accessory sex gland development (seminal fluid). Maintains libido and repro tract  form/function

146. Visceral vaginal tunic, tunica albuginea (surface highly vascularized)

147. Contract the testicular capsule and help spermatozoa movement into the rete tubules

149. Helps to trap the blood in the corpora cavernosa, thereby sustaining erection  of the penis

150. Form the outer boundary of the testes, help spermatozoa movement into the  rete tubules

151. Seminiferious tubules

152. Leydig cells, produce testosterone  

154. Functional tissue- 60-70% of cellular mass, where spermatogenesis takes  place (in wall). The closer to the lumen the more mature

155. Forms blood testis barrier with sertoli cells. Prevent immunological  destruction of germ cells. Contractions move sperm and fluid to rete tubules

157. 1° and 2° spermatocytes, spermatids (germ cells)

158. Attach adjacent sertoli cells. Separates adluminal from basal compartment 159. Germ cells

160. Somatic cells that nurse spermatogonias. Respond to FSH and testosterone.  Number of cells matters

161. Leydig cells

162. Interstitial cell of leydig (produce testosterone), capillaries, lymphatic vessels, connective tissue

163. Drain the seminiferous tubules

164. Connects rete tubules to efferent ducts

166. Efferent ducts (ed)- move sperm and fluid from rete tubules to epididymal  duct. Epididymal duct- epididymis. Ductus deferns- transport sperm from epididymis to ejaculatory ductus

167. Final maturation, storage and storage of spermatozoa to the pelvic urethra 168. Single convoluted duct. Surrounded by smooth muscle

169. Head: proximal absorb fluid from rete tubules-distal area secretes fluid. Body maturation takes place. Tail: storage of fully motile and fertile sperm that have  undergone capacitation and therefore are able to bind oocytes

170. Provides the environment for final maturation of spermatozoa conferring  them with motility and potential fertility  

171. Transit time head to tail, not effected by sexual stimulation

172. Gradual as sperm moves from head to tail- secretions infer biochemical  changes to sperm

173. 70

174. Ejaculation frequency  

175. Several weeks without loss of function (sperm metabolism arrested),  prolonged lack sexual stimulation will increase stale sperm and decrease fertility  when ejaculated

176. In spermatic cord. Increased smooth muscle. Transports sperm via muscle  contractions (tail to ampulla). Presents an enlargment called ampulla

177. No testes

178. Skin (sweat glands) and tunica dartos (muscle)

179. In notes

180. Base: root of penis; Shaft: main portion of penis; Glans penis: specialized  distal end

181. Bull, ram, boar. With limited erectile tissue- sigmoid flexture

182. Stallion, dog, cat. No sigmoid flexture but large corporal sinusoid that fills  with blood

183. Erection. Shaft or sigmoid flexture

184. Spongy erectile tissue in penile interior

185. Ventral portion of penile urethra

186. Glans penis. Sensory nerves. Ejaculation

187. Penile spines with testosterone. Corkscrew. Urethral process 188. Surrounds in circular manner, semen to penile urethra

191. Glands along the male reproductive trace that secrete fluid into the lumen of  the pelvic urethra. No

192. Vesicular glands (seminal vesicles), Prostate(all species have), Bulbourethral  glands (cowpers)

193. Paired glands, secrete fluid directly into pelvic urethra

194. Contribute large portion of ejacualtion volume. Produces opalescent gel,  makes plug. None

195. Prostate. Secretions cleans and lubricates urethra: Alkaline adjust urethra to  neutral PH. Can me massaged to stimulate erection

196. Transport/stimulate sperm motility by adding fluid volume (seminal fluid) in  both male and female tracts. Also coats membrane with proteins. Provides  enviroment for sperm viability.  

197. Modulates sperm so it is not rejected by female repro tract Endocrine System

198. Stimulus (thermal, tactile, visual) – Sensory nerve ending – afferent neurons – spinal cord – efferent neurons – neuro-transmitters and target tissue (does not go to brain)

199. Stimulus – sensory nerve ending – afferent neurons – spinal cord –  hypothalamus or GnRH – GnRH – (FSH, LH, blood flow, posterior lobe, anterior lobe)  – oxytocin – tail of epididymus or mammary gland (releases hormone cetosin to  blood stream)

200. Immediate and short  

201. Endocrine and nervous system  

202. Quick immediate and short acting

203. Slow and long lasting

204. Hormones

205. Hypothalamus (nerve), pituitary (nerve and endocrine), ovaries, testes,  prostate, uterus, placenta  

206. Peptides: few AA, no chains, small simple structure. Proteins: long chains of  AA. Glycoprotiens: protein chains and carbohydrates

207. Derive from cholesterol. Lipid molecule, receptors in cell

208. Derive from lipids. ½ life short, trigger inflammation  

209. Ejaculation

211. Milk let down

212. Single polypeptide chain

213. Attached carbohydrates in cellular membrane. a and B subunits determine  action.

214. Common among hormones

215. Unique for each hormone

216. Biological activity  

217. Two polypeptide chains with alpha and beta subunits

218. Inhibin, Activin

219. Prostaglandins. Archidonic acid (unsaturated fatty acid)

220. Most tisses: autocrine, paracrine, endocrine actions. Lungs 221. Smooth muscle contractions, lipid metabolism, mediate inflammation 222. Vasodilation, CL maintenance, ovulation

223. Vasoconstiction, CL regression, partuition

224. Cholesterol, sex steriods, and corticosteriods. Cholesterol

225. Cholesterol – (enzymatic conversion) – (pregenolone) – progesterone –  testosterone – estradiol  

226. Feedback regulation. Postive and negative  

227. Number of receptors on or in cell

228. Hypothalamus for FSH and LH

230. Blood stream

231. Protein hormones

232. Act at low concentrations, short half-life, binds to specific receptors, regulate  intracellular biochemical actions

234. Affector of hormone (receptor), induce intracellular cascade  235. MRNA – Proteins  

236. Episodic, basal, sustained

237. Binds cell surface geometric configuration receptor affinity  238. Cell membrane receptors- fast response. Nuclear receptors- slow response 239. Water; transport proteins; specific  

240. Cervical mucus during estrus, uterine secretions, seminal fluid secretions 241. Hormone released in bursts, varying in duration and quantity 242. Steady secretion for extended time (progesterone during pregnancy) 243. Hormone remains low and fluctuates with amplutude (GnRH secretion) 244. Liver

246. Vareis with cell type, up or down regulation receptor, number by hormone

247. Time is takes for hormone in blood to be reduced in ½ / rate hormone cleared from system. Depends on size, type, binding

248. Rapid hormone activity turnover  

249. Biological response  

250. Mimic hormone and bind receptors with similar or greater biological activity.  Used to treat animals

251. Take place of hormone, prevent binding, infere hormone effect. Bind receptor  with greater affinity than native hormone

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