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Texas A&M - CLAS 372 - Class Notes - Week 3

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Texas A&M - CLAS 372 - Class Notes - Week 3

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background image CLAS 250: Greek and Roman History 1/19/18: Lecture 1 -Exams have short answer sections, not multiple choice -they make up ALL of the grade -take away the main ideas from the readings Classics: the interdisciplinary study of the Civilizations of Greece and ROMe Temporal boundaries are the Bronze Age civilzations of Aegean (2000 BC) 
and the dissolution of the Roman empire (500 AD)
-Minoans (used Linear A) and Mycaneans (used linear B) both bronze age, 
mostly used for accounting, limited in scopehad written scripts, but 
alphabetic writing begins around 800 BC using the West Semitic/Phoenician 
syllabary for use in Greek
-Greeks create the world’s first alphabet -Phoenician syllabary converted to Greek for first alphabet -Each letter has only one sound, so saying words wrong is not a thing -Revolutionary Development because anyone could learn it: leads to an 
explosion of literacy in ancient Greece 
-Only 1% of literature from the Ancient World has survived -Papyrus scrolls don’t last^^ - Egypt  dessert houses the only surviving Papyrus -Parchment is made of animal skin -The texts that made the jump from papyrus to parchment because Christian 
Monks recopied them: why??? Plato and Aristotle are very to reconcile with 
Christianity
-10 th  century AD was the first dated manuscript of The Illiad  -Very low rate of survival for manuscripts
background image -only 35/142 roman history books survived -the thread connecting the ancient authors to us is very thin -copied for school children for education Genres of Literary Antiquity -Historiography -Epic poetry -Lyric Poetry -Tragedy -Comedy -Philosophy -Rhetoric -Scientific literature -Epistolography -Latin was very important in the ancient world -Enormous amounts of (incorrect) medical literature -Cicero’s slave kept copies of all things he wrote: 900 hundred surviving 
letter from Cicero!!
-Pliny the Younger made a 10 book copy of letters: essentially just letters of 
recommendation 
-He wrote to Traegen (Roman Emperor) and asked how to deal with various 
problems that arose
-one of the first mentions of Christians in early days -doesn’t understand Christianity: believes that they are involving themselves 
in cannibalism and incest (body/blood and kisses of piece)
-because of this, his last book was very valuable -we don’t have direct access to what people wrote in antiquity -no gaulic war commentary by Julius Caesar 
background image -mistakes were made in copying which result in a long game of telephone -subdiscipline of textual discipline  -gospels disagree: remember earlier argument*** -need to find relationships between manuscripts -Stemma Codicum: a family tree that shows the relationship of all surviving 
manuscripts to each other
-Latin letters represent manuscripts, all Greek letters represent non-existing 
manuscripts that we think was made but that we don’t have
***Look up Textual Criticism Reading No. 2 Ancient Greece pg. 23-64 -Myceneans (“Hellas” or “Hellenes”) were the first Greek population to speak 
Greek 
-“Greek” and “Greece” come from Latin -Scholarship on Greece has been focused on their inheritance and 
interactions with older nations (especially 
Egypt ) -Minoans on Crete predate the Myceneans. They made their living via 
seaborne trade. They didn’t speak Greek.
***Study Timeline of pg. 26 of Ancient Greece 4500-2000 BC: Movement of Indo-European peoples into Europe 3000-2500 BC: Bronze metallurgy under way in the Balkans and on the island
of Crete
3000-2000 BC: Development of Mediterranean polyculture 2200 BC: Earliest Cretan palaces of Minoan civilization 2000 BC: Violent destruction of many European sites 1700 BC: Earthquakes destroy early Cretan palaces
background image 1600-1500 BC: Shaft graves at Mycenae on Greek mainland 1500-1450 BC: Earliest Mycenaean palace culture 1200-1000 BC: Violent disturbances across the Aegean region in the era of 
the Sea Peoples
1000 BC: Mycenaean palace society no longer functioning  -I and me come from Indo-European pronouns -Indo-European culture is Patriarchal, Patrilocal (“the wife moving to live with 
the husband’s family group), and Patrilineal (the line of descent of children 
being reckoned through their father).
-Earliest Indo-Europeans probably lived in Anatolia -Indo European males were warlike and competitive -Prehistoric Europe transitioned from  egalitarian, peaceful, and matrifocal  (centered on women as mothers), to  patriarchal, hierarchal, and violent  with  the Indo-European presence  -along those lines, female gods took a back seat and male gods were 
worshiped 
-Greeks adopted many traditions from the  Egypt ians, especially fundamental religious ideas like the geography of the underworld, the weighing of the 
souls of the dead in scales, and the life-giving properties of fire
-Greek sculptors chiseled their statues with similar proportions to the  Egypt ians  Bronze Age Civilizations of Europe  -Minoans and Mycenaeans were the “first civilizations of Europe” -Minoan’s language was unidentifiable, Mycenaeans spoke Greek -Mastery of metallurgy with bronze, lead, silver, and gold helped these civs 
with war, farming, and the creation of new objects of wealth
-first bronze daggers in Anatolia found in Troy -Mediterraneans began cultivating olives, grapes, and grain together in one 
agricultural system---two consequences from this: an increase in the supply 
of food (so ^’d population growth), and further diversification and 
specialization of agriculture  
-Palace culture on Crete driven by wealth redistribution by its rulers
background image -2200 BC Minoans build huge palaces -leveled by earthquakes around 1700 but rebuilt to surpass their former glory -Minoans develop Linear A: each character stands for a sound. Mostly used 
for accounting and taking stock of inventory.
-Essential trading for metal connected Crete with Britain and Afghanistan  -Minoans depicted in Egyptian art; presenting gifts to rulers or staying as 
mercenaries 
-Minoan society seen as prosperous, peaceful, and happy (because of its lack
of defensive structures)
Minoan Contact with Mycenaean Greece -Heinrich Schliemann was the first excavator of Mycenae, he thought he 
found King Agamemnon’s grave but only later was it found out that the 
graves pre dated the Trojan War (the 16
th  century) -Tholos tombs: spectacular underground domed chambers built in beehive 
shapes from closely fitted stones
-Arthur Evans, the excavator of Knossos, argued that Minoans had inspired 
Mycenaean civilization by sending colonists to the mainland, as they had 
with other Aegean islands such as Thera
-Linear B found in Mycenaean palaces -Michael Ventris (English architect with a knack for codes) proved that the 
Greek Linear B was not the Minoan Linear A
***checkout table 1 on pg. 38 The Highpoint of Mycenaean Society -Mycenaeans rode into battle in lightweight, chariots pulled by horses  -Not only used for warfare but the wealthy desired them as a status symbol -Charioteers used heavy metal armor while infantry used lighter armor so 
that they could move around sufficiently
-Potnia=”mistress” or “ruler” -Mycenaeans soon displace Minoans as most powerful civ of the Aegean  The End of Mycenaean Civilization
background image -Egypt still a main point of trade interest -Internal strife and overexploitation of natural resources helped weaken the 
long-established states of the Aegean
-1200 BC to 1000 BC saw multiple crisis’s for Mediterranean civilizations -Mercenaries quickly turned on their employers when they realized they 
could swarm chariots and quickly tipped the table of military strategy
-Hittite kingdom of Anatolia falls in 1200 BC due to invaders destroying its 
supply lines and leaving it without raw materials
-Inhabitants of Cyprus called Phoenicians by the Greeks because of the red 
dye they would extract from shellfish, but they called themselves the 
Canaanites 
-By the 13 th  century, Mycenaeans were fighting each other as much as they  were sea people  CH3: The Dark Age 1000 BC: almost all important Mycenaean sites except Athens destroyed by 
now
1000-900 BC: period of most severe depopulation and reduced agriculture 950-750 BC: Greeks adopt Phoenician alphabet 900-800 BC: Early revival of population and agriculture; iron beginning to be 
used for tools and weapons
776 BC: traditional date of first Olympic games 750 BC: end of the Greek Dark Age 750-700 BC: Homeric poetry recorded in writing after Greek learn to write 
again, using a Phoenician alphabet modified with vowels; Hesiod composes 
his poetry
-writing (Linear B) used as a technical skill for recording the flow of goods 
into the palaces and then out again for redistribution
-once rulers lost power, there was no need for this anymore -records kept alive by oral performances -Dorians were the ancestors of the Spartans

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School: Texas A&M University
Department: Classical Studies
Course: GREEK AND ROMAN EPIC
Professor: Bouxstein Hilary
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: bronze, age, archaicGreece, athens, sparta, and philosophers
Name: Greek and Roman History and Epics
Description: General notes from the first 2 weeks from the lecture and heavy amount of detail from thereadings.
Uploaded: 01/29/2018
34 Pages 48 Views 38 Unlocks
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