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Mason - CHEM 211 - CHEM 211 - Lecture Notes Week 1 - Class Notes

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Mason - CHEM 211 - CHEM 211 - Lecture Notes Week 1 - Class Notes

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background image  Chemistry is the study of all properties of matter  Study of matter
 Can be descriptive (quantitative)
 Can be qualitative
 Chemistry involves measuring the properties (composition) of substances
 Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space (has volume)
 States of matter (From Low Temperature to High Temperature)
 BEC (Bose-Einstein Condensate)  Occurs at Absolute Zero = 0 K = -273°C = -459.4°F
 Since its at absolute zero it is a weird clumped up solid with extremely limited/to no 
movement  Solid  Array of atoms in a 3D structure
 Still moves but stuck in the array
 Liquid  Conforms to its container based on its volume (has an upper surface)  Gas   Conforms to its container but isn’t based on its volume (has NO upper surface)  Plasma  Only occurs if low density, ionized gas, and high temperatures
 E.g. the Sun
 Scientific Method  Question  Ex: If the shower makes you clean, then why is the towel dirty?  Hypothesis
 Data
 Conclusion
 Analysis
 Repeat
 Physical changes  Change form/appearance
 Don’t change characteristics/composition
 Chemical changes  Does change characteristics/composition  Law of Conservation of Mass  Basically, mass is neither formed or lost
 Let’s say you started out with 4 grams of aluminum oxide (Al
2 O 3 ). You burned it with  oxygen. Now there’s only 2 grams of aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ). So, according to the Law  of Conservation of Mass: the amount of oxygen is 4 grams minus 2 grams. So there’s 2 
grams of oxygen
 Matter can be of two types  Pure  Chemical
 Binary
 Poly-elemental
 Mixtures
background image  Homogeneous mixtures
 Heterogeneous mixtures
 Colloids
 Composite materials
 Extensive Property  Property dependent on amount of substance  Intensive Property  Property not dependent on amount of substance  Density = Mass per Volume  𝐷 = 𝑀 𝑉  Density is an extensive property
 Mass and Volume are intensive properties
 Energy is the ability to do work
 Potential Energy (PE) is the energy associated with position
 𝑃𝐸 = 𝑚𝑔ℎ  Kinetic Energy (KE) is the energy associated with motion  𝐾𝐸 = 1
2
𝑚𝑣 2  Speed is scalar meaning it has magnitude but no direction
 Velocity is a vector meaning it has a magnitude and direction
 Conversion Prefixes to Know from largest to smallest (Ones indented were mentioned by 
professor)
 Exa (
) 10 18  Peta ( ) 10 15  Tera ( ) 10 12  Giga ( ) 10 9  Mega ( ) 10 6  Kilo ( ) 10 3  Hecto ( ) 10 2  Deca ( ) 10 1  BASE ( ) 1  Deci ( ) 10 ‒ 1  Centi ( ) 10 ‒ 2  Milli ( ) 10 ‒ 3  Micro ( ) 10 ‒ 6  Nano ( ) 10 ‒ 9  Pico ( ) 10 ‒ 12  Femto ( ) 10 ‒ 15  Atto ( ) 10 ‒ 18  Conversion to memorize  1 L =   m 3   10 ‒ 3  1 mL = 1 cc (cubic cm)  Precision is the ability to hit any same spot consecutively
 Accuracy is the ability hit the target value consecutively
 Errors (uncertainty)
 Systematic errors are errors that are wrong in the same way consistently. 

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School: George Mason University
Department: Chemistry
Course: General Chemistry 1
Term: Spring 2018
Tags: General Chemistry and Chemistry
Name: CHEM 211 - Lecture Notes Week 1
Description: These are the lecture notes for week 1 in class.
Uploaded: 01/31/2018
6 Pages 22 Views 17 Unlocks
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