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TULANE / Psychology / PSYC 3390 / Why did the children's crusade attempt to appeal to muslims?

Why did the children's crusade attempt to appeal to muslims?

Why did the children's crusade attempt to appeal to muslims?

Description

School: Tulane University
Department: Psychology
Course: Adolescent Psychology
Professor: Melinda fabian
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: Psychology of Adolescence
Cost: 50
Name: Adolescent Psych Study Guide
Description: These notes cover Chapters 1-3, as well as basic information about the general principle and ethical standards of the APA Ethics Code. It does NOT include any information about the videos we watched in class.
Uploaded: 01/31/2018
10 Pages 208 Views 5 Unlocks
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Chapter 1:


Why did the children's crusade attempt to appeal to muslims?



Adolescence  stage between puberty and adulthood, generally classified as  being from ages 10-18 (although different cultures have different age  standards)

Adolescence in Ancient Times: 

- Greek culture (Plato and Aristotle): 

o Adolescence is the third stage of life, around ages 14-21 o Age when reason develops (Aristotle believed reason was only  fully developed at the end of adolescence) and serious education (math and science) should begin

Christian Times – Middle Ages: 

- “Children’s Crusade”: Crusade by young people in 1212 BC, where they attempted to appeal to the Muslims for the Holy land through their  innocent and peaceful demeanors rather than using violence. The  crusade was a failed attempt and many of the adolescents were  captured, tortured, or killed.  


What do menarche and spermarche have to do with physical development?



- Adolescence was associated with innocence

1500-1890: 

- Life-cycle service (European and North American): in the years  between late teens and early 20’s, adolescents would work in  apprenticeships under the rule of a “master,” in areas such as  house/farm work or trade. They served their master for 7 years.  Don't forget about the age old question of Who is ibn khaldun in sociology?

- In the US, the practice of life-cycle service faded out in the 18th and  19th centuries, as young adults began leaving their homes for the cities

1890-1920: 

- Known as the “Age of Adolescence,” when the term “adolescence”  actually became a widely used term  

- In the US and Western countries, where the Industrial Revolution was in full swing and many children were being forced into dangerous and  unhealthy labor, there were many changes made to restrict child labor. Among these new laws was the institution of required secondary  education for adolescents.  


What are the stages of emerging adulthood?



Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: 

- The age of adolescence shifted to ages 10-18 because:

o Biological change: puberty started coming earlier  

o Social change: most adolescents (~90%) went to high school,  which ends at age 18  

- Emerging Adulthood: 

o Ages 18-25

o Period of: exploring identity through love, work, and self expression, instability, self-focusing (meaning more If you want to learn more check out Falsifiable is what?

independence not self-centered), feeling in-between (in between  young adult and adult), and many possibilities/opportunities o Note: Emerging Adulthood only exists in cultures that allow  people in their early 20’s to postpone entering into adult roles  such as marriage or work (meaning only developed countries)

Science of Emerging Adulthood: 

- Scientific method steps: Question  Theory  Hypothesis  Experimental design  Collection of data  Analyzing data/Drawing  conclusions  New theories and hypotheses

- Need to ensure that there is random assignment in experiments and  random sampling in surveys

- Essential to follow ethical guidelines when carrying out an experiment  (APA Ethics Code)

G Stanley Hall: 

- Attributed with the beginning of the scientific study of adolescence - Storm and stress view: adolescence is a turbulent time filled with  conflict and moodiness, lead to separation from parents and  independence  

Margaret Mead: 

- Sociocultural view: the nature of adolescence is sociocultural (meaning  based on society and culture), rather than simply biology

20th and 21st Century View and Terms for Adolescence: We also discuss several other topics like Flat space is how many degrees?

- Inventionist view: time of the term “age of adolescence,” began at the  end of the industrial Revolution in the 1920’s

- Cohort effects: effects that occur due to a person’s time of  birth/generation  If you want to learn more check out What are the causes and effects of environmental hazards?

- Adolescent generation gap: generalizations that are made based on  stereotypes of the “classic” adolescent  generalize that all  adolescents are moody, difficult, etc.  

- Contexts: settings where development occurs, influenced by historical,  economic, social, or cultural factors  

- Social policy: the course of action designed by government to influence the welfare of citizens  some argue that adolescent education and  policy focus too heavily on the negative aspects of adolescence

- The beginning of adolescence is defined by biology and the end is  defined by the fulfillment of cultural standards/experiences  - Positive Youth Development (PYD): emphasizes strengths and positive  aspects of adolescence  We also discuss several other topics like What are some non-food agriculture crops?

Lerner and Lerner: 

- 5 C’s of PYD:

o Competence

o Confidence

o Connection

o Character

o Caring/compassion

Transition to Adulthood: 

- Main tenets of adulthood include: being responsible for oneself, making independent decisions, and being financially independent

- Different cultures have different criteria that mark the beginning of  adulthood (Israel  completion of army service, Argentina  being able  to financially support one’s family, etc.) We also discuss several other topics like What are religions of the world?

Research Methods (pros and cons): 

- Questionnaires: 

o Pros: able to get a large number of responses/data, easier to  analyze

o Cons: closed question format, not as complex or in depth as  other forms of research

- Interviews: 

o Pros: much more personal and in depth information

o Cons: takes lots more time, effort, money, and smaller sample  size

- Observational: 

o Pros: involves watching real behavior

o Cons: people may know they are being watched and therefore  act differently. Also, this type of research does not have the  power to explain behavior, it merely describes behavior

- Ethnographic: 

o Pros: researcher lives among a group or population and observes  from the inside for a lengthy period of time (can be many years)  to gain information. Extremely in depth.

o Cons: requires researcher to give up tons of time, money, and  energy, and it can be difficult for them not to become biased  - Case Study: 

o Pros: researchers study a small sample of people in depth over a  period of time, in depth results with lots of detail

o Cons: money, time, and small sample size

- Experimental: 

o Pros: researchers have lots of control in the experimental process o Cons: can be unclear whether the results of the experiment  would be applicable to real life because the experiment is a  manipulated situation and is done in a lab  

Reliability vs. Validity:

- Reliability  when an experiment has been repeated multiple different  times by different researchers who get similar results

- Validity  the experiment measures what it is supposed to measure  (ie. An intelligence test should actually be an accurate measure of your intelligence)

APA Ethics Code: 

- The Ethics Code covers ethics across every type of psychology - There are 5 general principals and 10 ethical standards (we need to  know this)

General Principals: 

- A: Beneficience and Nomaleficence: psychologists need to ensure that  they do no harm to the people with whom they work

- B: Fidelity and responsibility: creating trust in relationships and being  aware of your responsibility as a psychologist to uphold the standards  and have no conflicts of interest

- C: Integrity: being honest, truthful, and accurate in your work - D: Justice: fairness, being aware of biases and making sure that they  do not get in the way of work by using reasonable judgement - E: Respect for people’s rights and dignity: privacy, confidentiality, and  self-determination (making decisions for people who are homicidal,  suicidal, or are mentally impaired)

Ethical Standards: 

1. Resolving ethical issues: have to follow the ethical standards and  report any misdemeanors to the ethics board

2. Competence: psychologists should only provide services in areas in  which they are competent based on their education and training 3. Human Relations: psychologists must not engage in harmful behavior  or multiple relationships, which would lead to a conflict of interest 4. Privacy and Confidentiality: minimizing privacy intrusions and always  keeping client information confidential (except in emergencies) a. Note: privacy means not intruding into client’s personal matters,  whereas confidentiality pertains to keeping client information  private

5. Advertising and other public statements: ensuring that any information a psychologist publishes about their own work (as well as statements  by others concerning the psychologist’s work) is accurate and true.  

6. Record keeping and fees: psychologists need to make sure that their  records are under their control, and that they dispose of unneeded  documents in a way that others will not glean any information from  them. In terms of fees, it is the responsibility of the psychologist to  negotiate fees with the client and specify billing arrangements.

7. Education and training: psychologists need to take care that their  education/training programs will be beneficial and informative for  clients, and that they remain accurate in their teaching methods.

8. Research and Publication: psychologists need to attain informed  consent from all of their research participants as well as debrief the  clients after their participation in the research study is complete.  Psychologists also need to get institutional approval to carry out their  research before they can begin

9. Assessment: psychologists must ensure that their assessments are  interpretable and simple enough to understand for their participants.  They also need to remain objective in testing and interpreting their  data/results.  

10. Therapy: need to ensure that therapy, whether individual, family, or group, is ethical and does not involve conflicts of interest or  inappropriate relationships.  

Chapter 2:

Endocrine system: secretes hormones into body

- During puberty, the hypothalamus (area of the brain responsible for  motivation, eating/drinking, and sexuality, also controls the endocrine  system) increases the production of another hormone called GnRH

- The increase in GnRH cases gonadotropins to be released from the  pituitary gland  

o Gonads  sex glands (ovaries and testes). During puberty there is an increase in the production of sex hormones (estrogens,  androgens, and testosterone), which leads to the majority of the  physical changes that take place during puberty

o Note: another bodily change  bodily fat cells produce more  leptin during puberty, leads to weight gain  

- Feedback loop in the endocrine system:

o A loop between the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, gonads, and  adrenal glands. They work together to monitor levels of sex  hormones, so that hormones stay around a set point. Note:  during puberty, the set point for testosterone and estrogen rises

Obesity in adolescents: 

- Obese adolescents have higher levels of leptin 

- Obesity rates are the highest in both the richest and poorest countries  in the world

- Obesity can be caused by: fast food, lessened physical activity,  watching too much TV, biology, junk food/drinks in schools, poverty,  food deserts

- This generation is going to be the first to die earlier than their parents  because of obesity rates

- 1/3 adolescents consume at least one fast food meal per day

Physical functioning in Emerging Adolescence: 

- Peak bone mass, as well as peak physical stamina are reached in the  early 20’s  

- Emerging adults are physical illness, because this is the time when  their immune systems will be the healthiest  

- However, emerging adults are at heightened risk for: malnutrition, lack of sleep, high stress, risky behavior related to drugs/alcohol/sex - There are high rates of HIV and AIDS among this population  - Note: the worldwide leading cause of death is accidents (in US it is car  accidents specifically)

Primary Sex Characteristics: 

- Any part of the body related to reproduction, such as the testes and  ovaries  

- In adolescents, changes to these characteristics occur  production of  eggs/sperm and development of sex organs  

Spermarche and Menarche: 

- Spermarche  production of sperm in males, usually around age 12 - Menarche  first female period, usually around age 12.5

Secondary Sex Characteristics: 

- Any bodily changes that are not related to reproduction - Hair growth, breast development, rougher/oilier skin, deepening voice

Culture and Puberty Timing: 

- Puberty begins earlier in cultures that have good nutrition and  medicine available  

- Secular trend: increases or decreases in a population over time (ex.  The age of menarche in Western cultures has been on the decline for  years)

- The age of menarche is lowest in developed countries, which shows  the link between menarche and good nutrition

- Different cultures have different rituals for dealing with or accepting  puberty among adolescents  

- In the US, going through puberty early is “bad” for girls and “good” for  boys  

o Early puberty in girls can lead to eating disorders, depression,  bad body image, increased risk taking

o For boys, early puberty allows them to look manlier earlier, as  they gain muscle mass, get taller, and their voices deepen  - Late puberty in girls vs. boys:

o Late maturing girls might get teased early on, when they have  still not yet gone through puberty, but once they do, they tend to have more lean muscle and usually end up with a more positive  body image  

o Late maturation for boys can result in more teasing, lower  grades, deviant behavior, lower self esteem  

Properties of Emerging Adulthood (Arnett): 

- Exploring identity  we have to decide who we are, who we want to be, and how to present ourselves

- Instability  feeling unsure of one’s place in the world  

- Self-focused  learning how to take care of oneself (Note: self-focused  does not mean self-absorbed, it is not a bad thing)

- Feeling-in between  feeling not quite like an adolescent and not quite  like an adult

- Age of possibilities  lots of new opportunities to explore - By the end of the period of Emerging Adulthood, we (usually) learn our  place in society  

Chapter 3:

Piaget (1896-1980): 

- Theory of Cognitive Development  Cognitive Developmental Approach o Piaget believes that cognitive development at any one stage is  limited, even in the perfect learning and nurturing environment  (meaning it would be impossible for a four-year-old to  

comprehend college math.) Some other theorists disagree with  this.

o Children who are different ages (at different stages of  

development) think differently

o Piaget poses cognitive development as stages of mental  structures

o Maturation  moving from one stage to the next  

o Schemes  structures for organizing and interpreting information   Assimilation: when we alter new information to fit into an  already existing scheme in our minds  

 Accommodation: changing our schemes to fir around new  information  

Stages of Cognitive Development: 

1. Sensorimotor: learning how to coordinate senses with motor activities

2. Preoperational: learning how to represent the world symbolically  through speech or play  

3. Concrete operations: leaning how to use reasoning skills but not able  to do high order thinking  

4. Formal operations: able to use logic and abstract thinking, and can  think scientifically and explain their solutions/outcomes. Note:  Adolescents at this stage can also use metacognition  the term for  being able to think about thought  

a. Hypothetical-deductive reasoning: ability to defend one’s  answer/solution systematically/scientifically

b. Abstract thinking: broad or someone undefinable concepts such  as friendship, time, justice, evil, faith

c. Complex thinking: concepts that involve the combination of 2 or  more ideas (ie. Metaphors and sarcasm)

Critiques of Piaget:

- Researchers found that there are many more individual differences in  how people use formal operations than Piaget originally thought - Formal operations take on different forms in different cultures, and  some cultures don’t really use them at all  

- Piaget believed that cognitive development ended around age 20  (which is when his stages end), but science has shown that  development continues through emerging adulthood

o Post-formal thinking: pragmatism (adapting logical thinking to  real life situations) and reflective judgement (having the capacity to evaluate the legitimacy of a logical or evidence-based  

argument)

o Dualistic thinking: seeing the two sides of a situation as being  polarized

o Multiple thinking: being able to see and understand both sides of  an issue  

o Relativism: being able to compare and contrast differing points of view

o Commitment: stage when people commit to believing a certain  POV but remain willing to hear arguments from the other side  

Info-Processing Approach: 

- Believes cognitive development is continuous rather than broken up  into distinct stages (contrast to Piaget)

- Componential approach: the info-processing model breaks the thinking  process down into components such as attention and memory

Attention: 

- Selective attention: deciding where to focus your attention and  screening out all other incoming sensory information

- Divided attention: multi-tasking, never as efficient as doing one thing  at a time

Memory: 

- Short-term memory  ~30 second retention rate, limited storage  capacity

- Long-term memory  has unlimited storage in the brain - Working memory  where you keep information you are actively  processing  

- Note: all forms of memory improve from childhood to adolescence and  emerging adulthood  

Other Functions: 

- Automaticity  the amount of cognitive effort a person needs to devote in order to process new information (also betters with age and  experience)

- Executive functioning  the capacity to control cognitive processes,  which allows you to combine cognitive abilities such as memory,  attention, and planning  thoughts or actions  

- Critical thinking  ability to systematically analyze a situation and form  a judgement about it, which requires a foundation of skills and  knowledge attained from childhood  

- Dual-processing: we think both analytically (using reason/logic) and  heuristically (trial and error, using emotions), but adolescents make  more decisions based on heuristic thinking, which can lead them to act on impulsive or risky behavior  

- Adolescent egocentrism: 

o Imaginary audience  adolescents believe that everyone is  watching them all the time (“I was so embarrassed to eat alone  because I could tell everyone was looking at me), when in reality  far fewer people are watching their actions than they believe

o Personal fable  adolescents tend to believe that their personal  experience is unique (“no one understands me”)

Critique of Info-Processing Approach: 

- Reductionism: this theory states that the info-processing model breaks  down thinking into so many parts that the essence of the approach  loses its meaning  

Behavioral Decision Theory: 

- The decision making process includes: identifying possible choices,  considering the consequences of each option, considering the  desirability of each option, assessing how likely the consequences of  each option are, and combining the above information into a decision

Psychometric Approach: 

- Evaluating cognitive abilities through use of intelligence tests  o Stanford-Binet  IQ test 

o Weschler tests  WISC-IV (for children) and WAIS-IV (for adults) o Relative performance in IQ tests is stable, meaning that people  who do well in childhood tend to do well as adults

o Absolute performance: the comparing of test scores, regardless  of age  

o Fluid intelligence: the speed with which someone analyzes and  processes new information (performance subtests)

o Crystallized intelligence: one’s accumulated knowledge  

Brain Development in Adolescence: 

- Overproduction  when puberty beings, the brain forms an overload of  synaptic connections in the brain

- Pruning  with time, the brain prunes out unused synaptic connections  and strengthens the relevant and used connections, which allows the  brain to work more efficiently  

- Myelination  keeps the brain’s electronic signals on one path and  increases the speed of message sending from one neuron to another  

Vygotsky: 

- Sociocultural Theory 

o Believed that cognitive development has both social and cultural  ties

o Zone of proximal development: the gap between what  

adolescents can do by themselves and what they can accomplish when an adult is assisting them  

o Scaffolding: the amount of assistance that an adult gives a child,  should diminish as child grows older and more independent

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