Limited time offer 20% OFF StudySoup Subscription details

CMU - HSC 411 - Class Notes - Week 3

Created by: burns2cr Notetaker Elite Notetaker

> > > > CMU - HSC 411 - Class Notes - Week 3

CMU - HSC 411 - Class Notes - Week 3

School: Central Michigan University
Department: Science
Course: Pathophysiology
Professor: Leslie Wallace
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: inflammation
Name: Inflammation notes
Description: This is going to be on exam 1
Uploaded: 01/31/2018
This preview shows pages 1 - 3 of a 9 page document. to view the rest of the content
background image Inflammation  I. Inflammation Primer  ­ Osmosis: diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane  (pulling pressure) ­ Plasma proteins – albumin: maintain osmotic pressure in blood  ­ Filtration/Hydrostatic pressure: water pressure forcing substances  through a membrane (pushing pressure) ­ WBCs (see last pages):
­ Capillary Flow and tissue fluid formation 
­ In normal hemodynamic (blood flow) circumstances, fluid flows out of  the vessel at the arterial end and into the vessel as the venous end  o This is due to alterations in hydrostatic pressure and osmotic 
pressure along the capillary length 
­ Arterial end forces  o  Blood hydrostatic pressure ­ Pressure of blood/water.  The fluid formed is called tissue fluid/interstitial fluid  o Tissue osmotic pressure– concentration of solutes in the tissue 
spaces 
­ Venule end forces  o Tissue hydrostatic pressure – pressure of fluid in the tissue 
spaces 
o Blood osmotic pressure – concentration of solutes (mainly 
plasma proteins) in the blood 
Excess interstitial fluid is gathered by lymphatic system 
and returned to circulatory system 
Extra interstitial fluid form or failure of the lymphatic 
system leads to edema (swelling)
TH Arterial  BOP Venule  BHP TO
background image II. Inflammation defined – a protective tissue response to injury or 
invasion (­it is)
­ It is the local reaction of vascularized tissue to injury that is essential  in the healing of wounds and infections. It is the bridge between the 
injury that’s occurring and the healing taking place
­ What can cause inflammation? o Deficiency  o Intoxication  o Trauma  o **Anything that hurts cells  ­ Note: although there are a variety of causes of inflammation, the  sequence of events in inflammation is similar regardless of the 
triggering event. It is nonspecific 
III. The inflammatory response  Upon Injury….  Histamine causes vasodilation and increased capillary permeability. Causes 
elevated BHP, more fluid filling tissues. Plasma proetins then are able to escape
and albumins go out into the tissue space = increased TOP = fluid pouring into 
tissue spaces (swelling). Change in blood flow, allows WBCs to move to the 
cytoplasm wall and flatten itself. Then moves out into the tissue space, 
functions in the way it is supposed to.
IV. Signs and symptoms of acute inflammation 
1. Cardinal signs 
o Rubor – redness, due to hyperemic response  Hyperemic response = lots of blood flow  o Tumor – swelling due to edema  o Calor – heat  o Dolor – pain, chemicals, pH, swelling o Functio laesa – loss of function  V. Functions of the inflammatory response 
1. Neutralize and/or destroy the noxious agent 
2. Slows/limits spread or infectious agents or surrounding tissues 
3. Removal of necrotic tissue 
a. Dead tissue  4. Aid in healing process  5. Respond swiftly to threats – even at the expense of normal tissue  VI. Acute inflammation response details 
1.  Vascular response: hemodynamic (blood flow changes)
a. Triggered by chemical mediators (histamines) 
background image b.  Vasodilation of arterioles supplying the area (increase BHP)  c. Increased permeability of capillaries due to increased space  between endothelial cells – increase TOP i. Then albumins can leak out with the fluid  2. Cellular response: movement of leukocytes (WBCs) into the injured area.  a. Normal blood flow = Axial blood flow – elements cluster along the long axis of vessel; plasma surrounds column  b. This is disrupted during an inflammatory response  c. How do the WBCs get to site of injury? Margination of WBCs Margination – as fluid leaves circulation, blood 
slows down and the viscosity of the blood increase, 
leukocytes move to the periphery of the blood vessel
Pavementing ­ adherence of the WBS to the endothelium  In diabetes, the WBCs don’t pavement, and that is 
why it takes them forever to heal 
Emigration of WBCs ­ through diapedesis, the leukocytes 
squeeze between endothelial cells and into the tissues 
Diapedesis – Extravasation  Chemotaxis ­ migration in response to chemical signals  Phagocytosis ­ ingestion and digestion of bacteria and 
cellular debris 
Cell types – monocytes (turn into marcophages) and
neutrophils 
Process = REK  o Recognition – as something they want to 
engulf 
o Engulf – condense part of membrane and 
bring particle inside 
Once inside, surround with phagosome
and intracellular digestive system work
(lysosomes) 
o Killed – by the digestive enzymes from the 
lysosomes 
VII. Inflammatory mediators (what causes the above events to occur)  ­ Chemical mediators directly or indirectly elicit the vascular and  cellular responses  ­ Histamine  o Comes from mast cells  o Effects in inflammation: vasoactive substance  Dilates arterioles  Increases capillary permeability 

This is the end of the preview. Please to view the rest of the content
Join more than 18,000+ college students at Central Michigan University who use StudySoup to get ahead
9 Pages 31 Views 24 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
Join more than 18,000+ college students at Central Michigan University who use StudySoup to get ahead
School: Central Michigan University
Department: Science
Course: Pathophysiology
Professor: Leslie Wallace
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: inflammation
Name: Inflammation notes
Description: This is going to be on exam 1
Uploaded: 01/31/2018
9 Pages 31 Views 24 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to CMU - HSC 411 - Class Notes - Week 3
Join with Email
Already have an account? Login here
×
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to CMU - HSC 411 - Class Notes - Week 3

Forgot password? Reset password here

Reset your password

I don't want to reset my password

Need help? Contact support

Need an Account? Is not associated with an account
Sign up
We're here to help

Having trouble accessing your account? Let us help you, contact support at +1(510) 944-1054 or support@studysoup.com

Got it, thanks!
Password Reset Request Sent An email has been sent to the email address associated to your account. Follow the link in the email to reset your password. If you're having trouble finding our email please check your spam folder
Got it, thanks!
Already have an Account? Is already in use
Log in
Incorrect Password The password used to log in with this account is incorrect
Try Again

Forgot password? Reset it here