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# Clemson - MATH 1020 - Class Notes - Week 3

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Clemson - MATH 1020 - Class Notes - Week 3

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CH1020 – General Chemistry II
Chapter 11 Exam1 Study Packet
CH1020 – Chapter 11 – Study Packet – Dr. T. Houjeiry        Solutions are homogeneous mixtures where the solvent (component in large amount) is mainly a liquid and the  solute (component in small amount) can be a liquid, solid or a gas.    When the solute is a solid or a gas then we say the solute is soluble in the solvent.
When both the solute and the solvent are liquids then we say they are miscible in each other.
Enthalpy change and entropy change of solutions    S soln  is the Entropy change of solutions. It is generally positive for ionic compounds (especially those with +1  and −1 charges)    H soln  is the Enthalpy change of solutions.     ∆H soln  = ∆H solute-solute  + ∆H solvent-solvent  + ∆H solute-solvent.       H solute-solute  > 0 (endothermic) because it is bond breaking.    ∆H solvent-solvent  > 0 (endothermic) because it is bond breaking.    ∆H solute-solvent.  < 0 (exothermic) because it is bond forming.    If ΔH solute-solvent  > ΔH solvent-solvent  H solute-solute  then the solution is exothermic, ∆H soln.  < 0    If ΔH solute-solvent  < ΔH solvent-solvent  H solute-solute  then the solution is endothermic, ∆H soln.  > 0  Solubility and factors that affect it    Solubility is the maximum amount of solute in solvent at specific temperature.    A solid is soluble in a liquid when the intermolecular forces are similar (like dissolves like).
Polar solutes dissolve in polar solvents and non-polar solutes dissolve in non-polar solvents.
Ionic compounds dissolve mainly in water (H
2 O), where they dissociate into their ions.    Solubility of solids in liquids increases as the temperature increases
Solubility of gases in liquids increases as the partial pressure of gas increases
Henry’s law: Solubility (unit is Molar) = k
Solubility of gases in liquids increases as the temperature decreases

Expressions of Solution Concentrations (for memorizing)
You need to be able to calculate any concentration and to convert between the different expressions.    Molarity (temperature dependent)      Mole fraction      Mass percent      Molality

Molarity (M) =  Moles of solute Liters of solution Mole Fraction () =  Moles of component Total moles in the solution Mass percent (mass%) =  Mass of component Total mass of solution 100 Molality (m) =  Moles of solute Mass of solvent (kg) CH1020 – Chapter 11 – Study Packet – Dr. T. Houjeiry      Colligative properties (non-volatile solute) and factors that affect them    Colligative properties are properties of solutions that depend on the amount of a dissolved solute but not on its  chemical identity.    Four properties:    Vapor-Pressure lowering
Boiling-Point elevation
Freezing-Point depression
Osmotic Pressure elevation
Van’t Hoff Factor is used in calculations of colligative properties, it is the number of ions dissociated from a  compound    For electrolytes, the van’t Hoff factor is equal to number of ions (always larger than 1)
For nonelectrolytes, the van’t Hoff factor is always equal to 1
The expected (ideal) value of van’t Hoff factor is generally larger than the actual (measured) value.
Vapor pressure lowering:     Adding a solute to solvent will decrease the vapor pressure of this solvent
Raoult’s law: P
soln P solv    X solv  where X solv  = ( 𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑣𝑒𝑛𝑡 +𝑖.𝑚𝑜𝑙𝑒𝑠 𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑡𝑒   As we increases the moles of solute and/or “i” increases the vapor pressure decreases.   Boiling point elevation and freezing point depression:    For boiling point:  T b  = K b  m   i where m is molality (moles of solute/Kg of solvent), K is constant ( o C/m) and i  is van’t Hoff Factor.    The boiling point of solution = boiling point of solvent +  T b     For freezing point:  T  = K  m   i    The freezing point of solution = freezing point of solvent −  T b     As we increases the moles of solute and/or “i” increases the boiling point decreases and the freezing point  decreases Osmotic Pressure (П):    Osmotic pressure of a solution (  ) is the pressure needed to prevent osmotic flow of solvent through a  semipermeable membrane      i. M.R.T    As we increases the moles of solute and/or “i” increases the osmotic pressure increases.

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