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UW / Art / ARCH 351 / Which king built the lakshmana temple khajuraho?

Which king built the lakshmana temple khajuraho?

Which king built the lakshmana temple khajuraho?


School: University of Washington
Department: Art
Course: Romanesque, Gothic, and Rennaissance Architecture
Professor: Brian mclaren
Term: Spring 2015
Tags: Architecture, history, and ENVD Architecture History
Cost: 50
Description: key terms and monuments with photos
Uploaded: 02/01/2018
10 Pages 67 Views 8 Unlocks


Which king built the lakshmana temple khajuraho?


- shikhara 

- a pyramidal tower built over the sanctuary (garbha griha) of a Hindu temple  

- ex/ Lakshmana Temple, Khajuraho, India 

- garbha griha 

- the inner sanctum of a Hindu temple, usually capped with a pyramid structure (shikhara) 

- ex/ Lakshmana Temple, Khajuraho, India 

- qibla  

- the prescribed Islamic prayer position facing Mecca, to which all mosques are oriented 

- ex/ Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem 

- minaret 

What is the orientation of mosques and prayer in the islamic world?

- a tall, slender tower at a mosque, from which the faithful are called to prayer by the crier 

- ex/ Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem 

- mihrab 

- a niche in the qibla wall of a Muslim religious building indicating the direction toward Mecca - ex/ Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem 

- ablaq 

- alternating bands of colored stones in Islamic masonry, derived from Byzantine techniques - ex/ Great Mosque of Cordoba, Spain 

- mandala 

- a diagram of the cosmos made from geometric patterns, used in India as the the plan for religious structures  - ex/ Angkor Wat, Cambodia  

What are the tall towers adjoining a mosque called?

- muqarnas 

- honeycomb, or stalactite, decoration of a vault or overhang, usually made with plaster as a succession of small  niches Don't forget about the age old question of What would social life be like if there were no social norms?

- ex/ Funerary Complex (Mosque-Madrasa) of Sultan Hasan, Cairo, Egypt 

- Charlemagne 

- French king, Holy Roman Emperor in 800, built many churches to increase power of state - ex/ Palatine Chapel, Aachen, Germany 

- westwork 

- the narthex, chapels, and twin towers set at the west entrance of Carolingian churches 

- ex/ Abbey of Cluny III, France 

- cloister 

- a monastery courtyard, usually planted, enclosed by a covered ambulatory  

- ex/ Ideal Monastery of St. Gall, Switzerland 

- abbey 

- a Christian monastery or convent and its church 

- ex/ Ideal Monastery of St. Gall, Switzerland 

- chevet 

- a series of radiating chapels extended from the apse of a Gothic church 

- ex/ Abbey Church, St. Denis, Paris We also discuss several other topics like Why is the shape of a neuron important to its function?

- relic, reliquary  

- an object surviving from an earlier time, especially one of historical or sentimental interest, contained in a reliquary  - Ste. Chapelle, Paris 

- tympanum 

- a triangular space set within a pediment and placed above the columns at a door or window of a classical building - ex/ St. Foye, Conques, France


- arcade 

- a series of arches on columns or piers, either freestanding or attached to a wall  

- ex/ Notre Dame Cathedral, Chartres, France 

- triforium 

- in a medieval Christian church, a shallow arcaded passageway above the nave and below the clerestory - ex/ Notre Dame Cathedral, Chartres, France 

- nave 

- the taller central space lit by clerestories and flanked by aisles in a Christian church 

- ex/ Notre Dame Cathedral, Chartres, France 

- transept  

- the transverse arms of a cross-shaped church, crossing the main axis at a right angle We also discuss several other topics like What is the difference between an independent variable and a dependent variable?

- ex/ Notre Dame Cathedral, Chartres, France 

- choir 

- the part of the church where the choir sits, at the end of the nave, past the transept 

- ex/ Notre Dame Cathedral, Chartres, France 

- ambulatory  

- a processional passageway around a shrine or flanking the apse of a Christian church  

- ex/ Palatine Chapel, Aachen, Germany 

- iwan 

- a large vaulted space open at one end, used in Islamic palaces, mosques, and madrasas - ex/ Funerary Complex (Mosque-Madrasa) of Sultan Hasan, Cairo, Egypt 

- Latin cross plan 

- a cross with one arm longer than the others, used for the majority of Christian churches 

- ex/ Notre Dame Cathedral, Chartres, France 

- Greek cross plan 

- a cross with four arms of equal length, often used in the plan of Byzantine churches 

- ex/ Basilica of S. Marco, Venice 

- tracery 

- a pattern of curvilinear, perforated ornament within the upper part of a medieval window or screen - ex/ Doge’s Palace, Venice Don't forget about the age old question of In what year did the articles of confederation is established?

- bastide 

- a new town in southwest France, preplanned and often laid out as an orthogonal grid 

- ex/ Carcassonne, France Don't forget about the age old question of State the types of failure associated with a disability.

- Abbot Suger 

- one of the earliest patrons of Gothic architecture  

- ex/ Abbey Church, St. Denis, Paris 

- flying buttresses  

- an arch or half-arch that transfers the thrust of a vault or roof from an upper part of a wall to an external pylon  - ex/ Notre Dame Cathedral, Chartres, France 

- narthex 

- the transverse vestibule of an early Christian church 

- ex/ Abbey Church, St. Denis, Paris 

- rib vault (ribbed groin vault) 

- in Gothic cathedrals, a narrow projecting band on a ceiling or vault, usually structural but sometimes merely  decorative

- ex/ Abbey Church, St. Denis, Paris

3 If you want to learn more check out What is a descriptive theory that explains?


- Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, 687-92 

- site

- located on the Temple Mount — significant for Jews, Christians, and Muslims

- Al-Aqsa mosque also on the site

- intended to emphasize status of Islam

- marks the holy rock from which Muhammad ascended to heaven

- follows architectural precedent of Christian churches

- similar to Church of Holy Sepulcher

- 18 gates lead from larger site into raised platform

- dome

- approached by 8 flights of stairs

- made of 2 wooden shells

- sits on drum that has 16 windows

- very richly decorated — current mosaics from Ottoman Empire

- interior decoration (Byzantine) — no representations of living beings — inconsistent with Islamic architecture - detail of mosaic makes clear statement of triumph, power

- 2 ambulatory spaces around the rock

- marble columns taken from other buildings (spolia)

- geometry — squares = earth; circles = sky; octagon = rotated squares

- Great Mosque, Damascus, Syria, 707-14 

- one of the earliest mosques still standing

- built over existing foundations — Christian basilica  

- established its size, points of entry

- courtyard provided large public space

- used for cleansing before prayer

- decorative mosaics are traditionally Muslim and Christian

- interior hypostyle hall defined by multiple columns

- imperial mosque — emphasized area reserved for the ruler

- rows bisected by nave-like space designated for the caliph

- dome over center of the nave

- columns taken from other sites (spolia)

- mihrab and minbar mark the ceremonial center of the plan

- Baghdad city plan, est. 762 

- walled city — on par with imperial splendor of Constantinople  

- laid out as a perfect circle — surveillance from the center

- major axes intersecting in the center — 4 roadways

- palace, mosque, government offices at the center

- radially-planned residential belt

- represents center of the new empire

- Great Mosque, Kairouan, Tunisia, 820-836 

- stands on foundations from the 7th century

- large courtyard serves as a public space

- modeled after Great Mosque at Baghdad

- stacked form of minaret, domed top

- relates to form of original lighthouse in Alexandria, Egypt

- relative raw quality of materials, limited decoration  

- interior lacks decoration — more about structural elements

- richly decorated mihrab — marble tiles, Roman columns

- aisles formed by reused classical columns (spolia)

- perpendicular central aisle

- domes at start and end of central aisle

- central aisle marked by paired columns  

- transverse corridor in front of mihrab

- alternative to pendentives — squinches hold up domes


- Rajarajesvaram, Thanjavur, India, ca.1000 

- rectangular form

- linear procession through to main temple pyramidal tower

- rich sculptural decoration on entire temple

- richly decorated tower topped with monolithic form

- bounded by a moat — importance of water — buildings built of granite brought from far away on water - columns surrounding entire space inside exterior wall

- porch, to hypostyle hall, then temple

- columns in hypostyle hall get closer together closer to the temple

- representation of the god Shiva beneath the temple over the womb chamber

- Kandariya Temple, Khajuraho, India, 1020 

- set on a high platform — clear vertical build-up from entry point to main tower

- stairs lead up to covered porch

- horizontal emphasis to decoration on exterior  

- designed to resemble a mountain

- the occupiable spaces are much smaller than the actual structure as a whole

- exterior reliefs portray sculptures of deities

- Angkor Wat, Angkor, Cambodia, 1130 

- monumental complex — grand gesture to legitimate ruler’s power

- set off from the surrounding landscape by outer wall and moat

- axial bridge into complex — raised causeway

- interior temple enclosed by another wall and gallery

- 4 tall corner towers, central tallest shikara

- plan as a whole reflects mandala form — geometric squares, circles

- towers represent Mt. Meru — model of the cosmos

- core of the structure is solid, not occupiable

- reliefs show imagery of Khmer rulers

- used sandstone brought from different places

- transformed from a Hindu temple to a Buddhist site

- Great Mosque, Cordoba, Spain, begun 785 

- monument to Ommayad Spain

- built at the edge of the city

- entrance is toward the core of the city

- decorated entrance is a representation of the mihrab on the inside

- courtyard framed by a portico — fountain for ritual cleansing in the courtyard

- subsequent rulers expanded on the core form over time

- 19 aisles perpendicular to the qibla wall — different than Great Mosque at Damascus

- horseshoe arches — alternating colors on the arches (red and white)

- geometric patterns are distinct to Spanish Islamic architecture  

- hypostyle prayer hall

- stacked arches increase the height of columns taken from other places (spolia)

- thicker arches toward the roof for support  

- Maqsura — bay in front of the mihrab for the ruler

- highly decorated

- poly-lobed arches

- dome overhead — octagonal shape created by skeletal ribs that increase decorative value - the mihrab is highly ornate — gold, inscriptions

- deeper than just a niche, with distinctive lighting

- designating idea of entering into paradise

- dome above based upon Dome of the Rock

- pure form, mosaic decoration

- in the 16th century, a gothic church was built in the middle of the hypostyle hall — superiority of Catholicism  - political statement — expansion of the plan/size of the mosque corresponds to the expansion of the Ommayad  Empire


- Palatine Chapel, Aachen, Germany, ca.800, designed by Oto of Metz 

- ground level vestibule leads into the church  

- groin vaults at ground level, barrel vaults at gallery level

- ambulatory space marked by piers

- clear separation of space through piers on ground level — different  

than Byzantine forms  

- 16-sided exterior becomes an octagon at the core

- relatively undecorated exterior  

- stairs on either side of the entrance lead to upper galleries — west work

- adopts the form of San Vitale, Ravenna

- in plan and in decoration — marble columns, mosaics  

- columns taken from other places (spolia)

- ground level dedicated to Mary, upper level dedicated to Christ

- rises into a dome

- seat for the Emperor in the upper gallery

- similar form to the Dome of the Rock

- you can’t stand at the core of the building in the Dome of the Rock, but the movement around is similar - Plan, Ideal Monastery of St. Gall, ca.820  

- ideas of St. Benedict — not actually built  

- relationship between interior life and the external world

- public functions are there but are separate from the monks

- centered around the idea of the creation of self-sufficient community  

- private elements are at the core of the plan

- cloister for monks with central courtyard

- monks have their own community undisturbed from the outside world

- church is made of stone, everything else is made of wood

- paired towers of the church create a west work

- the interior is similar to Christian basilicas in Rome

- very thick walls — indicative of the time period

- Abbey of Cluny III, France, 1088-1130 (construction at the site initiated 909)  

- expanded its plan over time — immense complex

- showed the evolution of Romanesque forms  

- home to the Cluniac monastic order — incredibly powerful

- development of Benedictine ideals — greater piety, more focused on  


- more worldly, establishes bureaucratic system

- leads to reform of monastic orders

- the church is modeled after early Christian basilicas

- planning for a large number of visitors coming from pilgrimage  

- the atrium leads to the narthex punctuated by twin towers (west work)  

which leads to the nave, the transept, then a deep choir and apses  

- stone barrel vaults over the nave

- nave — 3 levels — arcade, triforium, clerestory  

- double aisles on either side help support the height

- tall tower over the transept

- space for housing guests, areas to support the life of the community

- references ideal forms of St. Gall

- third iteration of the church is huge — power of the abbey

- purely focused on religious liturgy

- nave flanked by 4 aisles, 2 transepts  

- chapels off transepts, radiating chapels at the apse end

- multiple towers represent towers of Jerusalem

- representation of rising up to the heavens

- walls and piers were up to 8 feet thick to support the height — monumentality


- St Foye, Conques, France, 1060-1140 

- previous Benedictine abbey

- similar to earlier Carolingian church forms — ideal St. Gall plan

- part of a village community

- pilgrims flocked to the relic of St. Foye

- west work — point of intersection between the church and the community

- largely undecorated facade

- Tympanum — recessed arched decoration above the door portrays the Last Judgement  

- cruciform plan

- radiating chapels around the ambulatory and choir

- two story nave — no direct light from the inside, windows are in the outer wall

- barrel vaults like at Cluny

- Durham Cathedral, England, begun 1093 

- bringing ideas from St. Etienne to England  

- definitive example of Norman Romanesque 

- Latin cross longitudinal plan 

- alternating bays with heavy and smaller piers 

- 7-part vault 

- tall aisles, even taller nave 

- galleries don’t get direct sunlight from the outside  

- clerestories let in light 

- quadrant arches above the gallery — precursor to flying buttresses 

- decoration on piers, in moldings within arches — not seen in France — from  

Anglo-Saxon tradition

- earliest example of rib vaults 

- create 7 compartments between ‘x’s 

- pointed arches help span the bays 

- Monreale Cathedral, (Sicily) Italy, 1150 

- Normans incorporate Muslim and Byzantine elements  

- has a monastic quality — cloister 

- early Christian nave — very wide with narrow aisles 

- triple-apse choir — characteristic of Byzantine churches 

- exterior interlacing of pointed arches — Muslim architecture  

- cloister — paired decorated columns holding up arches 

- has a fountain for washing — similar to a mosque 

- highly decorated mosaic interior by Byzantine artists  

- clerestory + flat ceiling — early Christian basilicas  

- pointed arches reflect multiple influences  

- church mirror what is happening in the region — mixing of Romanesque Christians, Muslims, Byzantines - al-Ghuri Caravansary, Cairo, Egypt, 1505 

- temporary housing and storage for merchants selling goods in Cairo 

- organized around a courtyard  

- stone mason — alternating bands of color  

- representation of trade across the Mediterranean 

- Funerary Complex (Madrasa and Tomb) of Qalawun, Cairo, Egypt, 1285 

- a madrasa mosque 

- not hypostyle form  

- has a mihrab in the qibla wall 

- mausoleum  

- tomb in the center marked by 4 massive piers  

- richly ornamented  

- irregular alignment of the building to the street because of orientation of the  

mihrab and qibla wall toward Mecca  

- dome over the tomb on an octagonal base 

- interior reference to the Dome of the Rock 

- exterior reference to conquered Christian crusaders in the Mediterranean


- Funerary Complex (Mosque-Madrasa) of Sultan Hasan, Cairo, Egypt, 1350s 

- cruciform congregational mosque with 4 madrasas 

- tomb with its own dome 

- get to it by passing the qibla wall 

- baths, kitchen, water tower, etc — serving the community  

- huge structure — raised on a podium — lifted up from the street  

- entrance is at the opposite end of the mausoleum — richly ornamented  

- semi-dome at the top 

- muqarnas — honeycomb-like decoration specific to Islamic architecture  

- each courtyard is marked by a fountain 

- four-iwan space — courtyards, spaces for prayer  

- iwan — 3-walled rectangular hall 

- mihrab — paneled with marble, colorful bands, highly decorated  

- mausoleum — similar decorations, muqarnas in the dome hides the sense of structure 

- Piazza S. Marco, Venice, Italy, transformations begun 1172 

- open space in front of the church — place of public assembly 

- surrounded by three stories of arcades 

- campanile — bell tower, freestanding structure  

- Basilica of S. Marco, Venice, Italy, 1063-1094, façade 12th-13th century 

- copy of Byzantine church in Constantinople 

- Greek cross plan — 4 equal arms  

- Doge’s basilica — proximity to Doge’s palace 

- 5 domes on pendentives 

- similar to the Hagia Sophia 

- domes, cubic spatial core, columns, elaborate decoration 

- use of mosaics on interior and exterior — Byzantine  

- double-curved arch over entrance — Islamic  

- mosaics in the dome show the 12 apostles 

- onion domes on the exterior over the semicircular domes 

- opens onto a public piazza 

- facade — 12th-13th century 

- marble taken from other places, especially Constantinople 

- as the Doge’s power grows, the basilica gets more and more decorative 

- Doge’s Palace, Venice, Italy, 1340-1419 

- connection between the palace and the basilica highlights the unity between religion and government - the palace housed the administration, courts, private residences 

- organized around a courtyard 

- gothic architecture on the exterior 

- 2 story arcade, more enclosed on the third level 

- material choices show the extent of Venetian control outside of Venice 

- pointed arches on the ground level 

- cresting on the roof — from Cairo 

- traceries and quatrefoils on the second level 

- very open — protected by the water, not worried about defending the seat of power 

- monument to the political order of Venice 

- ties to Byzantium, Cairo, and Damascus 

- Carcassonne, France, rebuilt 1240 

- castle  

- double-walled + moat 

- the keep — most defendable part of the castle 

- included a church 

- bastide — connected to the castle by a bridge over the river 

- new town constructed below the castle 

- organized gridded city center 

- marketplace at the core — all about commercial exchange 

- defining characteristic of bastide towns


- Monpazier, France, founded 1284 - very carefully laid out grid plan - boundary walls with gates to major streets - church at the center — not set back from the street, no piazza - encouraging trade - market — focal point of the town - covered arcade - covered wood market hall — brought goods to trade from all over the region - City walls, Bruges, Belgium, 13th century - huge oval circuit of walls and canals - canals used to move goods around the city - market square at the center arranged around a courtyard - similar to the Caravansary in Cairo - for local merchants, no housing space - signified source of new wealth in Bruges - Belfry (Cloth Hall), Bruges, Belgium, 1280 - incorporated into the cloth hall, built for the guilds, and used for municipal meetings - became the model for European stock exchanges - Waterhalle, Bruges, Belgium, 1280 - long covered hall built over a canal — covered port for unloading goods - traders unloaded their goods directly from the ships to the merchants’ stalls - pitched roof with steepled gables - Abbey Church, St. Denis, France, new façade and choir, 1130-44 - rebuilt by Abbot Suger - built the narthex then the eastern end - the crypt below shaped the footprint of the building - launches gothic architecture - facade of the narthex - 3 portals/arches — central arch is biggest - Last Judgement scene above the center arch in the tympanum - entire arch/doorway is covered in sculpture - pointed rib vaults provide geometric flexibility over the narthex - eastern end - choir circled by ambulatory circled by chapels (chevet) - very open to the interior - bays have very distinct shapes - pointed vaults create uniform ceiling height - extensive numerical symbolism - unified form — more unified than St. Foye - ribbed vaults allow for dematerialization of the wall - create huge openings for stained glass - light as revelation - new form of light — quality over quantity - darkly colored windows - create a place between heaven and earth, between the secular  and the divine

- elevation through material


- Notre Dame Cathedral, Chartres, France, 1194-1220 

- west front — twin towers, rose window, 3 portals with windows above 

- sculpture is both exaggerated and naturalistic — very tall but lifelike figures  

- prominent transept projects out beyond width of nave and choir 

- west end is narrow than the east end 

- west block survived from the earlier structure  

- Latin-cross plan 

- single-aisle nave, double-aisle choir 

- regular single bays in the nave rather than double bays like in Romanesque churches 

- regular vaulting over the nave 

- flying buttresses above the aisle and gallery levels 

- main source of support for upper levels has been shifted to the exterior 

- creates relatively light-looking structure from the inside  

- able to build taller with this exterior support — draws the eye upwards 

- thin walls relative to early Romanesque forms 

- tall arcade, narrow triforium, tall clerestory 

- triforium replaces large galleries in earlier churches 

- clerestory  

- lancets — windows that end in a point on top 

- multi-lobe windows above the lancets 

- huge stained glass windows — provide no structural support 

- buttresses hold all the weight 

- intended to provide transcendental experience 

- Ste. Chapelle, Paris, France, 1240s 

- built as a royal chapel for St. Louis IX, part of the palace of St. Louis 

- housed fragments of relics to Christ (reliquary) 

- expressive tracery and windows 

- interior walls are reduced to pure skeletal forms 

- buttresses and iron chains integrated into vaulting 

- majority of the walls are stained glass 

- piers are punctuated with statues of the apostles 

- whole space celebrates the relics and gothic forms 

- line + geometry = spiritual effect drawing the eye upwards  

- Alhambra, Granada, Spain, 13th-14th centuries 

- raised citadel, royal palace complex 

- series of palaces at the core — rooms arranged symmetrically around courtyards 

- Court of the Myrtles 

- long rectangular pool surrounded by apartments, service areas 

- portico of arches set on very thin columns 

- rich tile and stucco work, muqarnas integrated into the form 

- Hall of the Ambassadors  

- cubic space inside a tower used for political meetings 

- geometric decoration, Kufic inscriptions 

- Court of the Lions 

- central fountain 

- water flows from the fountain through the interior of the palace  

- portico, muqarnas — intended lightness, surface is dematerialized  

- Hall of the Two Sisters 

- octagonal muqarnas dome above cubic volume 

- rich colorful tile work on the walls 

- carved stucco walls — inscriptions, geometric designs 

- muqarnas completely undermine sense of structure  

- quality of dematerialization — like in Ste. Chapelle — but two very different ways of portraying it  - highly ornate architecture is representative of the wealth of the Nasrid dynasty 

- Charles V built a square palace in the middle of the Alhambra — shift of government and religious standing in  Granada


- Bet Giorgis, Lalibela, Ethiopia, ca. 1200 

- King Lalibela recreated the city of Jerusalem with 11  

churches linked across the entire site and a recreation of  

the Jordan River

- single monolith cut into volcanic rock 

- carved in the shape of a Greek cross 

- processional sequence of tunnels leading to the church 

- baptismal pool in the courtyard 

- all preconceived ideas, no drawn plans 

- direct parallels to Ste. Chapelle — representation of Jerusalem 

- Palazzo Vecchio, Florence, begun 1299, Arnolfo di Cambio 

- form of a traditional fortified palace 

- built with rough stone — looks imposing and defensive  

- battlements on top project out 

- tall tower for defense  

- expanded over centuries to be much larger than its original form 

- organized around a central courtyard 

- small openings on the ground level — defensive 

- compare to Doge’s Palace in Venice 

- both are seats of government, however Palazzo Vecchio is very  

well protected, while the Doge’s Palace does not feel the need to  

be defended because it’s on water

- Santa Maria del Fiore Cathedral, Florence, begun 1296, by Arnolfo di Cambio, dome by Filippo Brunelleschi, 1418  -

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