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UW / Architecture / ARCH 351 / Which king built the lakshmana temple khajuraho?

Which king built the lakshmana temple khajuraho?

Which king built the lakshmana temple khajuraho?


School: University of Washington
Department: Architecture
Course: Romanesque, Gothic, and Renaissance Architecture
Professor: Brian mclaren
Term: Spring 2015
Tags: Architecture, history, and ENVD Architecture History
Cost: 50
Description: key terms and monuments with photos
Uploaded: 02/01/2018
10 Pages 197 Views 8 Unlocks


Which king built the lakshmana temple khajuraho?


- shikhara 

- a pyramidal tower built over the sanctuary (garbha griha) of a Hindu temple  

- ex/ Lakshmana Temple, Khajuraho, India 

- garbha griha 

- the inner sanctum of a Hindu temple, usually capped with a pyramid structure (shikhara) 

- ex/ Lakshmana Temple, Khajuraho, India 

- qibla  

- the prescribed Islamic prayer position facing Mecca, to which all mosques are oriented 

- ex/ Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem 

- minaret 

What is the orientation of mosques and prayer in the islamic world?

- a tall, slender tower at a mosque, from which the faithful are called to prayer by the crier 

- ex/ Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem 

- mihrab 

- a niche in the qibla wall of a Muslim religious building indicating the direction toward Mecca - ex/ Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem If you want to learn more check out What would social life be like if there were no social norms?
Don't forget about the age old question of Why is the shape of a neuron important to its function?

- ablaq 

- alternating bands of colored stones in Islamic masonry, derived from Byzantine techniques - ex/ Great Mosque of Cordoba, Spain 

- mandala 

- a diagram of the cosmos made from geometric patterns, used in India as the the plan for religious structures  - ex/ Angkor Wat, Cambodia  

What are the tall towers adjoining a mosque called?

- muqarnas 

- honeycomb, or stalactite, decoration of a vault or overhang, usually made with plaster as a succession of small  niches We also discuss several other topics like What is the difference between an independent variable and a dependent variable?

- ex/ Funerary Complex (Mosque-Madrasa) of Sultan Hasan, Cairo, Egypt 

- Charlemagne 

- French king, Holy Roman Emperor in 800, built many churches to increase power of state - ex/ Palatine Chapel, Aachen, Germany We also discuss several other topics like Where did charles beard graduate in indiana?

- westwork 

- the narthex, chapels, and twin towers set at the west entrance of Carolingian churches 

- ex/ Abbey of Cluny III, France 

- cloister 

- a monastery courtyard, usually planted, enclosed by a covered ambulatory  

- ex/ Ideal Monastery of St. Gall, Switzerland 

- abbey 

- a Christian monastery or convent and its church 

- ex/ Ideal Monastery of St. Gall, Switzerland 

- chevet 

- a series of radiating chapels extended from the apse of a Gothic church 

- ex/ Abbey Church, St. Denis, Paris 

- relic, reliquary  

- an object surviving from an earlier time, especially one of historical or sentimental interest, contained in a reliquary  - Ste. Chapelle, Paris Don't forget about the age old question of What are the characteristics of autism spectrum disorders?

- tympanum 

- a triangular space set within a pediment and placed above the columns at a door or window of a classical building - ex/ St. Foye, Conques, France


- arcade 

- a series of arches on columns or piers, either freestanding or attached to a wall  

- ex/ Notre Dame Cathedral, Chartres, France 

- triforium 

- in a medieval Christian church, a shallow arcaded passageway above the nave and below the clerestory - ex/ Notre Dame Cathedral, Chartres, France 

- nave 

- the taller central space lit by clerestories and flanked by aisles in a Christian church 

- ex/ Notre Dame Cathedral, Chartres, France 

- transept  

- the transverse arms of a cross-shaped church, crossing the main axis at a right angle We also discuss several other topics like Define foreign policy.

- ex/ Notre Dame Cathedral, Chartres, France 

- choir 

- the part of the church where the choir sits, at the end of the nave, past the transept 

- ex/ Notre Dame Cathedral, Chartres, France 

- ambulatory  

- a processional passageway around a shrine or flanking the apse of a Christian church  

- ex/ Palatine Chapel, Aachen, Germany 

- iwan 

- a large vaulted space open at one end, used in Islamic palaces, mosques, and madrasas - ex/ Funerary Complex (Mosque-Madrasa) of Sultan Hasan, Cairo, Egypt 

- Latin cross plan 

- a cross with one arm longer than the others, used for the majority of Christian churches 

- ex/ Notre Dame Cathedral, Chartres, France 

- Greek cross plan 

- a cross with four arms of equal length, often used in the plan of Byzantine churches 

- ex/ Basilica of S. Marco, Venice 

- tracery 

- a pattern of curvilinear, perforated ornament within the upper part of a medieval window or screen - ex/ Doge’s Palace, Venice 

- bastide 

- a new town in southwest France, preplanned and often laid out as an orthogonal grid 

- ex/ Carcassonne, France 

- Abbot Suger 

- one of the earliest patrons of Gothic architecture  

- ex/ Abbey Church, St. Denis, Paris 

- flying buttresses  

- an arch or half-arch that transfers the thrust of a vault or roof from an upper part of a wall to an external pylon  - ex/ Notre Dame Cathedral, Chartres, France 

- narthex 

- the transverse vestibule of an early Christian church 

- ex/ Abbey Church, St. Denis, Paris 

- rib vault (ribbed groin vault) 

- in Gothic cathedrals, a narrow projecting band on a ceiling or vault, usually structural but sometimes merely  decorative

- ex/ Abbey Church, St. Denis, Paris



- Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, 687-92 

- site

- located on the Temple Mount — significant for Jews, Christians, and Muslims

- Al-Aqsa mosque also on the site

- intended to emphasize status of Islam

- marks the holy rock from which Muhammad ascended to heaven

- follows architectural precedent of Christian churches

- similar to Church of Holy Sepulcher

- 18 gates lead from larger site into raised platform

- dome

- approached by 8 flights of stairs

- made of 2 wooden shells

- sits on drum that has 16 windows

- very richly decorated — current mosaics from Ottoman Empire

- interior decoration (Byzantine) — no representations of living beings — inconsistent with Islamic architecture - detail of mosaic makes clear statement of triumph, power

- 2 ambulatory spaces around the rock

- marble columns taken from other buildings (spolia)

- geometry — squares = earth; circles = sky; octagon = rotated squares

- Great Mosque, Damascus, Syria, 707-14 

- one of the earliest mosques still standing

- built over existing foundations — Christian basilica  

- established its size, points of entry

- courtyard provided large public space

- used for cleansing before prayer

- decorative mosaics are traditionally Muslim and Christian

- interior hypostyle hall defined by multiple columns

- imperial mosque — emphasized area reserved for the ruler

- rows bisected by nave-like space designated for the caliph

- dome over center of the nave

- columns taken from other sites (spolia)

- mihrab and minbar mark the ceremonial center of the plan

- Baghdad city plan, est. 762 

- walled city — on par with imperial splendor of Constantinople  

- laid out as a perfect circle — surveillance from the center

- major axes intersecting in the center — 4 roadways

- palace, mosque, government offices at the center

- radially-planned residential belt

- represents center of the new empire

- Great Mosque, Kairouan, Tunisia, 820-836 

- stands on foundations from the 7th century

- large courtyard serves as a public space

- modeled after Great Mosque at Baghdad

- stacked form of minaret, domed top

- relates to form of original lighthouse in Alexandria, Egypt

- relative raw quality of materials, limited decoration  

- interior lacks decoration — more about structural elements

- richly decorated mihrab — marble tiles, Roman columns

- aisles formed by reused classical columns (spolia)

- perpendicular central aisle

- domes at start and end of central aisle

- central aisle marked by paired columns  

- transverse corridor in front of mihrab

- alternative to pendentives — squinches hold up domes


- Rajarajesvaram, Thanjavur, India, ca.1000 

- rectangular form

- linear procession through to main temple pyramidal tower

- rich sculptural decoration on entire temple

- richly decorated tower topped with monolithic form

- bounded by a moat — importance of water — buildings built of granite brought from far away on water - columns surrounding entire space inside exterior wall

- porch, to hypostyle hall, then temple

- columns in hypostyle hall get closer together closer to the temple

- representation of the god Shiva beneath the temple over the womb chamber

- Kandariya Temple, Khajuraho, India, 1020 

- set on a high platform — clear vertical build-up from entry point to main tower

- stairs lead up to covered porch

- horizontal emphasis to decoration on exterior  

- designed to resemble a mountain

- the occupiable spaces are much smaller than the actual structure as a whole

- exterior reliefs portray sculptures of deities

- Angkor Wat, Angkor, Cambodia, 1130 

- monumental complex — grand gesture to legitimate ruler’s power

- set off from the surrounding landscape by outer wall and moat

- axial bridge into complex — raised causeway

- interior temple enclosed by another wall and gallery

- 4 tall corner towers, central tallest shikara

- plan as a whole reflects mandala form — geometric squares, circles

- towers represent Mt. Meru — model of the cosmos

- core of the structure is solid, not occupiable

- reliefs show imagery of Khmer rulers

- used sandstone brought from different places

- transformed from a Hindu temple to a Buddhist site

- Great Mosque, Cordoba, Spain, begun 785 

- monument to Ommayad Spain

- built at the edge of the city

- entrance is toward the core of the city

- decorated entrance is a representation of the mihrab on the inside

- courtyard framed by a portico — fountain for ritual cleansing in the courtyard

- subsequent rulers expanded on the core form over time

- 19 aisles perpendicular to the qibla wall — different than Great Mosque at Damascus

- horseshoe arches — alternating colors on the arches (red and white)

- geometric patterns are distinct to Spanish Islamic architecture  

- hypostyle prayer hall

- stacked arches increase the height of columns taken from other places (spolia)

- thicker arches toward the roof for support  

- Maqsura — bay in front of the mihrab for the ruler

- highly decorated

- poly-lobed arches

- dome overhead — octagonal shape created by skeletal ribs that increase decorative value - the mihrab is highly ornate — gold, inscriptions

- deeper than just a niche, with distinctive lighting

- designating idea of entering into paradise

- dome above based upon Dome of the Rock

- pure form, mosaic decoration

- in the 16th century, a gothic church was built in the middle of the hypostyle hall — superiority of Catholicism  - political statement — expansion of the plan/size of the mosque corresponds to the expansion of the Ommayad  Empire


- Palatine Chapel, Aachen, Germany, ca.800, designed by Oto of Metz 

- ground level vestibule leads into the church  

- groin vaults at ground level, barrel vaults at gallery level

- ambulatory space marked by piers

- clear separation of space through piers on ground level — different  

than Byzantine forms  

- 16-sided exterior becomes an octagon at the core

- relatively undecorated exterior  

- stairs on either side of the entrance lead to upper galleries — west work

- adopts the form of San Vitale, Ravenna

- in plan and in decoration — marble columns, mosaics  

- columns taken from other places (spolia)

- ground level dedicated to Mary, upper level dedicated to Christ

- rises into a dome

- seat for the Emperor in the upper gallery

- similar form to the Dome of the Rock

- you can’t stand at the core of the building in the Dome of the Rock, but the movement around is similar - Plan, Ideal Monastery of St. Gall, ca.820  

- ideas of St. Benedict — not actually built  

- relationship between interior life and the external world

- public functions are there but are separate from the monks

- centered around the idea of the creation of self-sufficient community  

- private elements are at the core of the plan

- cloister for monks with central courtyard

- monks have their own community undisturbed from the outside world

- church is made of stone, everything else is made of wood

- paired towers of the church create a west work

- the interior is similar to Christian basilicas in Rome

- very thick walls — indicative of the time period

- Abbey of Cluny III, France, 1088-1130 (construction at the site initiated 909)  

- expanded its plan over time — immense complex

- showed the evolution of Romanesque forms  

- home to the Cluniac monastic order — incredibly powerful

- development of Benedictine ideals — greater piety, more focused on  


- more worldly, establishes bureaucratic system

- leads to reform of monastic orders

- the church is modeled after early Christian basilicas

- planning for a large number of visitors coming from pilgrimage  

- the atrium leads to the narthex punctuated by twin towers (west work)  

which leads to the nave, the transept, then a deep choir and apses  

- stone barrel vaults over the nave

- nave — 3 levels — arcade, triforium, clerestory  

- double aisles on either side help support the height

- tall tower over the transept

- space for housing guests, areas to support the life of the community

- references ideal forms of St. Gall

- third iteration of the church is huge — power of the abbey

- purely focused on religious liturgy

- nave flanked by 4 aisles, 2 transepts  

- chapels off transepts, radiating chapels at the apse end

- multiple towers represent towers of Jerusalem

- representation of rising up to the heavens

- walls and piers were up to 8 feet thick to support the height — monumentality


- St Foye, Conques, France, 1060-1140 

- previous Benedictine abbey

- similar to earlier Carolingian church forms — ideal St. Gall plan

- part of a village community

- pilgrims flocked to the relic of St. Foye

- west work — point of intersection between the church and the community

- largely undecorated facade

- Tympanum — recessed arched decoration above the door portrays the Last Judgement  

- cruciform plan

- radiating chapels around the ambulatory and choir

- two story nave — no direct light from the inside, windows are in the outer wall

- barrel vaults like at Cluny

- Durham Cathedral, England, begun 1093 

- bringing ideas from St. Etienne to England  

- definitive example of Norman Romanesque 

- Latin cross longitudinal plan 

- alternating bays with heavy and smaller piers 

- 7-part vault 

- tall aisles, even taller nave 

- galleries don’t get direct sunlight from the outside  

- clerestories let in light 

- quadrant arches above the gallery — precursor to flying buttresses 

- decoration on piers, in moldings within arches — not seen in France — from  

Anglo-Saxon tradition

- earliest example of rib vaults 

- create 7 compartments between ‘x’s 

- pointed arches help span the bays 

- Monreale Cathedral, (Sicily) Italy, 1150 

- Normans incorporate Muslim and Byzantine elements  

- has a monastic quality — cloister 

- early Christian nave — very wide with narrow aisles 

- triple-apse choir — characteristic of Byzantine churches 

- exterior interlacing of pointed arches — Muslim architecture  

- cloister — paired decorated columns holding up arches 

- has a fountain for washing — similar to a mosque 

- highly decorated mosaic interior by Byzantine artists  

- clerestory + flat ceiling — early Christian basilicas  

- pointed arches reflect multiple influences  

- church mirror what is happening in the region — mixing of Romanesque Christians, Muslims, Byzantines - al-Ghuri Caravansary, Cairo, Egypt, 1505 

- temporary housing and storage for merchants selling goods in Cairo 

- organized around a courtyard  

- stone mason — alternating bands of color  

- representation of trade across the Mediterranean 

- Funerary Complex (Madrasa and Tomb) of Qalawun, Cairo, Egypt, 1285 

- a madrasa mosque 

- not hypostyle form  

- has a mihrab in the qibla wall 

- mausoleum  

- tomb in the center marked by 4 massive piers  

- richly ornamented  

- irregular alignment of the building to the street because of orientation of the  

mihrab and qibla wall toward Mecca  

- dome over the tomb on an octagonal base 

- interior reference to the Dome of the Rock 

- exterior reference to conquered Christian crusaders in the Mediterranean


- Funerary Complex (Mosque-Madrasa) of Sultan Hasan, Cairo, Egypt, 1350s 

- cruciform congregational mosque with 4 madrasas 

- tomb with its own dome 

- get to it by passing the qibla wall 

- baths, kitchen, water tower, etc — serving the community  

- huge structure — raised on a podium — lifted up from the street  

- entrance is at the opposite end of the mausoleum — richly ornamented  

- semi-dome at the top 

- muqarnas — honeycomb-like decoration specific to Islamic architecture  

- each courtyard is marked by a fountain 

- four-iwan space — courtyards, spaces for prayer  

- iwan — 3-walled rectangular hall 

- mihrab — paneled with marble, colorful bands, highly decorated  

- mausoleum — similar decorations, muqarnas in the dome hides the sense of structure 

- Piazza S. Marco, Venice, Italy, transformations begun 1172 

- open space in front of the church — place of public assembly 

- surrounded by three stories of arcades 

- campanile — bell tower, freestanding structure  

- Basilica of S. Marco, Venice, Italy, 1063-1094, façade 12th-13th century 

- copy of Byzantine church in Constantinople 

- Greek cross plan — 4 equal arms  

- Doge’s basilica — proximity to Doge’s palace 

- 5 domes on pendentives 

- similar to the Hagia Sophia 

- domes, cubic spatial core, columns, elaborate decoration 

- use of mosaics on interior and exterior — Byzantine  

- double-curved arch over entrance — Islamic  

- mosaics in the dome show the 12 apostles 

- onion domes on the exterior over the semicircular domes 

- opens onto a public piazza 

- facade — 12th-13th century 

- marble taken from other places, especially Constantinople 

- as the Doge’s power grows, the basilica gets more and more decorative 

- Doge’s Palace, Venice, Italy, 1340-1419 

- connection between the palace and the basilica highlights the unity between religion and government - the palace housed the administration, courts, private residences 

- organized around a courtyard 

- gothic architecture on the exterior 

- 2 story arcade, more enclosed on the third level 

- material choices show the extent of Venetian control outside of Venice 

- pointed arches on the ground level 

- cresting on the roof — from Cairo 

- traceries and quatrefoils on the second level 

- very open — protected by the water, not worried about defending the seat of power 

- monument to the political order of Venice 

- ties to Byzantium, Cairo, and Damascus 

- Carcassonne, France, rebuilt 1240 

- castle  

- double-walled + moat 

- the keep — most defendable part of the castle 

- included a church 

- bastide — connected to the castle by a bridge over the river 

- new town constructed below the castle 

- organized gridded city center 

- marketplace at the core — all about commercial exchange 

- defining characteristic of bastide towns


- Monpazier, France, founded 1284 - very carefully laid out grid plan - boundary walls with gates to major streets - church at the center — not set back from the street, no piazza - encouraging trade - market — focal point of the town - covered arcade - covered wood market hall — brought goods to trade from all over the region - City walls, Bruges, Belgium, 13th century - huge oval circuit of walls and canals - canals used to move goods around the city - market square at the center arranged around a courtyard - similar to the Caravansary in Cairo - for local merchants, no housing space - signified source of new wealth in Bruges - Belfry (Cloth Hall), Bruges, Belgium, 1280 - incorporated into the cloth hall, built for the guilds, and used for municipal meetings - became the model for European stock exchanges - Waterhalle, Bruges, Belgium, 1280 - long covered hall built over a canal — covered port for unloading goods - traders unloaded their goods directly from the ships to the merchants’ stalls - pitched roof with steepled gables - Abbey Church, St. Denis, France, new façade and choir, 1130-44 - rebuilt by Abbot Suger - built the narthex then the eastern end - the crypt below shaped the footprint of the building - launches gothic architecture - facade of the narthex - 3 portals/arches — central arch is biggest - Last Judgement scene above the center arch in the tympanum - entire arch/doorway is covered in sculpture - pointed rib vaults provide geometric flexibility over the narthex - eastern end - choir circled by ambulatory circled by chapels (chevet) - very open to the interior - bays have very distinct shapes - pointed vaults create uniform ceiling height - extensive numerical symbolism - unified form — more unified than St. Foye - ribbed vaults allow for dematerialization of the wall - create huge openings for stained glass - light as revelation - new form of light — quality over quantity - darkly colored windows - create a place between heaven and earth, between the secular  and the divine

- elevation through material


- Notre Dame Cathedral, Chartres, France, 1194-1220 

- west front — twin towers, rose window, 3 portals with windows above 

- sculpture is both exaggerated and naturalistic — very tall but lifelike figures  

- prominent transept projects out beyond width of nave and choir 

- west end is narrow than the east end 

- west block survived from the earlier structure  

- Latin-cross plan 

- single-aisle nave, double-aisle choir 

- regular single bays in the nave rather than double bays like in Romanesque churches 

- regular vaulting over the nave 

- flying buttresses above the aisle and gallery levels 

- main source of support for upper levels has been shifted to the exterior 

- creates relatively light-looking structure from the inside  

- able to build taller with this exterior support — draws the eye upwards 

- thin walls relative to early Romanesque forms 

- tall arcade, narrow triforium, tall clerestory 

- triforium replaces large galleries in earlier churches 

- clerestory  

- lancets — windows that end in a point on top 

- multi-lobe windows above the lancets 

- huge stained glass windows — provide no structural support 

- buttresses hold all the weight 

- intended to provide transcendental experience 

- Ste. Chapelle, Paris, France, 1240s 

- built as a royal chapel for St. Louis IX, part of the palace of St. Louis 

- housed fragments of relics to Christ (reliquary) 

- expressive tracery and windows 

- interior walls are reduced to pure skeletal forms 

- buttresses and iron chains integrated into vaulting 

- majority of the walls are stained glass 

- piers are punctuated with statues of the apostles 

- whole space celebrates the relics and gothic forms 

- line + geometry = spiritual effect drawing the eye upwards  

- Alhambra, Granada, Spain, 13th-14th centuries 

- raised citadel, royal palace complex 

- series of palaces at the core — rooms arranged symmetrically around courtyards 

- Court of the Myrtles 

- long rectangular pool surrounded by apartments, service areas 

- portico of arches set on very thin columns 

- rich tile and stucco work, muqarnas integrated into the form 

- Hall of the Ambassadors  

- cubic space inside a tower used for political meetings 

- geometric decoration, Kufic inscriptions 

- Court of the Lions 

- central fountain 

- water flows from the fountain through the interior of the palace  

- portico, muqarnas — intended lightness, surface is dematerialized  

- Hall of the Two Sisters 

- octagonal muqarnas dome above cubic volume 

- rich colorful tile work on the walls 

- carved stucco walls — inscriptions, geometric designs 

- muqarnas completely undermine sense of structure  

- quality of dematerialization — like in Ste. Chapelle — but two very different ways of portraying it  - highly ornate architecture is representative of the wealth of the Nasrid dynasty 

- Charles V built a square palace in the middle of the Alhambra — shift of government and religious standing in  Granada


- Bet Giorgis, Lalibela, Ethiopia, ca. 1200 

- King Lalibela recreated the city of Jerusalem with 11  

churches linked across the entire site and a recreation of  

the Jordan River

- single monolith cut into volcanic rock 

- carved in the shape of a Greek cross 

- processional sequence of tunnels leading to the church 

- baptismal pool in the courtyard 

- all preconceived ideas, no drawn plans 

- direct parallels to Ste. Chapelle — representation of Jerusalem 

- Palazzo Vecchio, Florence, begun 1299, Arnolfo di Cambio 

- form of a traditional fortified palace 

- built with rough stone — looks imposing and defensive  

- battlements on top project out 

- tall tower for defense  

- expanded over centuries to be much larger than its original form 

- organized around a central courtyard 

- small openings on the ground level — defensive 

- compare to Doge’s Palace in Venice 

- both are seats of government, however Palazzo Vecchio is very  

well protected, while the Doge’s Palace does not feel the need to  

be defended because it’s on water

- Santa Maria del Fiore Cathedral, Florence, begun 1296, by Arnolfo di Cambio, dome by Filippo Brunelleschi, 1418  -

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