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U of L - GEOS 301 - Study Guide - Midterm

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U of L - GEOS 301 - Study Guide - Midterm

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background image Main steps: identify problem, develop hypothesis using data, and test to discard, revise or confirm 
Scientific Theory - a set of hypotheses that consistently explains aspects of the physical world The Scientific Method is inquiring using systematic observations and experiments and is based off logical 
in which positive (certain) knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties 
and relations (laws of nature).
Uniformitarianism - the present is key to understanding the past Historical Geology is exploring the evolution of life via geologic record Geology as a Science - this course is based on physical geology which is investigating Earth's processes Compositional Layers: Crust (15C, 2.5-3 g/cm3), mantle (3.3-5.7 g/cm3), liquid iron outer core (9.9 
g/cm3), solid iron core (5430C, 13 g/cm3)
Mantle: iron, magnesium, aluminum, oxygen, silicon (stony material) Average density of Earth is 5.5 g/cm3 Mechanical Layers: Lithosphere - crust and ridged part of upper mantle (sphere of rocks, floats on 
mantle), asthenosphere - weakest layer of Earth (plastic), mesosphere, outer core and inner core
Moho discontinuity - distinct and uneven boundary between crust and mantle, found through 
seismic waves
Seismic P and S wave paths and velocities are affected by rock density and presence of material 
discontinuities within the earth
Seismic wave calibrations reveal structure of the Earth's interior to a high degree of accuracy Earth's Shape, Surface, and Layers Earth system consists of 3 interacting sub-systems: climate, plate tectonics, geodynamo The sun drives Earth's external engine Earth's internal engine is powered by trapped heat and radioactivity in its interior Solar energy is responsible for our climate and weather Heat radiating from Earth balances solar input and heat from interior Meteors move mass from the cosmos to Earth Mass and Energy exchange in the earth system The Earth's dipolar magnetic field is similar to magnetic field produces by an electromagnet The magnetic north pole is 11 degrees from the geographic north pole because the Earth is 
Relatively fast thermal convections in the liquid iron outer core generates electrical currents 
in the solid-iron inner core
Periodically (every half a million years), the field reverses polarity. The reversals are 
recorded in crystalline rocks (geomagnetism). 
Geodynamo Know the overview of geologic time Formation of the Solar System - The solar system and its planets formed from remains of a 
supernova explosion about 15 billion years ago
Earth as a system Continental drift: A single landmass broke apart into smaller continental landmasses, which 
drifted to present-day positions.
Sea-floor spreading: New oceanic crust is created at the ridges while the old oceanic crust 
subducts into the Earth's mantle at the oceanic trenches Age and magnetic record of ocean floor 
Development of the theory: Joining of two hypotheses: the continental drift hypothesis 1912-1925 
(Wegener) and the sea-floor spreading hypothesis 1950-1966 (Vine, Matthews, Morley)
Study Guide 1 - Most Important Things to Know Thursday, February 1, 2018 7:32 PM     geosciences Page 1    
background image subducts into the Earth's mantle at the oceanic trenches Age and magnetic record of ocean floor 
rocks were used in support of this hypothesis. 
Possible plate tectonic mechanisms:  Whole mantle convection - Plate recycling continues down to the mantle-core boundary 1. Stratified convection - plate recycling is confined to the upper mantle (near 700 km there is a boundary) 2. Ridge push and slab pull - the motion of the ridge extruding and the slab going under the continents 
causes recycling
3. The lithosphere contains 13 ridged plates Plates drift 14-159 mm per year over the asthenosphere Divergent boundaries: mid-ocean ridges and continental rifting (rifting zones are 
characterized by parallel rift valleys, volcanism, and earthquakes) examples of this in 
Iceland, Northwestern Mexico and area around the red sea
New crust is created at divergent boundaries Ocean-ocean (where ocean lithosphere meets ocean lithosphere, one plate is 
subducted under the other and a deep-sea trench and volcanic islands are formed)
Ocean-continent (the oceanic lithosphere is subducted under the continent and a 
volcanic mountain range is formed)
Continent-continent (two continents converge, the crust crumples and thickens, 
creating mountains and a plateau)
Convergent boundaries:  Old crust is subducted at convergent boundaries Continental - the two plates slip horizontally past each other (San Andreas Fault in 
Ocean ridge - mid-ocean ridges are typically offset by transform faults The plates slide by each other at transform boundaries Statement of the Plate Tectonics Theory - know these for the test 99% of material for the earth minerals is provided by only 8 elements: iron, oxygen, aluminum, 
silicon, magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium
Bonding types: ionically bonded minerals (giving of electrons, NaCl), covalently bonded minerals 
(electron sharing, carbon, diamonds), mixed bonding
High temperature environments create crystallization from magma, lava, and hydrothermal 
Low-t precipitation from seawater Ionic substitution provides significant physical and chemical variety in minerals: ions with 
similar charge and radii may substitute one another in the crystal structure, substitution is a 
function of P-T-x
Every 5% difference in composition of elements is named a new type of mineral Where, and how do minerals form? We identify minerals by their chemical composition, crystal structure and physical properties Native elements, oxides (O 2-), halides (Cl-, F-, Br-, I-), carbonates (CO3 2-), sulfates (SO4 2-), 
silicates (SiO4 4-), sulfides (S 2-), phosphates (PO4 3-), hydroxides (OH-)
Generic reaction: silicate ion + metallic cation --> silicate mineral SiO4 4- is a Silica Tetrahedron The amount of cations deplete in the groups in descending order  NEED TO  KNOW Mineral groups: Olivine (isolated tetrahedra), Pyroxene (single 
chain), Amphibole (double chain), Micas (includes Muscovite and Biotite, 
sheets), Feldspars (includes Orthoclase and Plagioclase, 3D framework) and 
Quartz (3D framework)
Silicates  Silicates and non-silicates Chemical classes of minerals Mineral Groups and Properties     geosciences Page 2    

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School: University of Louisville
Department: OTHER
Course: Geology for Scientists and Engineers
Professor: Jafar Hadizadeh
Term: Spring 2018
Tags: Geology, geology notes, Physical Geology, and minerals
Name: GEOS 301 Study Guide for Exam 1
Description: These notes cover everything we had learned in class so far and I will be updating it right up until the first exam.
Uploaded: 02/02/2018
4 Pages 25 Views 20 Unlocks
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