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UF / Psychology / LIN 2000 / What is the history of disabilities?

What is the history of disabilities?

What is the history of disabilities?


School: University of Florida
Department: Psychology
Course: Impact of Disabilities
Professor: Penny cox
Term: Spring 2017
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: These notes cover the material for our 1st exam.
Uploaded: 02/02/2018
4 Pages 10 Views 11 Unlocks

I. History of Disabilities

What is the history of disabilities?

A. Different terms have been used to describe people with disabilities (retard, special needs, disabled, idiot…)

B. Examples through history

1. The Spartans decided if weak children would be raised to left to die

2. Twelve Tables of Rome: They immediately put to death a baby if they were different from members of the human race

3. Hippocrates: He refuted the idea that epilepsy was a curse

4. Plato: Endorsed selective breeding to improve society and eliminate defects/weaknesses (Weak people should not have kids)

5. Court fools: Entertainment, filled with people with physical or mental disabilities

II. Positives and Negatives about the emergence of almshouses

A. Positives: Realizes that people need support and help. They got people with disabilities off the street, and gave them food and clothing.

What are the positives and negatives about the emergence of almshouse?

B. Negatives: Segregation. Discrimination, they were for “lunatics, idiots, and epileptics.”

III. Dorothea Dix

A. Worked to establish separate facilities for people with mental disabilities and mental illnesses.

B. She found that people with disabilities were not where they should be and she could served them with better facilities

IV. Themes found throughout history

A. Fear/rejection of the unknown/difference

B. Disability is grouped with poverty and criminality

C. Separate living, sterilization/elimination/selective breeding, weak, seen as entertainment, laws influenced experience, inherited characteristics, no value, don’t belong in society, always inferior, no rights, too much work to help/ lost cause

Who is dorothea dix?

We also discuss several other topics like Velocity can be what?
Don't forget about the age old question of econ 245 class notes

V. Types of failure associated with disability

A. Aesthetic: failure of appearance

B. Moral: failure to make the right decision/choice We also discuss several other topics like under the gold standard, each currency was convertible into gold at a specified rate, and the exchange rate between two currencies was determined by their relative convertibility rates per ounce of gold.

C. Economic: failure to be able to provide/ have a job

VI. Definition of and Models for Defining Disability

A. Disability is an umbrella term, covering impairments, activity limitations and participation restrictions

B. Moral Model

1. More prevalent in the past

2. Very judgemental

3. Very negative

C. Medical Model If you want to learn more check out polypsy

1. Looks at the person and says “there is a problem here and we need to fix it.” (Diagnose and treat)

2. The problem is the individual

D. Social Model

1. There is nothing wrong with the individual, it is just how society views them

2. What might be the issue in society?

3. Instead of fixing the person, look for changes to make in the environment VII. Overarching Issues

A. Access

1. Physical

a) Buildings must be physically accessible

2. Opportunity- not given a chance to try

B. Communication

1. Expressive- not being able to say what they want to say or have a small vocabulary

2. Receptive- not being able to understand or comprehend what is being said to them

C. Discrimination- not being welcomed because of their disability

VIII. Cognitive Disabilities

A. Refers to conditions that cause the individual to have difficulty with mentally performed tasks. Can have different levels of severity.

B. Includes dementia, attention deficit disorder (ADD), problems caused by brain injuries, learning disabilities, and intellectual disabilities Don't forget about the age old question of adams enterprises' noncallable bonds currently sell for $910. they have a 15-year maturity, an annual coupon of $85, and a par value of $1,000. what is their yield to maturity?

IX. Intellectual Disabilities

A. Examples

1. Fragile X Syndrome: the most common inherited cause

2. Down Syndrome: the most common chromosomal cause

B. Causes

1. Chromosomal/genetic

2. Maternal health

3. Environmental

4. Oxygen deprivation during delivery

5. Illness/Injury

X. Requirement for Identification

A. Characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior,​ present in everyday social and practical skills​ and present before the age of 18​.

1. Adaptive behaviors

a) Conceptual: language, money, self-direction

b) Social: Interpersonal, self-esteem

c) Practical: self-help, daily living skills, safety, occupational skills

XI. Levels of Support

A. Intermittent: provided as needed; often during life transitionsDon't forget about the age old question of What is the sternberg paradigm?

B. Limited: time-limited supports, regularly scheduled but only for a certain amount of time

C. Extensive: Regular involvement in at least some environments, not time limited D. Pervasive: daily involvement, long-term support, need help in all areas and 24/7 XII. Physical Disabilities

A. Orthopedic: has an impact on one or a combination of muscles, joints, and bones B. Causes are either damage to the CNS or damage to/loss of limb

C. Example: Cerebral Palsy

XIII. Health Impairments

A. Have an impact of a person’s strength, vitality, and alertness

B. Illnesses or diseases that impeded operation of various organs

1. Cancer, cystic fibrosis, epilepsy

C. Can be acquired or genetically transmitted

D. Most common health impairment in children is asthma

XIV. CP- Types

A. Cerebral Palsy is a condition that affects the ability to move the body and coordinate muscles

B. Spastic, athetoid (floppy), ataxic (balance), mixed forms

XV. Emotional/Behavioral Disorders

A. These have to do with patterns of behavior that negatively affect a person’s ability to function

XVI. Autism

A. A lifelong, neurological and developmental disability that affects patterns of development, not the ability to learn

B. Expressive and receptive language is affected

C. Primarily a social disorder that affects a person's ability to communicate, understand language, and socially interact with others

XVII. Past Beliefs about Causes

A. Term first used to describe adults with schizophrenia

B. Bad mothers, children felt hopeless so led them to autism (Bruno Bettelheim said this)

XVIII. Characteristics for Identification

A. Diagnosed by observation and interviews

1. Involves applying DSM-V criteria and developmental history

B. Must consider communication/socialization and behavior (activities, range of interests, and repetitive behavior)

C. Largely subjective (PROBLEM)

D. Must have both characteristics and must show up in early childhood

XIX. Autism Spectrum Disorders

A. Characteristics: Language is affected, engagement in repetitive movements, resistance to environmental change or changes in routine, unusual responses to sensory experiences, present from birth or early in the developmental period, social interactions impaired

B. Behavior/ Range of Interests

1. Narrow range of interests; high interests in few topics

2. Greater interest in objects than people

3. Difficulty adjusting behavior for social contexts

4. Preservation

5. Insistence on sameness

6. Repetitive motor movements

7. Unusual responses to sensory stimuli

C. Communication/Socialization

1. Language skills can vary from none to very sophisticated

2. Difficulty with “back-and-forth” communication

3. Echolalia- individual repetition of things they hear in conversation or in media

4. Difficulty understanding non-literal language

5. Impaired verbal communication

6. Reciprocal relationships may be impacted

XX. Visual Supports- Uses and Types

A. Anything visual will help

B. Boundaries: room arrangement; visual boundaries

C. Schedules: individual, classroom/work

D. Cues: instructions, graphic organizers, labels

XXI. Social Narratives- Uses and Types

A. Helps people with ASD develop certain skills for a certain task

B. Specific types of sentences

1. Descriptive: present information, accurate, objective

a) There are many ways to greet someone

2. Perspective: opinions, feelings, ideas, etc

a) Friends enjoy doing things together

3. Directive: offers response(s) for situations, positively stated, allow for flexibility

a) I might like to go to a movie

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