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UW / OTHER / HSTAFM 163 / What were the highlights at the tobaco protest of 1891?

What were the highlights at the tobaco protest of 1891?

What were the highlights at the tobaco protest of 1891?

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What were the highlights at the tobaco protest of 1891?



ID questions — identify five of seven — who, what, when, where, why

- Huda Sha’rawi 

- founded the Egyptian Feminist Union in 1923 

- initially focused on issues like women’s suffrage, equal access to education, and reforming marriage laws - supported complete independence from Britain, but also promoted European values and had a secular orientation - in 1925, the government made primary education compulsory for boys and girls 

- in the late 20s, women were admitted to the national university for the first time 

- The Wafd 

- early 20th century delegation for Egyptian independence from the British  


What led to the iraqi uprising of 1920?



If you want to learn more check out What happens in the first phase of mind-body research?

- consisted of land-owning notables and lawyers, led by French-educated lawyer, Sa’d Zaghlul - the Wafd’s goal was Egyptian independence once and for all If you want to learn more check out Why is defining terrorism so difficult?

- the British arrested Zaghlul and exiled him to Malta —> spurred demonstrations, which Britain responded to by force - demonstrations grew and became a movement in 1919 

- British officials eased the protests by allowing Zaghlul and the Wafd to represent Egypt at the Paris Peace  Conference in 1919

- Britain abolished the protectorate in 1922 and Egypt became independent, though there was still British influence - Britain would remain in control of communications, defense, foreign affairs, and the Sudan - Sa’d Zaghlul became Egypt’s first elected prime minister in 1924 


What was the main goal of the urabi revolt?



- in 1936, the Wafdist government signed an Anglo-Egyptian treaty that recognized Egypt’s independence, but it  provided for a British military presence in the Suez Canal zone and reaffirmed Britain’s control over Egypt’s defense - acceptance of European values and attempts to impose them on Egyptian society distanced the Wafd Party from  the population

- diminution of religion — belief that European civilization was superior to the Islamic order - Tobacco protest of 1891 We also discuss several other topics like What are 3 types of endocytosis?
Don't forget about the age old question of How do we know what the world is like?

- corruption and inefficiency of government + policy of opening Iran up to economic exploitation led to popular unrest - in 1890, the shah granted a British company the right to produce, sell, and export Iran’s tobacco crop, a product  widely consumed and sold by Iranians

- sparked a series of mass protests against the concessions and the shah, led by the Shia ulama - wanted to preserve Islam in the face of foreign influence 

- declared the use of tobacco unlawful until the concession was canceled  

- led to a state-wide boycott of tobacco Don't forget about the age old question of What is the ability of the brain to adapt structure and function to damage or experience?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is octet rule and example?

- the shah canceled the concession in 1892 

- Iraqi uprising of 1920 

- the British mandate in Iraq was very unpopular 

- prior to the revolt there were peaceful protests and demonstrations  

- in the predominantly Kurdish NE part of the country, there was still a considerable desire for autonomy  - in the central regions, Shia Muslims did not think Iraq should be ruled by non-Muslims 

- fear of new unknown administration 

- relatively unified revolt against the British (different motives, but fought together) 

- two geographical centers of the revolt 

- north — Kurds 

- mid-Euphrates region —Shia religious authorities  

- some tribes took up arms against the revolt because it had some benefit to them (paid by the British, etc) - about immediate power and immediate interests  

- British royal air force put down the revolt  

- Iraq was a testing ground to see if the British could control Iraq from the air  

- faster, easier, cheaper

2

- Husayn-McMahon correspondence of 1915-16 

- British would protect Hashemites from the Saudis, make an Arab state 

- these promises were at odds with other promises made between the British and the Ottomans - Sykes-Picot agreement in 1916 

- between Britain and France, never implemented  

- divided up the Middle East into zones of direct control and spheres of influence 

- Russian influence in the north 

- no regard for interests of people in the region 

- drew boundaries between people who had never lived together —> spurred conflict seen today - Urabi Revolt 

- Egyptian army general, Ahmad Urabi, started a movement that developed into a revolt against the khedive because  of European exploitation —> “Egypt for the Egyptians”

- Britain was afraid that the Egyptian debts to their banks would not be repaid  

- British invasion of Egypt in 1882 to exile Urabi 

- developed into an occupation of Egypt for decades to come 

- Ferdinand de Lesseps 

- Egypt granted a concession to Ferdinand de Lesseps (France) to build and operate the Suez Canal - opened in 1869, having gone very far over budget  

- France wasn’t responsible for the debt, Egypt was 

- Egypt was being exploited by Lesseps —> huge debt, loss of lives in dangerous project  

- Egypt went bankrupt in 1876 

- Sultan Mahmud II 

- ruled from 1808 to 1839 

- derebey-ulama-Janissary coalition threw out his predecessor, needed to be curbed  

- derebey —> land reform, abolished the feudal system  

- ulama —> brought waqfs under control of the state  

- Janissaries —> wanted to replace them with a salaried army  

- Janissaries revolted against the creation of the new army 

- Auspicious Incident (1826) —> had the Janissaries murdered 

- reformed his offices so they looked like European-style ministries  

- clothing reform — European suits and a fez, which became a marker of European elites in the Middle East  - answered directly to him, much more top-down 

- founded the first Ottoman Turkish newspaper in 1831 — investing in education 

- language training of civil servants in French —> language of bureaucracy  

- allowed them to communicate more directly with European officials  

- Treaty of Jiddah (Jeddah) in 1927 

- British recognized the sovereignty of the Saudis 

- Saudis recognized British protectorates along the Gulf coast 

- Tanzimat 

- Edict of the Rose Chamber in 1839 

- indicated that reforms applied to all Ottoman subjects without separating them by religion —> new phenomenon  - all Ottoman subjects had the same rights and responsibilities —> Ottomanism 

- military conscription was extended to Christians and Jews, not just Muslims  

- this form of nationalism superseded other affiliations  

- the Tanzimat extended and accelerated the reforms put in place by Mahmud II 

- started in the military, then extended to the civilian domain  

- higher education for civilians

3

- Faysal-Weizmann Agreement in 1919 

- Weizmann pledged that the Jewish community would cooperate with the Arabs in Palestine’s economic development - Faysal would recognize the Balfour Declaration and consent to Jewish immigration, provided that the rights of the  Palestinian Arabs were protected and Arab demands for an independent Greater Syria were recognized - the document became void when the French invaded Syria  

- Hassan al-Banna 

- founded the Muslim Brotherhood in 1928 in Egypt 

- from a poor, rural background, became urbanized  

- did not have an elite European education —> educated as a teacher in Cairo 

- anti-imperialist 

- pan-Islamism —> favored global Islamic community (ummah) 

- saw Islam as all-encompassing for society and politics —> ‘The Qur’an is our constitution’ - more symbolic than literal —> reflects conflict between purist Islamist ideals and practical governance  - populist leader —> mass politics  

- no interest in clerical debates over religious doctrine 

- believed strongly in reinterpreting Islamic law for the modern era  

- reconciling Islamic values with modern technology 

- The Auspicious Incident 

- Sultan Mahmud II had the Janissaries murdered after they revolted against the creation of a salaried army in 1826 - began to rebuild his army along European lines 

- Reza Shah Pahlavi 

- Britain wanted to make Iran a protectorate but the Qajars wouldn’t sign the treaty 

- the British empowered the leader of the Cossack Brigade, Reza Shah Pahlavi, to mount a coup against the Qajars - Reza Shah became the new Iranian shah with British support 

- undertook many reforms, styled after Ataturk 

- ethnic Iranian nationalism  

- focused on ancient Persian history —> glorifies ancient Iranian heritage —> downplays religion - promoted the idea of Iran as Aryan  

- changed the name of the country from Persia to Iran 

- attempted language reform  

- wanted to make the language more purely Persian, eliminating Arabic and Turkish 

- secularism  

- the religious establishment in Iran was Shia, not Sunni —> leads to resistance against secularism because the  clerics are much more powerful

- clear hierarchy in Shia Islam —> centralized  

- Reza Shah banned public Shia rituals because he was afraid they would turn into demonstrations  - dress codes  

- Western-style suits, Pahlavi hat for men in the Majlis (parliament) 

- women were forced to unveil, wear European-style clothing 

- distinction between feminism and public patriarchy 

- the state stepped in and dictated what women wore on the pretense of patriotism  

- import substitution industrialization  

- wanted Iran to become self-sufficient  

- tariffs on imports from the West—> led to local industrialization  

- common response to integration and peripheralization

4

- Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) 

- first leader of the Turkish republic in 1923 

- continued precedents set by previous regimes (Tanzimat) 

- secularism — abolishment of the sultan and the caliphate in 1924 

- civil law was secularized and based on European-models, not shariah law  

- statism and industrialization  

- centralization of the economy  

- industries constructed from the ground up, not based around a particular resource  

- Turkish nationalism  

- started in the 19th century, amid encroachment of European influence  

- very different from Islamic revivalism  

- institutionalized nationalism  

- language reform  

- formally written in Arabic, switched to Latin script  

- clothing reform  

- wearing a fez was associated with the Ottoman past —> outlawed  

- changes in women’s clothing —> looking European, glamorous 

- National Pact (Lebanon, 1943) 

- remnants of ‘divide and rule’ policy in the composition of the government  

- idea that Lebanon was a haven for Maronites bred resentment with non-Christians  

- the National Pact established a careful ratio in government based on the national census in 1932 - for every 6 Christians in Parliament, there were 5 Muslims 

- unwritten rule that the president of the republic has to be a Maronite Christian, the Prime Minister has to be a  Sunni Muslim, and the Speaker has to be a Twelver Shiite Muslim

- confessional identity/sectarianism in Lebanon is strongly institutionalized  

- Lebanon has not had another census since 1932, because it would change the ratio 

- Mehmet Ali (Muhammad Ali) 

- Ottoman governor of Egypt from 1805 to 1848 

- wanted to secure independence from the Ottoman Empire 

- first sustained program in the Middle East of state-sponsored Europeanization of the military - interference of Mamluks in Europeanization of military —> massacred Mamluks in 1811 

- Expansion into Sudan in 1820 

- Egypt was under British influence at the time —> dual layer of colonialism  

- Expansion into Greater Syria in 1831 — Mediterranean coast 

- Egypt was sort of independent but it was technically an Ottoman power conquering another Ottoman power —>  Egypt was pushed back

- pursued extensive reforms 

- land became a commodity  

- emerging class of large absentee landowners  

- peasants would work on the land  

- landowners had a lot of sway over agricultural policies  

- khedives redesigned Cairo with European influences, Paris especially; put a lot of money into developing  Alexandria as a port city  

- chartered new civilian schools and law colleges  

- European-style education spread out from the military to the broader population 

- European-style education vs. traditional Islamic education — easier to find a job with a European education

5

- Treaty of Sèvres in 1920 

- signed by the Central Powers — Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria 

- marked the beginning of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire, and its eventual destruction - awarded several spheres of influence to European countries, recognized an independent Armenian state - the Allies controlled the Ottoman government in Istanbul 

- D’Arcy concession in 1901 

- D’Arcy (Britain) was granted a concession to drill for oil 

- nobody cared at the time because it wasn’t an industry yet  

- the British discovered the Persian Gulf oil field in 1908 —> the concession became very costly - Iran’s vast oil reserves were placed at the disposal of Britain 

- formed the Anglo-Persian Oil Company (modern day BP oil) —> took a few decades to become profitable Essay question — choose one out of two prompts — THESIS, 2-4 SUPPORTING POINTS, EVIDENCE

- Forms and political structures (e.g., protectorates and mandates) of imperialism 

- imperialism doesn’t necessarily mean colonization  

- more broadly defined as unequal political, social, economic relationships  

- spheres of influences —> very informal  

- European powers promote their authority only over certain aspects in Middle Eastern countries - less expensive —> can outsource governance to local rulers 

- ex/ Russia and Britain in Iran 

- protectorates 

- a state whose foreign relations were controlled by the British, but their internal affairs were run by locals - signed an agreement with local leaders to allow British government to control their foreign affairs - Egypt, plus mostly very small states bordering the Persian Gulf 

- controlling trade, protecting India, controlling ports, eliminating competition between other powers  - European powers protecting Christian minorities from Islamic takeover  

- ex/ Britain in Egypt 

- colonies 

- most informal form of imperialism 

- ex/ France in Algeria 

- creation of British and French mandates post WWI 

- granted Syria to the French, including Lebanon 

- July 1920 — France captures Damascus and kicks out Faysal  

- 1921 — creation of Jordan as a British mandate  

- British mandate in Iraq — led to the Iraqi uprising in 1920 

- Constitutional movements, protest movements, and revolts 

- Urabi revolt in Egypt (1879-1882) 

- discontent with the elite and European influence  

- purpose: eliminate foreign control of Egypt’s finances; curtail the khedive’s autocracy by establishing constitutional  limits to his authority  

- the British government defeated Urabi’s army in 1882 —> began an occupation that lasted until 1956

6

- Ottoman Empire under the Young Turks in 1876, 1908-1909 

- Ottoman Empire went bankrupt in 1875, the sultan was deposed and replaced by Abdulhamid - Abdulhamid promulgated a constitution but then suspended it two years later 

- his reign became more and more authoritarian 

- by 1908, the Ottoman Empire had been gradually losing territory 

- intellectuals and bureaucrats started questioning identity 

- Abdulhamid II adopted an Islamic answer —> emphasized that he was the caliph, in a way that his  predecessors had not done

- Ottomanist answer  

- Young Turks (organization of students and civil servants) —> CUP 

- Army revolt in Salonika in 1908 

- Young Turks demanded restoration of constitution  

- Abdulhamid II restored it, but then initiated a counter-coup to try to remove the CUP 

- Abdulhamid II was deposed and replaced with a figurehead in 1909 

- CUP became in charge of the Ottoman Empire as a military dictatorship 

- led by three bureaucrats —> the three ‘Pashas’ —> Enver, Talat, Jamal 

- ruled under same 1876 constitution 

- Iranian constitutional revolution (1905-1911) 

- constitutionalist coalition against the Shah and European influence  

- migrant workers working in oil fields in Imperial Russia — influenced by leftist labor organizations - elites frustrated with Qajar government’s weakness  

- adopted European ideal of constitutional government as a solution  

- merchant class discontented with concessions given to foreign merchants  

- Shiite religious establishment (ulama) unhappy with the Shah and wanted to preserve their independence  - established constitution in 1906 —> not a very stable government  

- Britain and Russia signed an agreement to split influence over Iran in 1907 

- in 1911, British troops invaded from the south, Russian troops from the north, and occupied the country —>  constitutional revolution resulted in the opposite of what it set out to do

- Arab Revolt in 1916 

- Arab nationalism against the Ottomans 

- led by Faysal, established Arab state in Greater Syria in 1918 

- set up administration in Damascus of former Ottoman bureaucrats 

- Iraqi revolt against the British in 1920 

- the British mandate in Iraq was very unpopular 

- prior to the revolt there were peaceful protests and demonstrations  

- in the predominantly Kurdish NE part of the country, there was still a considerable desire for autonomy  - in the central regions, Shia Muslims did not think Iraq should be ruled by non-Muslims 

- fear of new unknown administration 

- relatively unified revolt against the British (different motives, but fought together) 

- two geographical centers of the revolt 

- north — Kurds 

- mid-Euphrates region —Shia religious authorities  

- some tribes took up arms against the revolt because it had some benefit to them (paid by the British, etc) - about immediate power and immediate interests  

- British royal air force put down the revolt  

- Iraq was a testing ground to see if the British could control Iraq from the air  

- faster, easier, cheaper

7

- Great Syrian Revolt (1925-1927) 

- started in Jabal Druze in the south, led by Sultan al-Atrash 

- spread all over the mandate  

- largest and longest-lasting anti-colonial insurgency in the region 

- wanted to drive the French out of Syria — didn’t achieve that until later 

- brought disparate people together around a common cause  

- brought together urban elites with various rural parties 

- the French responded by bombarding Damascus — very damaging 

- Internal reforms and modernization projects 

- defensive developmentalism  

- the goal was to strengthen the state and to make the government more efficient at managing people and  resources  

- started with military reform  

- increasing government revenue to modernize the army  

- increase taxes, cash crops 

- extended into non-military reform  

- these policies were met with resistance  

- internal —> increasing divide between people educated in Islamic studies and people educated in the  European style, or in Europe

- external —> European powers wanted Middle Eastern markets to stay open to them 

- reinstitute protective tariffs to promote commerce — when cheap European goods come in, they’re very  expensive  

- required borrowing money from European banks  

- Egyptian reforms under Muhammad Ali 

- land reform 

- land became a commodity  

- emerging class of large absentee landowners — peasants would work on the land  

- landowners had a lot of sway over agricultural policies  

- urban planning 

- khedives redesigned Cairo with European influences, Paris especially; developed Alexandria as a port - education reform  

- chartered new civilian schools and law colleges  

- European-style education spread out from the military to the broader population 

- Ottoman reforms under Sultan Mahmud II 

- derebey-ulama-Janissary coalition threw out his predecessor, needed to be curbed  

- derby —> land reform, abolished the feudal system  

- ulama —> brought waqfs under control of the state  

- Janissaries —> wanted to replace them with a salaried army, they revolted  

- Auspicious Incident (1826) —> had the Janissaries murdered 

- reformed his offices so they looked like European-style ministries  

- had his bureaucrats change their style of dress to European suits and a fez, which became a marker of  European elites in the Middle East  

- answered directly to him, much more top-down 

- founded the first Ottoman Turkish newspaper in 1831 — investing in education 

- language training of civil servants in French —> language of bureaucracy  

- allowed them to communicate more directly with European officials

8

- Tanzimat reforms  

- higher education for civilians  

- Ottomanism  

- New republic of Turkey under Ataturk 

- secularism — abolishment of the sultan and the caliphate in 1924 

- civil law was secularized and based on European-models, not shariah law  

- statism and industrialization  

- centralization of the economy  

- industries constructed from the ground up, not based around a particular resource  

- Turkish nationalism  

- started in the 19th century, amid encroachment of European influence  

- very different from Islamic revivalism  

- institutionalized nationalism  

- language reform  

- formally written in Arabic, switched to Latin script  

- clothing reform  

- wearing a fez was associated with the Ottoman past —> outlawed  

- changes in women’s clothing —> looking European, glamorous 

- Iran under Reza Shah Pahlavi 

- ethnic Iranian nationalism  

- focuses on ancient Persian history —> glorifies ancient Iranian heritage —> downplays religion - promoted the idea of Iran as Aryan  

- attempted language reform  

- wanted to make the language more purely Persian, eliminating Arabic and Turkish 

- secularism  

- the religious establishment in Iran was Shia, not Sunni —> leads to resistance against secularism because the  clerics are much more powerful

- clear hierarchy in Shia Islam —> centralized  

- Reza Shah banned public Shia rituals because he was afraid they would turn into demonstrations  - dress codes  

- Western-style suits, Pahlavi hat for men in the Majlis (parliament) 

- women were forced to unveil, wear European-style clothing 

- distinction between feminism and public patriarchy 

- the state stepped in and dictated what women wore on the pretense of patriotism  

- import substitution industrialization  

- wanted Iran to become self-sufficient  

- tariffs on imports from the West—> led to local industrialization  

- Economic trends, including concessions and bankruptcies 

- Ottoman bankruptcy in 1875 

- after the Crimean War, European powers divided up Ottoman territory amongst themselves - Ottomans took out loans from European powers — went bankrupt  

- Egyptian concession to France in 1860s — bankruptcy in 1876 

- Egypt granted a concession to Ferdinand de Lesseps to build and operate the Suez Canal - opened in 1869, having gone very far over budget  

- Egypt was exploited by Lesseps —> huge debt, loss of lives in dangerous project  

- Egypt went bankrupt

9

- Concessions in Qajar Iran 

- Reuter Concession in 1872 

- allowed Reuter(British) the exclusive rights to oil extraction, to make a national bank, etc 

- the Shah canceled the concession after protest 

- Tobacco concession to Talbot in 1890 

- Iranian government would keep 25%, one British man would get 75% 

- sparked a major protest movement —> concession was eventually canceled 

- D’Arcy concession in 1901 

- D’Arcy (Britain) was granted a concession to drill for oil 

- nobody cared at the time because it wasn’t an industry yet  

- the British discovered the Persian Gulf oil field in 1908 —> the concession became very costly - Iran’s vast oil reserves were placed at the disposal of Britain 

- formed the Anglo-Persian Oil Company (modern day BP oil) —> took a few decades to become profitable - Oil concessions in Iraq in 1927 

- Oil concession to Iraq Petroleum Company, discovery of oil in Kirkuk 

- Britain, US, France, and Belgium formed an oil company in Iraq to negotiate for the commission to control  Iraq’s oil

- Oil concessions in Saudi Arabia in 1933 

- Ibn Sa’ud entered into negotiations with western petroleum companies in the 1930s 

- granted a concession to Standard Oil of California — Arabian American Oil Company (ARAMCO) 

- Identity politics—political answers to the “who are we?” question—such as nonsectarian nationalism, regionalism,  ethnic nationalism/ethnic partition, and Islamic revivalism 

- after the Ottomans went bankrupt in 1875 and the sultan was deposed, replaced by Abdulhamid II  - Abdulhamid’s Islamic Revivalism — emphasized that he was the caliph 

- Young Turks’ Ottomanist answer — identity as an Ottoman citizen supersedes religion, sect, etc - Egypt between WWI and WWII 

- Islamist vs. ‘secular leaning’ politics 

- put Islamic principles at the center of government or not? 

- downplaying Islamic identity —> but not the militant secularism like Ataturk in Turkey 

- secular-leaning —> Sa’d Zaghlul and the Wafd (leading secular party wanted to remove Britain from Egypt),  Taha Husayn (nationalism based on Egyptian culture, not religion)

- Ethnic Iranian nationalism under Reza Shah Pahlavi (1925-1941) 

- focuses on ancient Persian history —> glorifies ancient Iranian heritage —> downplays religion - promoted the idea of Iran as Aryan  

- changed the name of the country from Persia to Iran 

- attempted language reform  

- wanted to make the language more purely Persian, eliminating Arabic and Turkish 

- Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt in 1928 

- pan-Islamism —> favored global Islamic community (ummah) 

- believed strongly in reinterpreting Islamic law for the modern era  

- Syrian National Bloc 

- formed in 1928 by Syrian conservative elites 

- didn't want to restructure society, but wanted the French to leave 

- wanted independence, but they had a good relationship with French authorities  

- ‘honorable cooperation’ — presented themselves as intermediaries between an anti-French population and the  French authorities

10

- regionalism  

- Antun Sa’ada and the Syrian Social Nationalist Party, founded in Beirut in 1932 

- wanted Christians and Muslims in the region to unite as members of a common region 

- supremacy of one national or ethnic group, contempt for democracy, insistence on obedience to a powerful  leader, strong demagogic approach  

- form of confrontational right-wing nationalism — reactionary  

- pan-Arabism 

- Michel Aflaq and the Ba’th Party in Damascus in the 1940s 

- looked to Arab-ness as the root of everything, not Islam 

- encompasses people who are Arabic speaking across religious boundaries 

- saw Arab royalist governments (monarchies), like in Iraq and Egypt, as a problem 

- wanted all the Arabic speaking territories to be part of one state 

- against territorial nationalism and regionalism  

- not Egypt for the Egyptians, etc — Arab unity

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