×
Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to UGA - AESC 2050 - Study Guide - Midterm
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to UGA - AESC 2050 - Study Guide - Midterm

Already have an account? Login here
×
Reset your password

aesc 2050

aesc 2050

Description

School: University of Georgia
Department: OTHER
Course: Agriculture and Culture
Professor: Brian kiepper
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: cashcrops, agriculture, changesinagriculture, history, VerticalIntegration, Hominids, humanevolution, earlyhumans, Poultry, tobacco, cotton, Domestication, and hectare
Cost: 50
Name: AESC 2050 Study Guide for Test 1
Description: Includes summaries of everything covered in the last ten or so lectures.
Uploaded: 02/03/2018
38 Pages 5 Views 5 Unlocks
Reviews


AESC 2050 Study Guide for Test 1


What are Some NON-FOOD agriculture crops?



★ What is AGRICULTURE? 

- The science or practice of farming

● Some NON-FOOD agriculture crops →

○ Cotton, tobacco, timber, marijuana

○ Note: Legality is a cultural norm and varies greatly from place to place

■ For ex. Americans have taken a chemical

combination of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen known

as ethanol (alcohol) and made it socially acceptable

and legal to consume

■ But another chemical combination of hydrogen,

carbon and oxygen is THC, which has yet to be

legalized or completely socially accepted in America

● Now, bust this myth:

○ Are chickens today so large because they’re given

hormones?

■ No! They are large because of genetic selection

practices (a process based on body weight)

■ So why do majority of Americans believe the

hormone myth? This is essentially culture and


Are chickens today so large because they’re given hormones?



agriculture coming together, a key idea in AESC Don't forget about the age old question of preoperational thought includes language and imagination, but logical, operational thinking is not yet possible at this stage.

★ What is CULTURE? 

- Unique combos of customs, beliefs, and practices transmitted from one generation to another

- Culture distinguishes societies from each other

● Let’s look at population:

○ People tend to congregate together, making certain

regions of the earth VERY DENSE

○ People tend to eat mainly CORN, RICE and WHEAT (the big three)We also discuss several other topics like bus 188 sjsu
Don't forget about the age old question of the function of commissures is to connect

○ The continents that have the highest population densities also produce the most of the big three (corn, rice, wheat)

EXCEPT for AFRICA

○ Africa is very densely populated but lacks ability to

produce important crops, so it’s likely that Africa faces

constant food scarcity and insecurity

○ In Africa, people spend almost HALF of their income on food, while in America people spend around 6.8% of their


What is the significance of the Battle of Cajamarca?



income on food → again, culture plays a large role in

consumption patterns

BIG IDEA​: ​AESC explores how culture and agriculture are affected by one another on many different levels.

_____________________________________

Opening thought:

★ The significance of the Battle of Cajamarca (Peru, 1532) 

● This is when less than 200 Spaniards overtook thousands upon thousands of Aztecs… how did they do that so easily?

○ Technology: Spaniards had guns / steel / ships / horses / written language

○ Government: Funding / military / strategy

○ LETHAL DISEASES → this was the biggest weapon

_____________________________________

● HISTORY vs. PREHISTORY

PREHISTORY

HISTORY

- 5 million years ago to 3000 BC - Includes Paleolithic and If you want to learn more check out psy 2100

Neolithic ages

- 3000 BC to nowadays

- Includes Ancient, Medieval, Modern and Contemporary

Age (respectively)

● WRITING is what changed everything → it’s a form of time travel

○ Writing came about almost 5000 years ago

○ Prior to writing, archeologists could only use “stuff” like artifacts and fossils to make assumptions about the past

★ What makes humans superior to other species? 

- Is it our genetics? Not really, because we’re 98% genetically similar to other species

● Around 2 million years ago HOMINIDS began making tools → this is considered the 1st indication of a conscious cultural act ○ Important because while other animals adjust to the environment through biological evolution, hominids Don't forget about the age old question of chanwit phengpis

adjusted through CULTURAL ADAPTATION; this is what

makes us “superior”

➔ What’s a HOMINID?

◆ Basically an early version of humans → foragers, non-selective omnivores, rather small (3-4 feet tall), smaller brains, VERY MOBILE… hominids stayed in small groups with very few permanent possessions

◆ IMPORTANT: The adult sexually mature FEMALE = most important because they have the ability to REPRODUCE ● Men = EXPENDABLE → therefore they do the more

dangerous hunting… they can afford to die because they cannot reproduce. *They don’t hunt because they’re

“braver” or “stronger”*

➔ HOMINIDS eventually evolve into HOMO SAPIEN SAPIENS (wise humans) in Central Africa about 200,000 years ago

◆ We begin to travel across the world, so people begin adapting to various climates / biomes / environments → this leads to biological change → which leads to the concept of RACE

◆ HOWEVER, humans are from the same subspecies so we can mate with any “race” and produce a perfectly normal human ◆ What makes us unique is not our skin color or physical features due to biological adaptation, but our differing cultures We also discuss several other topics like astr 100 uiuc

★ The AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION 

● Occurred 10,000 years ago (8000 BC) in West Asia

○ It’s assumed that the end of the last ice age brought about warmer climates → lead to more grains and grass

○ Agriculture starts in the Fertile Crescent (near Tigris and Euphrates Rivers) and spreads throughout most parts of

the world

○ This creates a shift in the patterns of people: MOBILITY to STABILITY. Now people congregate in larger groups, have more children and more possessions

○ Major shifts:

Wild plants → plant cultivation

Wild animals → domestic animals

Nomadic groups → farming villages

● There are pros and cons of both nomadic and farming lifestyles ○ For example, farming actually requires a lot more work than nomadic hunting and gathering

○ However, agricultural societies have the ability to GROW. This type of lifestyle brought about three main changes:

■ 1. Concept of Land Ownership 

■ 2. The Production of Surplus Food 

■ 3. The Creation of Labor Specialization 

○ Because there could now be surplus food, a farmer with extra grain could trade a tool maker that grain for his

tools. Thus, the tool maker doesn’t farm his own food- he only makes tools. And the farmer doesn’t make his own

tools- he only farms. They specialize in labor and depend

on each other to remain happy and full.

○ Agriculture also brought about a different, less

empowering role for women:

● Females tend to children and the home and

cook the food that the men grow

● Men are viewed as superior while women are

viewed as subordinate

● This brought about COMPLEX SOCIETIES 

(societies in which different levels of status

exist)

BIG IDEA​: ​Agriculture is primarily the reason why everything in modern society is the way it is: now we have specialized labor, land ownership,

social statuses, etc. The Spaniards overthrew the Aztecs because they were complex and powerful… all thanks to agriculture.

--------------------------------

★ Role of the Farmer in the U.S. 

- Farming is REVOLUTIONARY, meaning it’s the difference between a few million people and billions of people inhabiting the earth

- Farming arose in many places totally unconnected from each other

- Thus, farming is the most important ingredient in human civilization

● What makes a CIVILIZATION?

○ Permanent cities

○ Specialized workers

○ Complex institutions

○ Record keeping

○ Advanced technology

- Because agriculture leads to a “vested interest” people want to protect what they grow → leads to warfare (a natural sequence of farming)... so you can imagine there are some advantages and disadvantages of farming.

Advantages of Farming

Disadvantages of Farming

- Controllable food production - Food surplus

- An be practiced all over the world

- Changes the environment

(requires irrigation / tilling /

etc.)

- Farming is hard (eventually lead to slavery)

★ How farming has changed 

● From 1800 to 2000, the percentage of employed farmers dropped from 90%​ to 2.6%​ in U.S. (in 2008 dropped below 2%)

● Peak of U.S. farming was between 1900 and 1950… in the mid 1970’s there was a steady state of farming (it was lower than before, however)

○ What’s important to know is that the amount of farmland has always remained relatively the same (about a billion acres). What has changed is the SIZE of farms and the 

AMOUNT of farms. 

■ We have about 2 million farms (covering over a

billion acres)

■ The average size of a farm = about 430 acres (1

acre is = to about the size of a football field)

★ Agriculture and EDUCATION 

● UGA: In 1784, the government set aside 20,000 acres of land for state college

● In 1785, UGA was chartered as 1st land grant university in U.S. (completely donated by the federal government)

● Land Grant College Act of 1862 (aka Morrill Act of 1862) → funded education of agriculture… wanted people of ALL SOCIAL CLASSES to have access to education

○ What’s important to realize is that agriculture lead to funding of schools because the government wanted people to learn how to farm (and do other practical skills like work machines)

★ Farming Timeline 

● Was there ever a time where farming was a perfect blend of science, technology, and sustainability?

○ This is a debatable question, but many farmers are

reverting back to older practices like:

■ Using horses instead of modern tractors to plow soil

● Is there a right sized farm? Should farms be family owned? ○ Both are also debatable questions… Different organizations define family-owned farms in various ways

■ UN defines family farms as → those managed and

operated by a family and family provides most of the

farm’s labor

■ USDA’s ERS says family farms are those whose

principal operator and people related to the principal

operator by blood or marriage own most of the farm

business

■ U.S. Government defines family farms as any

establishment which produced and sold (or normally

would have produced and sold) $1000 or more per

year

- Based on U.S. Government’s definition:

● 87% farms are owned and operated by

individuals or families

● 8% are owned by partnerships

● 4% are owned by corporations

➔ GDP (gross domestic product) = the total value of goods produced and services provided in one year

◆ If you look at how much agriculture contributes to GDP, it’s an extremely small percentage

● HOWEVER, agriculture is interwoven with technically every other sector of what contributes to GDP

➔ 60% of farmers makes less than $10,000 a year

➔ 30% make between $10,000 and $60,000 a year

➔ Less than 10% make more than $100,000 a year

◆ Size of farms DIRECTLY correlate with sales (smaller farms make less money and vice versa)

◆ Small farms are more common in the East and larger farms are more common in the West

◆ During Great Recession, larger farms did much better than smaller farms

--------------------------------

★ Types of farming 

Quick note: ​only about 36% of Americans hold valid passports

● UN estimates there are 500 million family farms around the world (80% of farms exist outside of U.S.) → this means that in the United States the super big farms are what primarily feed the population but that’s NOT the case around the world

Commercial Farming

- Farming for PROFIT based on ability to produce SURPLUS food

- Farms are arable (for plant cultivation) / Pastoral (to rear animals)

- Occurs in temperate zones

- Includes places like U.S. / Australia / Southern South America / Parts of Europe

Subsistence Farming

- Farming where all crops and livestock feed ONLY the people who farmed it

- Occurs in tropical zones

- Includes two different types: intensive and extensive (see below)

● Two types of subsistence:

Intensive

Commercial Farming

- Farmers get more food per acre compared to other methods

- Think “small” and “intense”

- Common in India and China

Extensive

Commercial Farming

- Vast expanses of land are

cultivated to yield minimal output of crops and animals for people

- Think “big” and “expansive”

- Common in Africa, South America, Mexico

● If you look at the map of growth and decrease of agricultural land, notice that GREEN = loss of farmland and RED = growth of agriculture ○ This map portrays how subsistence farming is increasing (especially in the tropics) and commercial farming is decreasing (especially in America)

★ Can we produce enough food with traditional farming? 

● Subsistence farming accounts for about 70% - 80% of food for developing countries

○ However, small farms are highly dependent on natural

resources and the environment (yields are not always

100% predictable)

● Let’s look at INDIA​:

○ Live markets → people in India go to live markets to buy live chickens… this is uncommon in America (people buy

pre-slaughtered, pre-packaged chicken… they don’t buy a live bird and slaughter it themselves)

○ In India, there’s a serious problem:

■ It’s the 2nd largest grower of fresh produce

■ However, 40% of that produce is lost because it

can’t successfully be distributed

■ This is because of India’s struggling

INFRASTRUCTURE → not the right equipment or lack

of equipment, bad roads, bad communication

■ This increases food prices, lowers income for

farmers, and cause malnutrition throughout India

Mini note: ​1 hectare = about 2.5 acres (for reference)

_____________________________________

★ Guest Speaker:

○ Religious views on animal rights

■ Judeo-Christian = man has dominion over animals

■ Islamic = Men are above animals but should treat them with respect

■ Jainism, Hinduism, Buddhism = believe animals are sacred

○ Modern animal movement

■ Peter Singer, a utilitarian, started the animal movement in the UK in the 1960’s

- Singer believed animals can suffer and thus should

not be given conditions in which they feel suffering

■ Speciesism = assumption of human superiority leading to exploitation of animals

■ Carl Cohen, basically the opposite of Singer, believed

every species ought to be concerned about protecting

themselves, thus since humans are already “on top” we

should continue to be superior to animals

PET v. FOOD ANIMAL

Pet

Food Animal

- Has a name

- Trained to help and show

support

- Interacts and has a

relationship with humans

- Usually responsive to

emotions

- Has a number instead of a name

- Trained to consume food and reproduce

- Only around for short term - Undergoes selective breeding - No emotional response

● MODERN pet ownership

○ Why are millennials buying their first house?

■ Surprisingly, 33% (which is above marriage and childbirth) say they need a bigger yard for their dog

○ Changing view of “pets”

■ Maybe the term “caregiver” should be used instead of

“owner”

■ “Companion animals” used instead of “pet”

○ Are chickens pets?

■ In modern times, more and more animals, like chickens / goats / pot-belly pigs / even foxes are shifting towards the “pet category”

○ Advertisements against consuming animal products

■ PETA = highly against animal products

■ A lot of superstars are associated with animal products (think of the “Got Milk?” posters)

○ Animal-related food consumption has changed

■ more people eat broilers today but beef has leveled down ■ Overall meat / egg / nut consumption has increased but dairy has stayed about the same

■ Since 2011 egg production and consumption has increased ○ Use of animals in research

■ FDA requires testing because it’s appropriate to insure

safety

■ EU, Israel, India, Norway → banned cosmetic testing on animals

■ Starting in 1980’s, “cruelty-free” movement has gained momentum

■ 1966 = Animal Welfare Act → first federal law against

animal testing (except it does NOT account for rats, mice

or birds which are 95% of the animals used for testing)

■ There are many more state laws against animals testing (like in California)

■ Most county laws focus on things regarding raising and keeping domesticated animals, not so much on animal

testing

○ Look over UGA’s IACUC (requirements for using animals in experiment or research)

■ https://research.uga.edu/oacu/iacuc/ 

-------------------------------- ★ What is DOMESTICATION? 

● What do we domesticate?

- Both animals AND plants

● Why do we do it?

- To accentuate desirable traits

- To secure a more predictable supply of resources

NOTE: ​Domestication can involve behavioral / psychological / and genetic changes to both organisms involved (the animal / plant AND the human) → this leads to a dependence relationship

➢ History of chicken domestication:

○ Origin of modern chicken is the Red Jungle Fowl from Southeast Asia about 8,000 years ago

○ Reason for initial domestication? COCK FIGHTING (which was the world’s first spectator sport)

○ Chickens left SE Asia to be used for cock fighting but people quickly notice the resources they provide (meat and eggs) ○ European breeds = small, aggressive and flighty

○ In China, however, the country was in a long state of isolation, so they didn’t share their chicken breeds. They breed their chickens in captivity, so once they finally opened up to the rest of the world in the 1800’s, the Cochin chicken was introduced (an extremely mild-tempered, beautiful, large chicken)

○ This led to the “poultry fancier” movement in the late 1800’s

➢ Let’s talk about CHICKEN WINGS 

○ In the 1970’s, chicken wings had less than 0% value. People only cared about the legs, thighs and breasts

○ Because of this, chicken warehouses were loaded with wings they didn’t know what to do with them

○ They decided that whenever an order of chicken parts was purchased, they’d include a bunch of free wings with the order ○ So now the wings are leaving the warehouses but stacking up at the bars and restaurants that serve chicken

○ At a bar in Buffalo, NY, someone decided that they’d leave seasoned, spicy chicken wings on the counter as free snacks (the seasoning and spiciness would make people more thirsty, thus causing them to buy more beer and soda)

○ Chicken wings become wildly popular, and are now a prominent part of the American culture today

● Domestication of DOGS

○ Dogs started off as wolves

○ Short summary:

■ Early humans would throw their food scraps out, providing the wolves with extra food, and the wolves in turn would protect the humans from other predators

■ However, some wolves were more aggressive than others, so humans killed those ones

■ This left the more mildly-tempered wolves

■ Humans begin using the wolves to complete tasks faster ■ They start selectively breeding them (always choosing the more mild-tempered ones)

■ The wolves genes are genetically altered, and through time they begin to better understand human emotions and

language

■ We also being to understand dogs better (like interpreting their barks, for example)

■ Wolves used to be carnivores… dogs, however, are

omnivores, some even herbivores

NOTE: ​The more affluent a society is, the more domesticated pets people own (dogs are just one of the go-to domesticated pets in America)

● There’s a difference between domesticating an animal and taming an animal:

Domesticating

Taming

- Selectively bred to benefit humans

- Captured at a young age

- Raised with human nurturing - Not domesticated

● What traits do humans tend to favor in selective breeding? - Wide diet (can eat anything)

- Willing to breed in captivity

- Grow fast (mature quickly)

- Calm (not rambunctious, saving energy for growing and not playing)

- Flexible social hierarchy (willing to let humans be the rulers) - Provide a service (like chickens provide meat and eggs)

● Selective breeding does cause problems in animals:

- Changes in body conformation / physical structure (large body fat mass is very unhealthy)

- Loss of natural behaviors (kind of diminishes the wholesomeness of animals)

- “Dumber” (reduction in brain size… animals only have to think about eating and growing)

★ Let’s talk about some crops 

● Dairy (even though it’s not a crop)

○ Prehistoric babies could digest milk because of an enzyme known as “lactase”

○ In early adult humans, however, “lactase” turned off and all adults were lactose intolerant

○ Liquid milk has significant nutritious value (contains

protein, calcium and carbs)... it became known as a

prehistoric superfood

○ 8,000 years ago in the Middle East, lactase enzyme

becomes more frequent

● Corn

○ Originated with the Mayans, who believed god mixed human blood with corn flour to make humans

○ Corn was domesticated (it started off looking very different from what we think of corn as today)

● Potatoes

○ Started in South America

○ They’re easy to plant, less effort to make edible, and they can feed tons of people

○ In 1840, 40% of Ireland’s population relied SOLELY on potatoes for their daily nutrition

■ So when the potato blight occurred (the Great Potato Famine) 1 million people died and 1 million people

left (there were originally 8 million people in ireland)

○ Fun fact: America’s diet consists of a large portion of vegetable, BUT:

■ 50% of American “veggies” are in the form of French Fries and Ketchup

● Tobacco

○ The South’s 1st cash crop

○ This was a key trade good for American colonies back to England

○ Very hard to plant, grow and harvest (labor intensive) ○ So labor intensive that even small farmers used slaves to handle the work

○ Today, tobacco makes up only 3% of Georgia’s Row and Forage Crops

● Cotton

○ The South’s 2nd cash crop

○ Cotton was also very labor intensive to grow (it was

especially hard to separate the seeds from the cotton

fibers)

○ Eli Whitney (who wasn’t even from GA) → mechanizes the “second half of the equation” which refers to separating

seeds from fibers with the COTTON GIN 

○ He doesn’t mechanize, however, the half of the equation where the cotton has to be picked from the field

○ Thus, with his cotton gin, he essentially creates a higher demand for cotton which leads to major increase in slavery - The early 1900’s marked the END of KING COTTON

❏ The Boll Weevil reduced cotton farms from 5 million acres to 2.6 million acres in just 7 years

❏ In 1983 there was only 115,000 acres

❏ Boll Weevil = eliminated in 1990’s

❏ Cotton is still significant in GA → it ranks third in GA agriculture commodities and GA is 2nd largest producer of cotton in the nation

● Another “cash crop,” or more so “cash animal” that is still very prominent in GA = POULTRY

○ The U.S. population is over 7 million, but the U.S. raises and slaughters 9 billion chickens every year

○ There’s only ten million people in GA, but we slaughter 1.5 billion chickens per year

○ Chicken “explosion” was caused by JESSE JEWELL

■ He created the business concept of VERTICAL 

INTEGRATION → basically a company owns every single

part of process (production, distribution, etc.)

■ Jewell gave struggling farmers baby chickens and feed, the farmers raise the chickens and keep portion of flock for

payment while Jesse gets all the rest

■ Eventually he buys the chicken houses and everything else involved until he’s running a legitimate poultry business

______________________________________________________

NOTES FROM READINGS AND VIDEOS:

● Summary of reading “EMERGENCE OF HUMAN SOCIETIES” ○ Know what hominids are

○ Prehistoric era → encompasses all human existence before emergence of writing

○ Old stone age (Paleolithic period) → first indication of conscious cultural act (remember hominids develop during this time

through slight biological adaptation but primarily through

CULTURAL ADAPTATION)

■ Humans begin to create tools, develop kinship, create fire and pass on knowledge to offspring

■ Foragers (move after exhausting land’s resources)

■ CENTRAL INSTITUTION of human society = FAMILY

○ Great Ice Age → affects available food and causes hominids to migrate from Africa to Asia and later Europe

○ 200,000 years ago HOMO SAPIENS emerge

■ Now humans are slightly more complex and developed

(better hunting skills, more complex language, etc.)

○ People spread across the world and adapt to environments (lighter skin in north, darker skin at equator)

○ Social pacts created to protect land and resources

○ NEW STONE AGE → West Asia people start using sickles and grinders to process grain that emerged from the warming

climate (end of ice age)

○ Agriculture spreads through intercultural connections

○ Wheat and barley are most popular grains / slash and burn farming techniques create fertile soil but deplete wildlife /

different farming practices in different parts of world →

■ North America = supports farming but not herding

■ Central Asia = supports herding but not farming

■ Pastoral Nomads = use livestock for subsistence then

move to more fertile grazing ground

○ Emergence of complex societies form as agriculture becomes more prominent

■ Think of Jericho and Catal Huyuk… early towns with trading hubs, sizable building, worship places, markets,

governments, specialized workers and merchants, diversity and art, etc.

■ Cities run by strong central governments → authorities had a lot of power because they were usually associated with divine gods

■ Government’s main function = secure society’s

sustenance, ensure survival of ruling elite, and defend

against outsiders

■ Concept of TRIBUTE → farmers give some crops to rulers in exchange for protection

■ States eventually become a thing

■ Many states develop around rivers (because they’re good to grow crops by, offer protection, water for people, a

means of transportation and soil nutrients

○ NOTE: Emergence of civilizations marks the beginning of the historical era

● Summary of “The Story of South African Farming is a Women’s Story” ○ Kenalemang Kgoroeadira founded Thojane Organic Farm in 2009 and was awarded title “Best Subsistence Producer” in South Africa

○ Farm started on one hectare of land → it now produces green beans, spinach and tomatoes which are sold to local markets, given to school feeding schemes or donated to hospices

○ Grown without aid of chemicals / uses natural fertilizers (like chicken manure)

○ Currently grows different herbs → extracts oils to protect crops ○ HOWEVER, apartheid legacy haunts South African farms because:

■ Men are forced away from their homes (because of

NATIVES LAND ACT which forces men to work in mines

and disposes black South Africans from land) leaving

women to stay home, raise children, tend cattle, plow

fields AND harvest crops

■ Commercial farming is extremely controlled and diminishes any success of the millions of farmers trying to live off the land

■ It’s very hard for small farmers to enter the commercial sector in Africa

○ Today, 36000 white commercial farmers supply 95% of South Africa’s locally produced food… 2.3 million small scale farmers simply can’t compete

○ Kgoroeadira had 26 hectares of land but only enough money, time and supplies to use 2.5 of those hectares

○ Kgoroeadira claims the government needs to pour more money into making people self-sufficient

● Summary of “Chris Lambe’s Ted Talk (From Subsistence to Surplus)” ○ Middle ages = 95% of people work on land… today in U.S. only 2% work on land

○ Mayn farmer works on farm in Guatemala (in a modern-ish town)

■ He owns a 1 hectare farm but only .8 of the hectare is able to grow corn... this leaves him with a FOOD GAP

■ His farm doesn’t “work” because it is overworked and unproductive… the soil nutrients have been depleted

○ Lambe initiates MOSAIC VILLAGES PROJECT (MVP) → move subsistence farms to surplus creating farms

■ In Guatemala, MVP focuses on five pillars:

● Partnership

● Soil Health

● Water

● Finance

● Marketing

■ So basically MVP teaches Mayan farmers how to farm in a more sustainable, smart manner… eventually their farms become much more productive, they begin having

surpluses, learn how to work the market, spread their

knowledge to surrounding farmers, and can now buy more things they need

○ Every night 850 million people go to bed hungry

○ By 2050 → 2 billion more mouths will need to be fed, what do we do?

■ Sustainable Intensification = beginnings of a solution

A QUIZLET TO HELP YOU STUDY:

https://quizlet.com/186268361/aesc-2050-test-1-flash-cards/ Note: It’s still a good idea to look over slides and watch some of the videos…

GOOD LUCK ON TEST!

AESC 2050 Study Guide for Test 1

★ What is AGRICULTURE? 

- The science or practice of farming

● Some NON-FOOD agriculture crops →

○ Cotton, tobacco, timber, marijuana

○ Note: Legality is a cultural norm and varies greatly from place to place

■ For ex. Americans have taken a chemical

combination of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen known

as ethanol (alcohol) and made it socially acceptable

and legal to consume

■ But another chemical combination of hydrogen,

carbon and oxygen is THC, which has yet to be

legalized or completely socially accepted in America

● Now, bust this myth:

○ Are chickens today so large because they’re given

hormones?

■ No! They are large because of genetic selection

practices (a process based on body weight)

■ So why do majority of Americans believe the

hormone myth? This is essentially culture and

agriculture coming together, a key idea in AESC

★ What is CULTURE? 

- Unique combos of customs, beliefs, and practices transmitted from one generation to another

- Culture distinguishes societies from each other

● Let’s look at population:

○ People tend to congregate together, making certain

regions of the earth VERY DENSE

○ People tend to eat mainly CORN, RICE and WHEAT (the big three)

○ The continents that have the highest population densities also produce the most of the big three (corn, rice, wheat)

EXCEPT for AFRICA

○ Africa is very densely populated but lacks ability to

produce important crops, so it’s likely that Africa faces

constant food scarcity and insecurity

○ In Africa, people spend almost HALF of their income on food, while in America people spend around 6.8% of their

income on food → again, culture plays a large role in

consumption patterns

BIG IDEA​: ​AESC explores how culture and agriculture are affected by one another on many different levels.

_____________________________________

Opening thought:

★ The significance of the Battle of Cajamarca (Peru, 1532) 

● This is when less than 200 Spaniards overtook thousands upon thousands of Aztecs… how did they do that so easily?

○ Technology: Spaniards had guns / steel / ships / horses / written language

○ Government: Funding / military / strategy

○ LETHAL DISEASES → this was the biggest weapon

_____________________________________

● HISTORY vs. PREHISTORY

PREHISTORY

HISTORY

- 5 million years ago to 3000 BC - Includes Paleolithic and

Neolithic ages

- 3000 BC to nowadays

- Includes Ancient, Medieval, Modern and Contemporary

Age (respectively)

● WRITING is what changed everything → it’s a form of time travel

○ Writing came about almost 5000 years ago

○ Prior to writing, archeologists could only use “stuff” like artifacts and fossils to make assumptions about the past

★ What makes humans superior to other species? 

- Is it our genetics? Not really, because we’re 98% genetically similar to other species

● Around 2 million years ago HOMINIDS began making tools → this is considered the 1st indication of a conscious cultural act ○ Important because while other animals adjust to the environment through biological evolution, hominids

adjusted through CULTURAL ADAPTATION; this is what

makes us “superior”

➔ What’s a HOMINID?

◆ Basically an early version of humans → foragers, non-selective omnivores, rather small (3-4 feet tall), smaller brains, VERY MOBILE… hominids stayed in small groups with very few permanent possessions

◆ IMPORTANT: The adult sexually mature FEMALE = most important because they have the ability to REPRODUCE ● Men = EXPENDABLE → therefore they do the more

dangerous hunting… they can afford to die because they cannot reproduce. *They don’t hunt because they’re

“braver” or “stronger”*

➔ HOMINIDS eventually evolve into HOMO SAPIEN SAPIENS (wise humans) in Central Africa about 200,000 years ago

◆ We begin to travel across the world, so people begin adapting to various climates / biomes / environments → this leads to biological change → which leads to the concept of RACE

◆ HOWEVER, humans are from the same subspecies so we can mate with any “race” and produce a perfectly normal human ◆ What makes us unique is not our skin color or physical features due to biological adaptation, but our differing cultures 

★ The AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION 

● Occurred 10,000 years ago (8000 BC) in West Asia

○ It’s assumed that the end of the last ice age brought about warmer climates → lead to more grains and grass

○ Agriculture starts in the Fertile Crescent (near Tigris and Euphrates Rivers) and spreads throughout most parts of

the world

○ This creates a shift in the patterns of people: MOBILITY to STABILITY. Now people congregate in larger groups, have more children and more possessions

○ Major shifts:

Wild plants → plant cultivation

Wild animals → domestic animals

Nomadic groups → farming villages

● There are pros and cons of both nomadic and farming lifestyles ○ For example, farming actually requires a lot more work than nomadic hunting and gathering

○ However, agricultural societies have the ability to GROW. This type of lifestyle brought about three main changes:

■ 1. Concept of Land Ownership 

■ 2. The Production of Surplus Food 

■ 3. The Creation of Labor Specialization 

○ Because there could now be surplus food, a farmer with extra grain could trade a tool maker that grain for his

tools. Thus, the tool maker doesn’t farm his own food- he only makes tools. And the farmer doesn’t make his own

tools- he only farms. They specialize in labor and depend

on each other to remain happy and full.

○ Agriculture also brought about a different, less

empowering role for women:

● Females tend to children and the home and

cook the food that the men grow

● Men are viewed as superior while women are

viewed as subordinate

● This brought about COMPLEX SOCIETIES 

(societies in which different levels of status

exist)

BIG IDEA​: ​Agriculture is primarily the reason why everything in modern society is the way it is: now we have specialized labor, land ownership,

social statuses, etc. The Spaniards overthrew the Aztecs because they were complex and powerful… all thanks to agriculture.

--------------------------------

★ Role of the Farmer in the U.S. 

- Farming is REVOLUTIONARY, meaning it’s the difference between a few million people and billions of people inhabiting the earth

- Farming arose in many places totally unconnected from each other

- Thus, farming is the most important ingredient in human civilization

● What makes a CIVILIZATION?

○ Permanent cities

○ Specialized workers

○ Complex institutions

○ Record keeping

○ Advanced technology

- Because agriculture leads to a “vested interest” people want to protect what they grow → leads to warfare (a natural sequence of farming)... so you can imagine there are some advantages and disadvantages of farming.

Advantages of Farming

Disadvantages of Farming

- Controllable food production - Food surplus

- An be practiced all over the world

- Changes the environment

(requires irrigation / tilling /

etc.)

- Farming is hard (eventually lead to slavery)

★ How farming has changed 

● From 1800 to 2000, the percentage of employed farmers dropped from 90%​ to 2.6%​ in U.S. (in 2008 dropped below 2%)

● Peak of U.S. farming was between 1900 and 1950… in the mid 1970’s there was a steady state of farming (it was lower than before, however)

○ What’s important to know is that the amount of farmland has always remained relatively the same (about a billion acres). What has changed is the SIZE of farms and the 

AMOUNT of farms. 

■ We have about 2 million farms (covering over a

billion acres)

■ The average size of a farm = about 430 acres (1

acre is = to about the size of a football field)

★ Agriculture and EDUCATION 

● UGA: In 1784, the government set aside 20,000 acres of land for state college

● In 1785, UGA was chartered as 1st land grant university in U.S. (completely donated by the federal government)

● Land Grant College Act of 1862 (aka Morrill Act of 1862) → funded education of agriculture… wanted people of ALL SOCIAL CLASSES to have access to education

○ What’s important to realize is that agriculture lead to funding of schools because the government wanted people to learn how to farm (and do other practical skills like work machines)

★ Farming Timeline 

● Was there ever a time where farming was a perfect blend of science, technology, and sustainability?

○ This is a debatable question, but many farmers are

reverting back to older practices like:

■ Using horses instead of modern tractors to plow soil

● Is there a right sized farm? Should farms be family owned? ○ Both are also debatable questions… Different organizations define family-owned farms in various ways

■ UN defines family farms as → those managed and

operated by a family and family provides most of the

farm’s labor

■ USDA’s ERS says family farms are those whose

principal operator and people related to the principal

operator by blood or marriage own most of the farm

business

■ U.S. Government defines family farms as any

establishment which produced and sold (or normally

would have produced and sold) $1000 or more per

year

- Based on U.S. Government’s definition:

● 87% farms are owned and operated by

individuals or families

● 8% are owned by partnerships

● 4% are owned by corporations

➔ GDP (gross domestic product) = the total value of goods produced and services provided in one year

◆ If you look at how much agriculture contributes to GDP, it’s an extremely small percentage

● HOWEVER, agriculture is interwoven with technically every other sector of what contributes to GDP

➔ 60% of farmers makes less than $10,000 a year

➔ 30% make between $10,000 and $60,000 a year

➔ Less than 10% make more than $100,000 a year

◆ Size of farms DIRECTLY correlate with sales (smaller farms make less money and vice versa)

◆ Small farms are more common in the East and larger farms are more common in the West

◆ During Great Recession, larger farms did much better than smaller farms

--------------------------------

★ Types of farming 

Quick note: ​only about 36% of Americans hold valid passports

● UN estimates there are 500 million family farms around the world (80% of farms exist outside of U.S.) → this means that in the United States the super big farms are what primarily feed the population but that’s NOT the case around the world

Commercial Farming

- Farming for PROFIT based on ability to produce SURPLUS food

- Farms are arable (for plant cultivation) / Pastoral (to rear animals)

- Occurs in temperate zones

- Includes places like U.S. / Australia / Southern South America / Parts of Europe

Subsistence Farming

- Farming where all crops and livestock feed ONLY the people who farmed it

- Occurs in tropical zones

- Includes two different types: intensive and extensive (see below)

● Two types of subsistence:

Intensive

Commercial Farming

- Farmers get more food per acre compared to other methods

- Think “small” and “intense”

- Common in India and China

Extensive

Commercial Farming

- Vast expanses of land are

cultivated to yield minimal output of crops and animals for people

- Think “big” and “expansive”

- Common in Africa, South America, Mexico

● If you look at the map of growth and decrease of agricultural land, notice that GREEN = loss of farmland and RED = growth of agriculture ○ This map portrays how subsistence farming is increasing (especially in the tropics) and commercial farming is decreasing (especially in America)

★ Can we produce enough food with traditional farming? 

● Subsistence farming accounts for about 70% - 80% of food for developing countries

○ However, small farms are highly dependent on natural

resources and the environment (yields are not always

100% predictable)

● Let’s look at INDIA​:

○ Live markets → people in India go to live markets to buy live chickens… this is uncommon in America (people buy

pre-slaughtered, pre-packaged chicken… they don’t buy a live bird and slaughter it themselves)

○ In India, there’s a serious problem:

■ It’s the 2nd largest grower of fresh produce

■ However, 40% of that produce is lost because it

can’t successfully be distributed

■ This is because of India’s struggling

INFRASTRUCTURE → not the right equipment or lack

of equipment, bad roads, bad communication

■ This increases food prices, lowers income for

farmers, and cause malnutrition throughout India

Mini note: ​1 hectare = about 2.5 acres (for reference)

_____________________________________

★ Guest Speaker:

○ Religious views on animal rights

■ Judeo-Christian = man has dominion over animals

■ Islamic = Men are above animals but should treat them with respect

■ Jainism, Hinduism, Buddhism = believe animals are sacred

○ Modern animal movement

■ Peter Singer, a utilitarian, started the animal movement in the UK in the 1960’s

- Singer believed animals can suffer and thus should

not be given conditions in which they feel suffering

■ Speciesism = assumption of human superiority leading to exploitation of animals

■ Carl Cohen, basically the opposite of Singer, believed

every species ought to be concerned about protecting

themselves, thus since humans are already “on top” we

should continue to be superior to animals

PET v. FOOD ANIMAL

Pet

Food Animal

- Has a name

- Trained to help and show

support

- Interacts and has a

relationship with humans

- Usually responsive to

emotions

- Has a number instead of a name

- Trained to consume food and reproduce

- Only around for short term - Undergoes selective breeding - No emotional response

● MODERN pet ownership

○ Why are millennials buying their first house?

■ Surprisingly, 33% (which is above marriage and childbirth) say they need a bigger yard for their dog

○ Changing view of “pets”

■ Maybe the term “caregiver” should be used instead of

“owner”

■ “Companion animals” used instead of “pet”

○ Are chickens pets?

■ In modern times, more and more animals, like chickens / goats / pot-belly pigs / even foxes are shifting towards the “pet category”

○ Advertisements against consuming animal products

■ PETA = highly against animal products

■ A lot of superstars are associated with animal products (think of the “Got Milk?” posters)

○ Animal-related food consumption has changed

■ more people eat broilers today but beef has leveled down ■ Overall meat / egg / nut consumption has increased but dairy has stayed about the same

■ Since 2011 egg production and consumption has increased ○ Use of animals in research

■ FDA requires testing because it’s appropriate to insure

safety

■ EU, Israel, India, Norway → banned cosmetic testing on animals

■ Starting in 1980’s, “cruelty-free” movement has gained momentum

■ 1966 = Animal Welfare Act → first federal law against

animal testing (except it does NOT account for rats, mice

or birds which are 95% of the animals used for testing)

■ There are many more state laws against animals testing (like in California)

■ Most county laws focus on things regarding raising and keeping domesticated animals, not so much on animal

testing

○ Look over UGA’s IACUC (requirements for using animals in experiment or research)

■ https://research.uga.edu/oacu/iacuc/ 

-------------------------------- ★ What is DOMESTICATION? 

● What do we domesticate?

- Both animals AND plants

● Why do we do it?

- To accentuate desirable traits

- To secure a more predictable supply of resources

NOTE: ​Domestication can involve behavioral / psychological / and genetic changes to both organisms involved (the animal / plant AND the human) → this leads to a dependence relationship

➢ History of chicken domestication:

○ Origin of modern chicken is the Red Jungle Fowl from Southeast Asia about 8,000 years ago

○ Reason for initial domestication? COCK FIGHTING (which was the world’s first spectator sport)

○ Chickens left SE Asia to be used for cock fighting but people quickly notice the resources they provide (meat and eggs) ○ European breeds = small, aggressive and flighty

○ In China, however, the country was in a long state of isolation, so they didn’t share their chicken breeds. They breed their chickens in captivity, so once they finally opened up to the rest of the world in the 1800’s, the Cochin chicken was introduced (an extremely mild-tempered, beautiful, large chicken)

○ This led to the “poultry fancier” movement in the late 1800’s

➢ Let’s talk about CHICKEN WINGS 

○ In the 1970’s, chicken wings had less than 0% value. People only cared about the legs, thighs and breasts

○ Because of this, chicken warehouses were loaded with wings they didn’t know what to do with them

○ They decided that whenever an order of chicken parts was purchased, they’d include a bunch of free wings with the order ○ So now the wings are leaving the warehouses but stacking up at the bars and restaurants that serve chicken

○ At a bar in Buffalo, NY, someone decided that they’d leave seasoned, spicy chicken wings on the counter as free snacks (the seasoning and spiciness would make people more thirsty, thus causing them to buy more beer and soda)

○ Chicken wings become wildly popular, and are now a prominent part of the American culture today

● Domestication of DOGS

○ Dogs started off as wolves

○ Short summary:

■ Early humans would throw their food scraps out, providing the wolves with extra food, and the wolves in turn would protect the humans from other predators

■ However, some wolves were more aggressive than others, so humans killed those ones

■ This left the more mildly-tempered wolves

■ Humans begin using the wolves to complete tasks faster ■ They start selectively breeding them (always choosing the more mild-tempered ones)

■ The wolves genes are genetically altered, and through time they begin to better understand human emotions and

language

■ We also being to understand dogs better (like interpreting their barks, for example)

■ Wolves used to be carnivores… dogs, however, are

omnivores, some even herbivores

NOTE: ​The more affluent a society is, the more domesticated pets people own (dogs are just one of the go-to domesticated pets in America)

● There’s a difference between domesticating an animal and taming an animal:

Domesticating

Taming

- Selectively bred to benefit humans

- Captured at a young age

- Raised with human nurturing - Not domesticated

● What traits do humans tend to favor in selective breeding? - Wide diet (can eat anything)

- Willing to breed in captivity

- Grow fast (mature quickly)

- Calm (not rambunctious, saving energy for growing and not playing)

- Flexible social hierarchy (willing to let humans be the rulers) - Provide a service (like chickens provide meat and eggs)

● Selective breeding does cause problems in animals:

- Changes in body conformation / physical structure (large body fat mass is very unhealthy)

- Loss of natural behaviors (kind of diminishes the wholesomeness of animals)

- “Dumber” (reduction in brain size… animals only have to think about eating and growing)

★ Let’s talk about some crops 

● Dairy (even though it’s not a crop)

○ Prehistoric babies could digest milk because of an enzyme known as “lactase”

○ In early adult humans, however, “lactase” turned off and all adults were lactose intolerant

○ Liquid milk has significant nutritious value (contains

protein, calcium and carbs)... it became known as a

prehistoric superfood

○ 8,000 years ago in the Middle East, lactase enzyme

becomes more frequent

● Corn

○ Originated with the Mayans, who believed god mixed human blood with corn flour to make humans

○ Corn was domesticated (it started off looking very different from what we think of corn as today)

● Potatoes

○ Started in South America

○ They’re easy to plant, less effort to make edible, and they can feed tons of people

○ In 1840, 40% of Ireland’s population relied SOLELY on potatoes for their daily nutrition

■ So when the potato blight occurred (the Great Potato Famine) 1 million people died and 1 million people

left (there were originally 8 million people in ireland)

○ Fun fact: America’s diet consists of a large portion of vegetable, BUT:

■ 50% of American “veggies” are in the form of French Fries and Ketchup

● Tobacco

○ The South’s 1st cash crop

○ This was a key trade good for American colonies back to England

○ Very hard to plant, grow and harvest (labor intensive) ○ So labor intensive that even small farmers used slaves to handle the work

○ Today, tobacco makes up only 3% of Georgia’s Row and Forage Crops

● Cotton

○ The South’s 2nd cash crop

○ Cotton was also very labor intensive to grow (it was

especially hard to separate the seeds from the cotton

fibers)

○ Eli Whitney (who wasn’t even from GA) → mechanizes the “second half of the equation” which refers to separating

seeds from fibers with the COTTON GIN 

○ He doesn’t mechanize, however, the half of the equation where the cotton has to be picked from the field

○ Thus, with his cotton gin, he essentially creates a higher demand for cotton which leads to major increase in slavery - The early 1900’s marked the END of KING COTTON

❏ The Boll Weevil reduced cotton farms from 5 million acres to 2.6 million acres in just 7 years

❏ In 1983 there was only 115,000 acres

❏ Boll Weevil = eliminated in 1990’s

❏ Cotton is still significant in GA → it ranks third in GA agriculture commodities and GA is 2nd largest producer of cotton in the nation

● Another “cash crop,” or more so “cash animal” that is still very prominent in GA = POULTRY

○ The U.S. population is over 7 million, but the U.S. raises and slaughters 9 billion chickens every year

○ There’s only ten million people in GA, but we slaughter 1.5 billion chickens per year

○ Chicken “explosion” was caused by JESSE JEWELL

■ He created the business concept of VERTICAL 

INTEGRATION → basically a company owns every single

part of process (production, distribution, etc.)

■ Jewell gave struggling farmers baby chickens and feed, the farmers raise the chickens and keep portion of flock for

payment while Jesse gets all the rest

■ Eventually he buys the chicken houses and everything else involved until he’s running a legitimate poultry business

______________________________________________________

NOTES FROM READINGS AND VIDEOS:

● Summary of reading “EMERGENCE OF HUMAN SOCIETIES” ○ Know what hominids are

○ Prehistoric era → encompasses all human existence before emergence of writing

○ Old stone age (Paleolithic period) → first indication of conscious cultural act (remember hominids develop during this time

through slight biological adaptation but primarily through

CULTURAL ADAPTATION)

■ Humans begin to create tools, develop kinship, create fire and pass on knowledge to offspring

■ Foragers (move after exhausting land’s resources)

■ CENTRAL INSTITUTION of human society = FAMILY

○ Great Ice Age → affects available food and causes hominids to migrate from Africa to Asia and later Europe

○ 200,000 years ago HOMO SAPIENS emerge

■ Now humans are slightly more complex and developed

(better hunting skills, more complex language, etc.)

○ People spread across the world and adapt to environments (lighter skin in north, darker skin at equator)

○ Social pacts created to protect land and resources

○ NEW STONE AGE → West Asia people start using sickles and grinders to process grain that emerged from the warming

climate (end of ice age)

○ Agriculture spreads through intercultural connections

○ Wheat and barley are most popular grains / slash and burn farming techniques create fertile soil but deplete wildlife /

different farming practices in different parts of world →

■ North America = supports farming but not herding

■ Central Asia = supports herding but not farming

■ Pastoral Nomads = use livestock for subsistence then

move to more fertile grazing ground

○ Emergence of complex societies form as agriculture becomes more prominent

■ Think of Jericho and Catal Huyuk… early towns with trading hubs, sizable building, worship places, markets,

governments, specialized workers and merchants, diversity and art, etc.

■ Cities run by strong central governments → authorities had a lot of power because they were usually associated with divine gods

■ Government’s main function = secure society’s

sustenance, ensure survival of ruling elite, and defend

against outsiders

■ Concept of TRIBUTE → farmers give some crops to rulers in exchange for protection

■ States eventually become a thing

■ Many states develop around rivers (because they’re good to grow crops by, offer protection, water for people, a

means of transportation and soil nutrients

○ NOTE: Emergence of civilizations marks the beginning of the historical era

● Summary of “The Story of South African Farming is a Women’s Story” ○ Kenalemang Kgoroeadira founded Thojane Organic Farm in 2009 and was awarded title “Best Subsistence Producer” in South Africa

○ Farm started on one hectare of land → it now produces green beans, spinach and tomatoes which are sold to local markets, given to school feeding schemes or donated to hospices

○ Grown without aid of chemicals / uses natural fertilizers (like chicken manure)

○ Currently grows different herbs → extracts oils to protect crops ○ HOWEVER, apartheid legacy haunts South African farms because:

■ Men are forced away from their homes (because of

NATIVES LAND ACT which forces men to work in mines

and disposes black South Africans from land) leaving

women to stay home, raise children, tend cattle, plow

fields AND harvest crops

■ Commercial farming is extremely controlled and diminishes any success of the millions of farmers trying to live off the land

■ It’s very hard for small farmers to enter the commercial sector in Africa

○ Today, 36000 white commercial farmers supply 95% of South Africa’s locally produced food… 2.3 million small scale farmers simply can’t compete

○ Kgoroeadira had 26 hectares of land but only enough money, time and supplies to use 2.5 of those hectares

○ Kgoroeadira claims the government needs to pour more money into making people self-sufficient

● Summary of “Chris Lambe’s Ted Talk (From Subsistence to Surplus)” ○ Middle ages = 95% of people work on land… today in U.S. only 2% work on land

○ Mayn farmer works on farm in Guatemala (in a modern-ish town)

■ He owns a 1 hectare farm but only .8 of the hectare is able to grow corn... this leaves him with a FOOD GAP

■ His farm doesn’t “work” because it is overworked and unproductive… the soil nutrients have been depleted

○ Lambe initiates MOSAIC VILLAGES PROJECT (MVP) → move subsistence farms to surplus creating farms

■ In Guatemala, MVP focuses on five pillars:

● Partnership

● Soil Health

● Water

● Finance

● Marketing

■ So basically MVP teaches Mayan farmers how to farm in a more sustainable, smart manner… eventually their farms become much more productive, they begin having

surpluses, learn how to work the market, spread their

knowledge to surrounding farmers, and can now buy more things they need

○ Every night 850 million people go to bed hungry

○ By 2050 → 2 billion more mouths will need to be fed, what do we do?

■ Sustainable Intensification = beginnings of a solution

A QUIZLET TO HELP YOU STUDY:

https://quizlet.com/186268361/aesc-2050-test-1-flash-cards/ Note: It’s still a good idea to look over slides and watch some of the videos…

GOOD LUCK ON TEST!

Page Expired
5off
It looks like your free minutes have expired! Lucky for you we have all the content you need, just sign up here