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UA / Biology / BSC 120 / What does francesco redi disprove in his controlled experiment?

What does francesco redi disprove in his controlled experiment?

What does francesco redi disprove in his controlled experiment?

Description

School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Biology
Course: Honors Gen Biology II
Professor: Powell
Term: Spring 2015
Tags: Biology, Bio Concepts/Controversy, Bio Concept/Controv, and Biology Concept and Controversy
Cost: 50
Name: BSC 120 Test 1 Study Guide
Description: This covers a comprehensive review of chapters 25, 27,28 and 31.
Uploaded: 02/03/2018
13 Pages 52 Views 4 Unlocks
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BSC 120 Test 1 Study Guide


What does francesco redi disprove in his controlled experiment?



Chapter 25: The History of Life on Earth

1. Levels of organization

a. Atom, molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere

2. Homeostasis

a. Maintain a stable internal environment

3. Classification

a. Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species 4. Earth formed 4.6 bya

a. 1st appearance of life 3.5 bya (prokaryotes)

5. Francesco Redi (1668):

a. Controlled experiment

i. Belief in spontaneous generation of life

ii. Correlation is not causation

b. Disproved this with flies/maggots and meat in jars with various coverings

6. Louis Pasteur (1862):


What is louis pasteur's contribution to biology?



a. Evidence against contemporary spontaneous generation i. Bacteria only appeared as close as they could get

7. 3 scenarios for the origin of life

a. Scenario 1: According to one hypothesis, the first organisms were products of chemical evolution in four stages

i. Stage 1: abiotic synthesis of organic monomers

1. Vitalism: organic molecules once thought to be

produced by living organisms only

2. Wohler: synthesized urea

3. Oparin and Haldane: early earth atmosphere was

reducing

4. Miller and Urey’s experiment: closed system to

simulate early earth could produce biologically

important organic molecules

ii. Stage 2: abiotic synthesis of polymers


What provides a record of life forms that once existed in the past?



1. Drip solutions of monomers onto clay, rock, or hot sand Don't forget about the age old question of How is hypothesis testing conducted?

2. Polynucleotides copy themselves using base

pairing

iii. Stage 3: formation of protocells

1. Could have formed spontaneously

2. Have selective permeability

iv. Stage 4: origin of self-replicating molecules

1. First genes were short strands of DNA that could

copy themselves w/o proteins; perhaps used

ribozymes

b. Scenario 2: Deep Sea Alkaline Vents/Volcanoes

i. Extreme thermophiles (archaebacteria)

ii. Sulfur + ion used to make ATP

c. Scenario 3: Panspermia-cosmic ancestry

i. Life came to earth through meteorites and asteroids ii. Murchison meteorite: 1-2% carbon; 4.5 byo; inside were amino acids, sugars, purines, and lipids

iii. Simple building blocks can form places other than earth 8. The Fossil Record

a. Fossils provide a record of life forms that once existed in the past

i. Evidence of: extinction of species, origins of new groups, changes within groups over time

b. paleontologists : piece together history of life

c. Teeth, bones, shell, and leaves

9. Different Classes of Rocks

a. Sedimentary

i. Accumulation

ii. Limestone We also discuss several other topics like What are some examples of endemic diseases?

iii. Shale

iv. Moving water into an area; majority of fossils b. Igneous If you want to learn more check out Who discovered that dna was a double helix?

i. Cooling of magma

ii. Obsidian

c. Metamorphic

i. Changed by heat and pressure

ii. Marble

iii. Some fossils

10.Types of Fossils

a. Mold

i. Imprint of organism

b. Cast

i. Imprint replaced with minerals

c. Trace

i. Evidence of behavior

ii. Footprints, burrows

d. Petrified

i. Preserved basic structure

e. Amber

i. Plant resin

f. Remains

i. Bones

ii. Shells

11. How are fossils dated?

a. Relative dating: age by comparison

i. Rock layers deposited in order

ii. Oldest layer on bottom

iii. Stratum: layers in cross section We also discuss several other topics like What steps are involved in the process of strategic planning?

b. Absolute age: radiometric dating

i. Decay of radioactive isotopes

12. Endosymbiosis

a. Process in which a unicellular organism engulfs another cell, which becomes an endosymbiont and then an organelle in the host cell Don't forget about the age old question of Who was considered the greatest writer of tragedy?

b. Mitochondria evolved by endosymbiosis of an aerobic prokaryote

Chapter 27: Prokaryotes

1. Traditional five kingdom system:

a. Plantae

b. Fungi Don't forget about the age old question of What does who stand for?

c. Animalia

d. Protista

e. Monera

2. 3 major lineages of life

a. Bacteria

b. Archaea

c. Eukarya

3. Carl Woese (1960s) molecular phylogenetics

a. Prokaryotes divergent from archaea

b. Looked at ribosomal RNA

4. Horizontal gene transfer causes the “tree of life” to be more like a tangled web

5. Bacteria and Archaea include only prokaryotes

a. Mostly unicellular

b. 10x smaller than eukaryotic cells

c. No membrane enclosed organelles

d. No cytoskeletal system (microtubules)

e. Large diversity

6. Basic prokaryote structure

a. Coccus (cocci)-spherical (strep)

b. Spiral

c. Bacillus (bacilli)-rod shaped

d. Size: 5-10 mm

7. Cell-Surface Structures

a. Cell wall

i. Maintains shape, provides protection

ii. Prevents lysis in hypotonic environment

iii. In a hypertonic environment

1. Cells plasmolyze

2. Inhibits reproduction

3. Salt used as a preservative

b. Bacterial Walls: peptidoglycan; carbs cross linked by polypeptides i. Unique: eukaryotes with cell walls have chitin or cellulose in them

c. Archean Walls: similar sugars/polypeptides but not peptidoglycan d. Capsule

i. Optional sticky layer that coats the surface (slime layer) ii. Usually composed of sugars

iii. Contributes to:

1. Adhesion to substrate

2. Pathogenicity

3. Protects from dehydration

e. Appendages

i. Fimbriae: numerous, for adhesion

ii. Pili: longer than fimbriae and not as numerous

iii. ½ of prokaryotes have directional movement

iv. Proton pump powers a basal apparatus to turn a hook attached to long chains of flagellin

v. Taxis: movement toward or away from a stimulus vi. 9+2 configuration of microtubules

8. The Gram Stain

a. Hans Christian Gram-1800s

i. Gram + and Gram -

ii. Very useful even today

iii. Gram - are usually more virulent and resistant to more antibiotics than gram positives

b. 2 types of bacteria based on cell wall composition

i. Detected using the Gram Stain

ii. Gram +: large amounts of peptidoglycan

iii. Gram -: Less peptidoglycan, in between plasma membrane and a 2nd, outer membrane containing lipopolysaccharides c. The Procedure

i. Specimen stained with crystal violet

ii. Fixed w iodine

iii. Washed in ethanol

iv. Counter stained with safranin (red dye)

d. +=violet -=red

9. In the Cytoplasm

a. No organelles

b. Many ribosomes

c. Nucleoid region

d. Specialized membrane systems

i. Originate in plasma membrane

ii. Respiratory and thylakoid are examples

10. Chromosomes and Plasmids

a. Plasmids: small rings of DNA

i. Provide resistance to antibiotics

ii. Enable metabolism of rarely found nutrients

b. Agrobacterium tumefaciens (gene transfer in plants)

11. Why are Prokaryotes so Successful?

a. Evolutionary adaptations

i. Structural, functional, genetic, nutritional and metabolic, symbiotic

12. Endospores

a. Survival adaptation in some species

b. Form in harsh environments

c. Copy of chromosome surrounded by a tough wall

13. Genetics: allows for all the adaptations

a. Rapid reproduction

i. Short generation times, large population sizes (binary fission) b. Mutation

i. Individually rare, but significant

c. Genetic recombination

i. Transformation

ii. Conjugation

iii. Transduction

14. Nutritionally diverse

a. Photoautotroph

i. Energy: light

ii. Carbon: organic compounds

b. Chemoautotroph

i. Energy: inorganic chemicals

ii. Carbon: Co2

c. Chemoheterotroph

i. Energy: organic compounds

ii. Carbon: organic compounds

d. Photoheterotroph

i. Energy: light

ii. Carbon: organic compounds

15. + or - Oxygen Metabolism

a. Obligate aerobes

i. Require oxygen

b. Facultative aerobes

i. Survive w or w/o oxygen

c. Obligate anaerobes

i. Poisoned by oxygen

16. Rhizobium 

a. Root nodules in beans 

b. Bacteroides within vesicle convert N2 to a usable form 17. Metabolic Cooperation

a. Survival in limiting environments

i. Biofilms

ii. Quorum sensing

18. Symbiosis-Mutualism

19. Archaea

a. Extremophiles

i. Thermophiles

ii. Halophiles

iii. Methanogens

20. Toxins

a. Exotoxins: secreted proteins

i. Vibrio cholera

ii. Clostridium botulinum

b. Endotoxins: components of the outer wall of Gram - bacteria i. Released when a cell dies

ii. Salmonella

21. Tuberculosis

a. Leading cause of death in world from bacterial infectious disease 22. Lyme Disease

a. Most common pest carried disease in U.S.

b. Transmitted by ticks

23. Horizontal Gene Transfer

a. Can turn harmless species into fatal pathogens

i. E. Coli

Chapter 28: Protists

1. Eukaryotes; “convenience group”

a. Mostly unicellular

b. Paraphyletic

2. Endosymbiosis in Eukaryotic Evolution

a. Mitochondria evolved by endosymbiosis of an aerobic prokaryote

b. Plastids evolved by endosymbiosis of a photosynthetic cyanobacterium

3. Parts of Protists

a. Flexible cell surface

i. Flexible plasma membrane that is infolded

ii. Increased absorption area

b. Nuclear envelope

i. DNA attached to plasma membrane

ii. Infolded vesicles

c. Cytoskeleton

i. Actin and tubulin

ii. Flagellum formation (kinetosomes and centrioles replicated at mitosis) (9+2 formation)

d. Digestive vesicles

i. Endocytosis-phagocytosis

ii. Lysosomes-digestion

4. Secondary Endosymbiosis

a. Green and Red Algae ingested by a heterotrophic eukaryote 5. Nutrition

a. Most nutritionally diverse

i. Photoautotrophs

1. Diatom

ii. Chemoheterotrophs

1. Amoeba

iii. Mixotrophs

1. Euglena

6. Super Group 1: Excavata

a. Groove on one side of body

b. Subgroups: plastids or no plastids

c. Diplomonads

i. Lack plastids

ii. Mitosomes

iii. 2 nuclei and multiple flagella

iv. Live in intestines...cause diarrhea and stomach pain v. Kill by filtration

d. Parabasalids

i. Hydrogenosomes

ii. Trichomonas vaginalis

1. Infectious STD

iii. Trichonympha

1. Mutualists in guts of termites so they can digest

wood

e. Euglenozoans

i. Heterotrophs and photoautotrophs

ii. parasites

iii. crystalline rod inside flagella

iv. Kinetoplastids

1. Trypanosoma=African Sleeping Sickness 

2. African Tsetse fly

v. Green Algae and secondary endosymbiosis gave them their plastids

7. Super Group 2: “SAR” Clade

a. Stramenopiles

i. 2 flagella on motile cells

ii. One flagellum has “hairs” with split ends

iii. Oomycetes

1. Fungal-like parasites of plants and animals

2. Saprophytes; ick of fish

iv. Diatoms

1. Live in glass houses

2. Unicellular algae

v. Gold Algae

1. Killer algae-deadly to fish

vi. Brown Algae

1. Source of alginate (thickener of ice cream, pudding, paint, etc.) 

b. Alveolates

i. Membrane bound sac beneath plasma membrane ii. Dinoflagellates

1. Aquatic mixotrophs and heterotrophs

2. 2 flagella make them spin

3. Blooms are cause of toxic “red tides”

iii. Apicomplexans

1. Parasites of animals

2. Apicoplast (plastid)

3. Plasmodium (cause malaria) 

iv. Ciliates

1. Paramecium (whole body covered in cilia)

2. Trichocysts under cilium squirt out and kill organisms v. Rhizaria

1. Have filose pseudopodia

2. Forams

a. Shelled marine organisms

3. Cercozoans

a. Heterotrophs, parasites, and predators

b. Paulinea-secondary endosymbiosis of

cyanobacteria

4. Radiolarians

a. Marine protists

b. Pseudopodia radiate from body

8. Super Group 3: Unikonta

a. Amoebozoans

i. Amoeba with love or tube-shaped pseudopodia ii. Gymnamoebas, entamoebas, and some invertebrates 9. Ecological Roles

a. Symbiont

b. Producer

c. Parasites

10. Need to Know Diseases 

a. Plasmodium-malaria 

b. Cryptosporidium- diarrheal disease 

c. Giardia- hiker’s diarrhea 

d. Trichomoniasis- STD 

e. Trypanosoma- African Sleeping Sickness 

f. Pfiesteria shumwayae- kills fish 

g. Phytophthora infestans- late blight of potatoes h. Entamoeba- amoebic dysentery 

Chapter 31: Fungi

1. What are fungi?

a. Heterotrophic nutrition

b. Cell walls w chitin

c. Stores glycogen

d. Eukaryotes

e. Under Unikonta

2. Basic Characteristics

a. Clamp connections

b. Hypha

c. Septa

3. Fungi can reproduce sexually or asexually

4. Kingdom Fungi:

a. Chytridiomycetes

i. Zoospores

ii. Resting spores

b. Zygomycetes

i. Sporangiospores

ii. Zygospores

c. Ascomycetes

i. Conidia on conidiophore

ii. Ascospores in ascocarp

d. Basidiomycetes

i. X

ii. Basidiospores on basidia

iii. Mushrooms (Caesar’s mushrooms)

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