Human Anatomy and Physiology I Study Guide
Chapter 1 The Human Body: An Orientation
∙ Anatomy: the study of structure
Gross or macroscopic (e.g., regional, surface, and systemic anatomy)
Microscopic (e.g., cytology and histology)
Developmental (e.g., embryology)
∙ Physiology: the study of functions at many levels
o Subdivisions are based on organ systems (e.g., nervous system, renal, or cardiovascular physiology)
Note major organs and functions
∙ integumentary system forms the external body covering, and protects deeper tissues from injury synthesizes vitamin D, and the houses cutaneous (pain, pressure, etc) receptors and swear and oil glands
∙Skeletal system protects and supports body organs, and provides a framework the muscles use the cause movement. Blood cells are formed within bones. Bones stores minerals
∙Muscular system allows manipulation of the environment locomotion, and facial expression. Maintains posture and produces heat. ∙Nervous system as the fast-acting control system of the body, it responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands.
∙ Endocrine system glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells
∙Cardiovascular system bold vessels transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes. The hearth pumps blood ∙Lymphatic system/immunity picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood. Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream. Houses white blood cells involved in Immunity.
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∙Respiratory system keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide.
∙Digestive system breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells. Indigestible foodstuffs are eliminated as feces.
∙Urinary system eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body. Regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of the blood.
Necessary Life Function
A) Maintaining boundaries between internal and external environments
2. Plasma membranes
1. Of body parts (Skeletal muscle)
2. Of substances (cardiac and smooth muscle)
3. Responsiveness: The ability to sense and respond to stimuli 1. Withdrawal reflex
2. Control of breathing rate
1. Breakdown of ingested foodstuffs
2. Absorption of simple molecules into blood
5. Metabolism: All chemical reactions that occur in body cells 1. Catabolism and anabolism
6. Excretion: The removal of waste from metabolism and digestion 1. Urea, feces, carbon dioxide We also discuss several other topics like What are the effects of enzymes on chemical reactions?
1. Cellular division from growth or repair
2. Production of offspring
1. Increase in size of a body part or of organism
Maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment despite continuous outside changes
A dynamic state of equilibrium
involve continuous monitoring and regulation of many factors (variables)
Nervous and Endocrine systems accomplish the communication via nerve impulses and hormones
Components of a Control Mechanism
1. Receptor (sensor)
monitors the environment
responds to stimuli
2. Control center
determines the set point at which the variable is maintained receives input from receptor
determines appropriate response
receives output from control center
provides the means to respond
response acts to reduce or enhance the stimulus (feedback)
The response reduces or shuts off the original stimulus Examples: If you want to learn more check out What makes a voice unique?
regulation of body temperature
(a Nervous mechanism)
numerous physiological processes
The response enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus may exhibit a cascade or amplifying effect
usually controls infrequent events e.g.:
Enhancement of labor contractions by oxytocin
Platelet plug formation and blood clotting
Disturbance of homeostasis Don't forget about the age old question of What does mona lisa symbolize?
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We also discuss several other topics like Rolle's theorem means what?
increases risk of disease
contributes to changes associated with aging
may allow destructive positive feedback mechanisms to take over (e.g., heart failure)
Chapter 2 Molecules
Matter, atom, element, molecules, compounds
o Water, salts, acids/bases
o Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids
Matter - anything that has mass and occupies space, can be solid, liquid, gas
Atom – the basic building block of matter
composed of proton, neutron and electron
Element – composed of only one type of atom
Molecule – two or more same or different kinds of atoms chemically joined together
e.g., H2, O2, H2O, or C6H12O6, etc.
Compound – two or more different kinds of atoms chemically joined together
e.g., H2O, or C6H12O6, etc.
Energy: capacity to do work or put matter into motion
Types of energy
Kinetic: energy in action, results from movement of charged particles
Potential: stored energy, stored in bonds of chemical substances Energy converted from one form to another
inefficient because some energy is “lost” as heat
Chemical reactions occur when chemical bonds are formed, rearranged, or broken
Synthesis : A + B → AB, anabolic
decomposition : AB → A + B, catabolic
exchange : AB + C → AC + B, displacement
Chemical reactions are either exergonic or endergonic
catabolic reactions: exergonic (release energy)
anabolic reactions: endergonic (absorb energy)
products contain more potential energy than did reactants Classes of Compounds
water, salts, and many acids and bases
do not contain carbon
∙ Organic compounds
carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and nucleic acids
contain carbon, usually large, and are covalently bonded Chapter 3 Cells: The Living Units
The smallest structural and functional living unit
Organismal functions depend on individual and collective cell functions
Over 200 different types of human cells -10 trillion
differ in size, shape, subcellular components, and functions All cells have some common structures and functions
Human cells have three basic parts:
Plasma membrane — flexible outer boundary
Cytoplasm— intracellular fluid containing organelles
Nucleus — control center
Located between plasma membrane and nucleus
Water with solutes (protein, salts, sugars, etc.)
Cytoplasmic organelles - metabolic machinery of cell
Membranous: mitochondria, peroxisomes, lysosomes,
endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus
Non-membranous: cytoskeleton, ribosomes, centrioles
Double membrane: structure with shell-like cristae
Provide most of cell’s ATP via aerobic cellular respiration - powerhouse Contain their own DNA and RNA
Granules containing protein and rRNA
Site of protein synthesis
Free ribosomes synthesize soluble proteins
Membrane-bound ribosomes (on rough ER) synthesize Membrane proteins e.g. transporters, ion channels, etc Secretory proteins
Spherical membranous bags containing digestive enzymes Digest ingested bacteria, viruses, and toxins
Degrade nonfunctional organelles
Break down and release glyogen
Break down bone to release Ca2+
Destroy cells in injured or no useful tissue (autolysis)
Dynamic structure made of a network of protein fibers, throughout
Support cell shape, anchor organelles, provide cell motility Three types
Microfilaments or actin filaments – 7 nm diameter
Microtubules – 25 nm diameter
Intermediate filaments – 10 nm diameter
Homeostasis is the condition in which the body maintains? o A relatively stable internal environment, within limit
A leg amputation would require a cut in which plane?
A toes amputation would require a cut in which plane?
To amputate an arm, the surge would cut in which plane? o Sagittal
Which is an example of the conversion of potential energy into kinetic energy?
o ATP hydrolysis to drive muscle contraction
The four major organic compounds that comprise our bodies are: o Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and nucleic acids