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UTEP / Engineering / BIOL 231127357 / How does the skin provide protection to the internal organs?

How does the skin provide protection to the internal organs?

How does the skin provide protection to the internal organs?


School: University of Texas at El Paso
Department: Engineering
Course: Human Anatomy and Physiology I
Professor: Dr. zaineb al-dahwi
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: exam1, Studyguide, BIOL2311, and UTEP
Cost: 50
Name: BIOL 2311
Description: Study Guide for BIOL 2311
Uploaded: 02/04/2018
6 Pages 75 Views 2 Unlocks

Human Anatomy and Physiology I Study Guide  

How does the skin provide protection to the internal organs?

Chapter 1 The Human Body: An Orientation  

∙ Anatomy: the study of structure  

o Subdivisions:

 Gross or macroscopic (e.g., regional, surface, and systemic anatomy)

 Microscopic (e.g., cytology and histology)

 Developmental (e.g., embryology)

∙ Physiology: the study of functions at many levels  

o Subdivisions are based on organ systems (e.g., nervous system,  renal, or cardiovascular physiology)

Note major organs and functions  

∙ integumentary system forms the external body covering, and protects  deeper tissues from injury synthesizes vitamin D, and the houses  cutaneous (pain, pressure, etc) receptors and swear and oil glands

How does the human bone and muscle perform the mineral storage?

∙Skeletal system protects and supports body organs, and provides a  framework the muscles use the cause movement. Blood cells are  formed within bones. Bones stores minerals

∙Muscular system allows manipulation of the environment locomotion,  and facial expression. Maintains posture and produces heat.  ∙Nervous system as the fast-acting control system of the body, it  responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate  muscles and glands.  

∙ Endocrine system glands secrete hormones that regulate processes  such as growth, reproduction and nutrient use (metabolism) by body  cells

∙Cardiovascular system bold vessels transport blood, which carries  oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes. The hearth pumps blood ∙Lymphatic system/immunity picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood. Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream. Houses  white blood cells involved in Immunity.

What system allows manipulation of environment and locomotion?

If you want to learn more check out What is the focus of maslow's humanistic theory of development?

∙Respiratory system keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and  removes carbon dioxide.

∙Digestive system breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the  blood for distribution to body cells. Indigestible foodstuffs are  eliminated as feces.

∙Urinary system eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body. Regulates  water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of the blood.  

Necessary Life Function  

A) Maintaining boundaries between internal and external environments

1. Skin

2. Plasma membranes  

2. Movement  

 1. Of body parts (Skeletal muscle)

 2. Of substances (cardiac and smooth muscle)

3. Responsiveness: The ability to sense and respond to stimuli   1. Withdrawal reflex  

 2. Control of breathing rate  

4. Digestion  

 1. Breakdown of ingested foodstuffs  

 2. Absorption of simple molecules into blood  

5. Metabolism: All chemical reactions that occur in body cells  1. Catabolism and anabolism  

6. Excretion: The removal of waste from metabolism and digestion   1. Urea, feces, carbon dioxide  We also discuss several other topics like What are the effects of enzymes on chemical reactions?

7. Reproduction  

 1. Cellular division from growth or repair

 2. Production of offspring  

8. Growth

 1. Increase in size of a body part or of organism  


 Maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment despite  continuous outside changes

 A dynamic state of equilibrium

 Control mechanisms:

 involve continuous monitoring and regulation of many factors  (variables)

 Nervous and Endocrine systems accomplish the communication  via nerve impulses and hormones

Components of a Control Mechanism  

1. Receptor (sensor)

 monitors the environment

 responds to stimuli

2. Control center

 determines the set point at which the variable is maintained  receives input from receptor  

 determines appropriate response

3. Effector

 receives output from control center

 provides the means to respond

 response acts to reduce or enhance the stimulus (feedback)

Negative Feedback  

 The response reduces or shuts off the original stimulus  Examples: If you want to learn more check out What makes a voice unique?

 regulation of body temperature  

 (a Nervous mechanism)

 numerous physiological processes

Positive Feedback  

 The response enhances or exaggerates the original stimulus  may exhibit a cascade or amplifying effect

 usually controls infrequent events e.g.:

 Enhancement of labor contractions by oxytocin  

 Platelet plug formation and blood clotting

Homeostatic Imbalance  

 Disturbance of homeostasis Don't forget about the age old question of What does mona lisa symbolize?
If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of prokaryotic cells?
We also discuss several other topics like Rolle's theorem means what?

 increases risk of disease

 contributes to changes associated with aging

 may allow destructive positive feedback mechanisms to take  over (e.g., heart failure)

Chapter 2 Molecules  

Matter, atom, element, molecules, compounds  

Chemical reactions  

Inorganic compounds

o Water, salts, acids/bases  

Organic compounds  

o Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids  


 Matter - anything that has mass and occupies space,   can be solid, liquid, gas

 Atom – the basic building block of matter

 composed of proton, neutron and electron

 Element – composed of only one type of atom

 periodic table

 Molecule – two or more same or different kinds of atoms chemically  joined together

 e.g., H2, O2, H2O, or C6H12O6, etc.

 Compound – two or more different kinds of atoms chemically joined  together  

 e.g., H2O, or C6H12O6, etc.


 Energy: capacity to do work or put matter into motion

 Types of energy

 Kinetic: energy in action, results from movement of charged  particles

 Potential: stored energy, stored in bonds of chemical substances   Energy converted from one form to another

 inefficient because some energy is “lost” as heat

Chemical Reactions  

 Chemical reactions occur when chemical bonds are formed,  rearranged, or broken

 Synthesis : A + B → AB, anabolic

 decomposition : AB → A + B, catabolic  

 exchange : AB + C → AC + B, displacement

 Chemical reactions are either exergonic or endergonic

 catabolic reactions: exergonic (release energy)

 anabolic reactions: endergonic (absorb energy)

 products contain more potential energy than did reactants Classes of Compounds  

 Inorganic compounds

 water, salts, and many acids and bases

 do not contain carbon

∙ Organic compounds

 carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and nucleic acids

 contain carbon, usually large, and are covalently bonded Chapter 3 Cells: The Living Units  


 The smallest structural and functional living unit  

 Organismal functions depend on individual and collective cell functions

 Over 200 different types of human cells -10 trillion  

 differ in size, shape, subcellular components, and functions  All cells have some common structures and functions

 Human cells have three basic parts:

 Plasma membrane — flexible outer boundary

 Cytoplasm— intracellular fluid containing organelles

 Nucleus — control center


 Located between plasma membrane and nucleus  

 Cytosol

 Water with solutes (protein, salts, sugars, etc.)

 Cytoplasmic organelles - metabolic machinery of cell

 Membranous: mitochondria, peroxisomes, lysosomes,  

endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi apparatus

 Non-membranous: cytoskeleton, ribosomes, centrioles


 Double membrane: structure with shell-like cristae

 Provide most of cell’s ATP via aerobic cellular respiration - powerhouse  Contain their own DNA and RNA


 Granules containing protein and rRNA

 Site of protein synthesis

 Free ribosomes synthesize soluble proteins  

 Membrane-bound ribosomes (on rough ER) synthesize   Membrane proteins e.g. transporters, ion channels, etc  Secretory proteins


 Spherical membranous bags containing digestive enzymes  Digest ingested bacteria, viruses, and toxins

 Degrade nonfunctional organelles  

 Break down and release glyogen  

 Break down bone to release Ca2+ 

 Destroy cells in injured or no useful tissue (autolysis)


 Dynamic structure made of a network of protein fibers, throughout


 Support cell shape, anchor organelles, provide cell motility  Three types

 Microfilaments or actin filaments – 7 nm diameter

 Microtubules – 25 nm diameter

 Intermediate filaments – 10 nm diameter

Review Questions  

Homeostasis is the condition in which the body maintains?  o A relatively stable internal environment, within limit  

A leg amputation would require a cut in which plane?

o Transverse  

A toes amputation would require a cut in which plane?

o Frontal

To amputate an arm, the surge would cut in which plane? o Sagittal  

Which is an example of the conversion of potential energy into kinetic  energy?

o ATP hydrolysis to drive muscle contraction  

The four major organic compounds that comprise our bodies are: o Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and nucleic acids

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