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UTA / Psychology / PSYC 1315 / What behaviors cannot be directly observed?

What behaviors cannot be directly observed?

What behaviors cannot be directly observed?


School: University of Texas at Arlington
Department: Psychology
Course: Introduction to Psychology
Professor: Scott coleman
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Psychology, Intro to Psychology, PSYC, psych, Exam 1, and review
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 1 Review
Description: These are condensed versions of lecture, the book, and slides
Uploaded: 02/04/2018
8 Pages 328 Views 2 Unlocks

PSYC Exam 1 Review 

What behaviors cannot be directly observed?


∙ Psychology: the scientific study of behavior and mental processes ∙ Systematic Methods: observing behavior and drawing conclusions from it o Goal of Psychology: describe, predict, and explain behavior. o Scientific Method: 

– Research Question

– Design Study/ make predictions

– Observation/ data collection

– Describe results

– Draw conclusions

∙ Behavior: everything that can be observed

∙ Mental Processes: thoughts, feelings, and motives that each of us  experiences privately (not observable)

∙ Critical Thinking: reflecting deeply and actively, asking questions, and  evaluating the evidence

What is the basic structure of the nervous system?

Don't forget about the age old question of What are the effects of enzymes on chemical reactions?

∙ Skepticism: asking how we know something

∙ Objectivity: “Reduces the likelihood that conclusions will be based on  unreliable personal beliefs, opinions, and emotions” Don't forget about the age old question of What makes a voice unique?

∙ Empirical methods: knowledge through observing events, the collection of  data, and logical reasoning.

Biological Approach: 

∙ Neuroscience: study of the structure, development, and function of the  nervous system

∙ Thoughts and emotions show physically in the brain

o i.e. Electrical impulses and chemical

Behavioral Approach: If you want to learn more check out Is the interior of the pantheon original?

∙ “environmental determinants of observable behavior”

What is the focus of maslow's humanistic theory of development?

o Reject thought/mental processes 

o Ivan Pavlov, John Watson, B.F. Skinner

∙ Skinner: psychology should only be what we can see, not feelings and  thoughts 

o Rewards and punishment (we do things because what we have  experienced)

Psychodynamic Approach: Sigmund Freud

∙ Unconscious thought, conflict between bio drives and society, early  childhood (sexual impulses in us all) 

o Parents shape us as who we are now (psychoanalysis) 

o Iceberg theory where our ego is the conscious on the surface, then  there’s superego and Id underneath in the unconscious 

Humanistic Approach: Abraham Maslow & Carl Rogers

∙ Persons positive qualities and positive growth (everyone has the power to  control their own lives, nor driven by impulses/external rewards) o Motivation, emotion, health, personality psyc.

∙ Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: we need physical, safety, love, esteem, and  self­actualization needs to be perfectly content in life

Cognitive Approach: (opposite of behaviorists) 

∙ Mental processes allow people to plan, remember, set goals, make decisions, and be creative (emphasizes KNOWING) If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of prokaryotic cells?

o How people direct attention, remember, think, and problem solve  (Info processing)  

o Math, memory length, plan future

Evolutionary Approach: All psyc comes from this

∙ Adaptation, natural selection, reproduction (can look at primates for human  history)

∙ David Buss: “just as evolution molds our physical features, it also influences our decision making, level of aggressiveness, fears, and mating patterns.”

Sociological Approach:

∙ Ways social and culture influence behavior

o Compares behaviors across countries/cultures

Careers in Psychology 

∙ Most work in academic environments, but clinical and private practice make up half the field

∙ Practitioners: engaged in helping others. Help clients with problems in  EVIDENCE BASED clinical practice (empirical research)

∙ Clinical Psychologist: Doctoral degree

∙ Psychiatrist: physician with medical degree, proscribes medicine, abnormal  behavior

∙ Physiological psychology: physical processes that underlie mental  operations such as thinking and memory.

∙ Behavioral neuroscience: focuses on biological processes, especially the  brain’s role in behavior Don't forget about the age old question of Tailor theorem means what?

∙ Learning: process where behavior changes in response to changing  circumstances. (researchers study learning using rats and pigeons) from  behavioral and cognitive perspectives

Cognitive Psyc: (experimental psychologist)

∙ Examines attention, consciousness, information processing, & memory o Interested in skills like problem solving, decisions, expertise

Developmental Psyc: 

∙ How people become who they are (life­death) by looking at environmental  and biological factors that contribute to development 

o Biological, cognitive, and social psyc.

Motivation and Emotion: 

∙ Look at how people achieve a difficult goal and how rewards affect them o Look at physiological and brain processes of emotional experience,  the role of emotional expression in health, and the possibility that  emotions are universal.Don't forget about the age old question of Cells are made of what?

Psyc of Women/Gender: 

∙ Look at the social and cultural influence on women

∙ Also understanding topic of gender and the way our sex influence ideas about men and  women

Industrial/Organizational Psyc: (human resource management) ∙   Workplace­ both the workers and the company 

Clinical and Counseling Psyc: (psychopathology: diagnosing & treating disorders) ∙ Most practiced; treat and diagnose psyc problems, counseling

Ch. 2

∙ Science is a method (not what you study, but how you study it) ∙ Theory: explain the world and use observations to make future  predictions.

o Describe relationships between variables

∙ Scientific Method:

o Step 1: Observe some phenomenon 

 Curiosity/critical thinking; make/challenge theory

o Step 2: Hypothesize (guess based off a theory)

 Can be tested

o Step 3: Test through empirical research

 Variable (things that can change)

 Operational definitions (define how variable is measured)

 Data analysis (statistics)

o Step 4: Draw Conclusions 

 Replicate results

 Reliability

 Validity 

o Step 5: Evaluate theory

Descriptive Research: 

∙ Finding out about basic dimensions of variable (average happiness)

o Goal: Describing a Phenomenon, Basic dimensions, What it is, How  often it occurs

∙ Cannot prove what causes a phenom. by itself or why things are o Reveals info about behavior and attitudes 

o Survey, observation, case study

∙ Case study: in depth of one person

o Can’t use to generalize people

Correlational Research: 

∙ Relationships between 2 variables (change together or apart?) ∙ Correlation ≠ Causation

o + means they move in the same direction

o – means they move in the opposite direction

o The closer the number is to 1, the stronger the relationship

∙ Third variable: an unaccounted for variable causing the “correlation”  Experimental Research: 

∙ Determine causation

o Manipulate variable and look at effect on another

o Random groups


∙ External: represents the real world

∙ Internal: dependent variable changing the result of the manipulated  independent variable

Ch. 3

∙ Neuroscience: the science of the body’s electrochemical communication ∙ Nervous system: complex, integrated, adaptable (plasticity), electrochem.  Transmission

∙ Afferent: body?brain (muscle and skin connections)

∙ Efferent: brain?rest of the body (muscle connections)

∙ Central: brain and spinal cord

∙ Peripheral: (everything else)

∙  somatic = sensory & motor nerves 

∙ Autonomic = sympathetic & parasympathetic

∙ Nervous cells

∙ Glial: support and nutrition

∙ Neurons: info processing & mirror neurons

∙ Dendrites: branched ends of neuron

∙ Axon: large tail of neuron

∙ Impulse: charge across neuron

∙ Myelin Sheath: waxy cover over axon that allows impulses to jump over  synapse

∙ Neurotransmitters: carry info across synaptic gap to the next neuron ∙ Acetylcholine

• muscle actions, learning, memory

• black widow venom ? Ach levels

• Botox (botulin) ? Ach levels

• Alzheimer’s disease: ? Ach levels


• Anxiety: ? GABA levels

∙ Glutamate

• excitatory, learning and memory, involved in many psychological  disorders

• Norepinephrine

• stress and mania: ? norepinephrine levels

• depression: ? norepinephrine levels

• regulates sleep states in conjunction with Ach

∙ Dopamine

• voluntary movement, reward anticipation

• stimulant drugs: activate dopamine receptors

• Parkinson’s disease: ? dopamine levels

• Schizophrenia: ? dopamine levels

∙ Serotonin

• regulation of sleep, mood, attention, learning

• depression: ? serotonin levels

• Prozac: ? serotonin levels

∙ Endorphins

• natural opiates

• mediate feelings of pleasure and pain

∙  Oxytocin

• both a hormone and a neurotransmitter; related to onset of lactation  in new mothers; related to attachment/emotional bonds

• Note: Drugs can interfere with neurotransmitters.

• mimic or enhance NT effects

• block effects of NT

Studying the Brain: 

∙  Electrical Recording: electroencephalograph (EEG)

• single­unit recording

∙ CT/CAT Scan: many x­ray images used to make a 3D image ∙ PET   Scan:   (position   emission   tomography)   nuclear   medicine functional imaging that observes metabolic processes of the body 3D ∙ MRI/fMRI: magnetic imaging

Sections of the brain:


∙ Brainstem

• medulla – control breathing, regulate reflexes

• pons – sleep and arousal

∙ Cerebellum

• motor coordination


∙ Substantia Nigra

∙ Parkinson’s Disease

∙ Reticular Formation

∙ Behavior Patterns


∙ Limbic System

• memory and emotion

• amygdala

• discrimination of objects needed for survival

• emotional awareness and expression

• hippocampus

• Formation and recall of memories

• Thalamus

• relay station for much sensory information

∙ Basal Ganglia

• coordination of voluntary movements

∙ Hypothalamus

• eating, drinking, sexual behaviors

• regulate body’s internal state

• emotion, stress, reward

Cerebral Cortex:

∙ Neocortex: Outermost Layer

∙ Four Lobes:

• occipital (vision)

• temporal (hearing, language processing, memory) • frontal (intelligence, personality, voluntary muscles) • parietal (spatial location, attention, motor control) •

Somatosensory, Motor, and Association Cortex 

∙ Somatosensoy Cortex (in parietallobe)

• body sensations / touch

∙ Motor Cortex (in frontal lobe)

• voluntary movements

• point­to­point mapping

∙ Association Cortex 

• not sensory or motor, but associations between


∙ Left: verbal processing/speech/grammar 

o Broca’s Area

o Wernicke’s Area

∙ Right: spatial perception/visual recognition/emotion

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