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MIZZOU / Music / MUSIC_NM 1310 / What makes a voice unique?

What makes a voice unique?

What makes a voice unique?

Description

Western MusicExam 1


What makes a voice unique?



CHAPTER 1

★ Music-​ provide entertainment, emotional release, and company activities

○ 1990’s- recorded music begins

★ Live performance-​ emotional state of performer and audience

❖ Sound

➢ Pitch, dynamic, and tone color

➢ Result of vibrating object

★ Duration- ​length of time


What are the sounds produced by musical instruments?



★ Pitch- ​the high/lowness of the sound Don't forget about the age old question of What do you see in raphael's the school of athens?

○ Frequency of vibration

○ Fast= high slow= low

★ Tone- ​definite pitch We also discuss several other topics like What refers to the study of the growth, division, operation, communication, activity control, and death of cells?
Don't forget about the age old question of Rolle's theorem means what?

○ Have specific frequencies

★ Interval- ​distance between 2 tones

★ Octave- ​doubling/halving frequency

★ Range- ​entire distance between voice/instruments highest/lowest possible tones

★ Dynamics- ​loudness/softness (volume) of a sound

★ Accent- ​tone played louder than the others

○ Dynamic terms:


Which instrument produces sound by blowing air into it?



■ Pianissimo VERY SOFT

■ Piano

■ Mezzo piano

1

We also discuss several other topics like What are the meaning of cells and cell theory?
We also discuss several other topics like Why france matters?

■ Mezzo forte

■ Forte

■ Fortissimo VERY LOUD

★ Crescendo-​ gradually gets loud

★ Decrescendo-​ gradually gets softer

★ Listening outline-​ points out notable musical sounds

CHAPTER 2

★ Voices- ​unique ability fusing words and musical tones

★ Range- ​based on makeup and training

○ Classifications:

 Female Male

■ Soprano tenor

■ Mezzo baritone

■ Alto bass

★ Musical instruments-​ mechanism that provide musical sounds ○ 6 categories

■ String

■ Woodwind

■ Brass

■ Percussion

■ Keyboard

■ Electronic

❖ Strings

➢ Produced sound by vibrating tight cable and some played with a bow

■ Long string= low pitch Don't forget about the age old question of What is the definition of a genetic draft?

➢ Type of instruments:

■ Violin

■ Viola

2

■ Cello

■ Bass

➢ Playing techniques

■ Pizzicato

■ Mute (how tone color is altered)

■ Vibrato

■ Double stop

■ Tremolo

■ Harmonics

❖ Woodwinds

➢ Produce sound by blowing air into it and traditionally made of wood

➢ Type of instruments

■ piccolo/flute

■ Clarinet (single reed)

■ Saxophone (single)

■ Oboe (double)

■ English horn

■ Basson

★ Single reed-​ instrument that needs one reed to be played ★ Double reed-​ 2 reeds

❖ Brass

➢ Produce sound using a mouthpiece and it comes out the bell and is loud and powerful

➢ Type of instruments

■ trumpet/cornet (uses valves)

■ trombone/euphonium (uses a slide)

■ Tuba

■ Baritone

■ French horn

❖ Percussion

➢ Sound produced by striking, shaking, or rubbing it

➢ Percussionists have to play more than one instrument

3

❖ Keyboard/piano

➢ Produce several notes at once with sound affected by a

pedal (hammer striking the tight string)

■ 3 types of pedals

● Sustain

● Sostenuto

● Soft

➢ Types of instruments

■ Harpsichord

■ Organ

■ Accordion

❖ Electronics

➢ Produced/amplifying sound

CHAPTER 3

★ Rhythm- ​flow of music, arrangement of note length

★ Beat- ​regular pulse

★ meter ​- beats into groups

★ Tempo- ​speed/pace

○ Indicated at beginning of the piece

○ Common terms:

■ Molto

■ Non troppo

■ Accelerando

■ Ritardando

★ Metronome- ​(device) indicates exact tempo

CHAPTER 4

4

★ Notation- ​writing music, so pitches and rhythms can be

communicated

★ Staff- ​5 horizontal lines and 4 spaces where the music/notes are written on

★ Clef- ​indicates pitch of each line and space and at the beginning of the piece

○ 2 types:

■ Treble (g clef)

■ Bass (f clef)

★ Grand staff-​ made of treble and bass clef for piano

★ Time signature-​ meter of piece of music, written after the clef with 2 numbers on top of each other

○ “Top #”- indicate how many beats per measure

○ “Bottom #”- what kind of note counts 1 one beat

★ Notating rhythm-​ indicates length of note

★ Notating silence-​ indicates resting/pause

★ Score-​ piece of music that has the music for every instrument CHAPTER 5

❖ Melody

➢ Single notes thats recognizable as a whole

■ “cadence”= in/complete

CHAPTER 6

❖ Harmony

➢ How chords are constructed/follow each other

5

★ Chord- ​3 or more chords at once

★ Progression- ​how chords follow each other

★ Consonant- ​stable, restful chords

★ Dissonant- ​unstable, tense

★ Resolution- ​movement away from dissonance

★ Triad- ​made of 3 notes, can be simple or basic

★ Tonic- ​first note of a scale

★ Dominant- ​5th note on scale

★ Broken chords (arpeggios)-​ sounded in series

CHAPTER 7

★ Key- ​center of melody/harmony around central note

★ Major scale- ​whole/half steps in predetermined order (bright and happy)

★ Minor scale-​ w/h steps in diff predeter. order (dark and sad) ★ Key signature-​ # of sharps and flats played, determines scale and key

★ Chromatic scale-​ use 12 notes w/in octave

★ modulation (change of key)-​ like a temporary shift in gravity ★ Tonic key-​ main key of a piece

CHAPTER 8

★ Musical texture-​ layering of sound and how they relate

6

○ 3 types:

■ Monophonic- single, no melody

■ Polyphonic- 2 or more important melodies

● Counterpoint- many lines make meaningful

whole

● Imitation- melodic idea restated by next voice

■ Homophonic- 1 melody with chordal accomp.

★ Changes of texture-​ w/in a piece, creates variety and contrast

CHAPTER 9

★ Musical form-​ organization of musical elements in time

○ Techniques:

■ Repetition- restate musical idea

■ Contrast- avoid monotony w. new ideas

■ Variation- reworking ideas to keep them new

○ Types:

■ Ternary

■ Simple

■ Subdivided

■ binary

CHAPTER 10

❖ Performance

★ Improvisation- ​music created at same time of performance

★ Embellishments- ​addition to notes not in scores, added by performer

★ Judging- ​play same notes and make diff statements in the way they perform

CHAPTER 11

★ Musical style- ​characteristic way using melody, rhythm, tone, color, dynamics, harmony, textures, and form

7

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