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GWU / Chemistry / CHEM 1112 / What are the types of a solution?

What are the types of a solution?

What are the types of a solution?

Description

School: George Washington University
Department: Chemistry
Course: General Chemistry II
Professor: J kostal
Term: Fall 2015
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: CHEM 1112 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE
Description: These notes cover what will be on our first exam.
Uploaded: 02/04/2018
29 Pages 41 Views 2 Unlocks
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.lst-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-1}.lst-kix_vasw3z5htybh-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_vasw3z5htybh-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_vasw3z5htybh-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_vasw3z5htybh-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_vasw3z5htybh-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ehl2c3f78t9a-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_vasw3z5htybh-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_vasw3z5htybh-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ehl2c3f78t9a-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_vm73qrtskmod-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_vm73qrtskmod-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ehl2c3f78t9a-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ehl2c3f78t9a-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_vm73qrtskmod-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_vm73qrtskmod-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_vasw3z5htybh-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_vm73qrtskmod-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_vm73qrtskmod-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ehl2c3f78t9a-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_vm73qrtskmod-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_vm73qrtskmod-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_vm73qrtskmod-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ehl2c3f78t9a-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_vasw3z5htybh-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_n0lj5hevatli-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_n0lj5hevatli-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_pi9uoq12ramz-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_n0lj5hevatli-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_n0lj5hevatli-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_n0lj5hevatli-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_i8b2ibm9s1a0-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_ehl2c3f78t9a-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_pi9uoq12ramz-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ehl2c3f78t9a-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_pi9uoq12ramz-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_i8b2ibm9s1a0-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_gjqxqnv1920q-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_ehl2c3f78t9a-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_pi9uoq12ramz-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_ehl2c3f78t9a-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_gjqxqnv1920q-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_ehl2c3f78t9a-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_i8b2ibm9s1a0-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_ehl2c3f78t9a-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ehl2c3f78t9a-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_pi9uoq12ramz-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_ehl2c3f78t9a-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_pi9uoq12ramz-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_pi9uoq12ramz-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-5}ul.lst-kix_ehl2c3f78t9a-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_gjqxqnv1920q-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_wf2i4zi7byka-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_gjqxqnv1920q-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_n0lj5hevatli-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_n0lj5hevatli-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_vm73qrtskmod-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_pi9uoq12ramz-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_wf2i4zi7byka-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_gjqxqnv1920q-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_pi9uoq12ramz-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_vm73qrtskmod-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_vm73qrtskmod-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_gjqxqnv1920q-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-3 0}.lst-kix_ehl2c3f78t9a-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_wf2i4zi7byka-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ehl2c3f78t9a-1 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-4 0}ul.lst-kix_i8b2ibm9s1a0-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ehl2c3f78t9a-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_i8b2ibm9s1a0-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_i8b2ibm9s1a0-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_vm73qrtskmod-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_i8b2ibm9s1a0-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_nm50t4hzp2lw-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_i8b2ibm9s1a0-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_i8b2ibm9s1a0-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_nm50t4hzp2lw-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_i8b2ibm9s1a0-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_vm73qrtskmod-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_vm73qrtskmod-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_i8b2ibm9s1a0-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_i8b2ibm9s1a0-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_n0lj5hevatli-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nm50t4hzp2lw-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_n0lj5hevatli-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nm50t4hzp2lw-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-7}.lst-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-8,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-5 0}.lst-kix_nm50t4hzp2lw-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nm50t4hzp2lw-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_b17ugshies3f-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nm50t4hzp2lw-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-2,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-8 0}.lst-kix_vm73qrtskmod-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_wf2i4zi7byka-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_wf2i4zi7byka-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_wf2i4zi7byka-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_i8b2ibm9s1a0-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_gjqxqnv1920q-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_i8b2ibm9s1a0-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_i8b2ibm9s1a0-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_nm50t4hzp2lw-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-6 0}.lst-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-0}.lst-kix_ad9a8fifuq4s-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_b17ugshies3f-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_nm50t4hzp2lw-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nm50t4hzp2lw-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nm50t4hzp2lw-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nm50t4hzp2lw-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nm50t4hzp2lw-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nm50t4hzp2lw-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ad9a8fifuq4s-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_nm50t4hzp2lw-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_b17ugshies3f-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_nm50t4hzp2lw-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-6}ul.lst-kix_hpx8lefhplos-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hpx8lefhplos-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hpx8lefhplos-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ad9a8fifuq4s-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ad9a8fifuq4s-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_b17ugshies3f-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_hpx8lefhplos-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hpx8lefhplos-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-7 0}ul.lst-kix_hpx8lefhplos-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_hpx8lefhplos-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ad9a8fifuq4s-6 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_hpx8lefhplos-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_b17ugshies3f-2 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_hpx8lefhplos-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n0lj5hevatli-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n0lj5hevatli-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n0lj5hevatli-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n0lj5hevatli-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n0lj5hevatli-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-1 0}.lst-kix_2rd41uz1tj0g-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_n0lj5hevatli-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_2rd41uz1tj0g-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_n0lj5hevatli-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n0lj5hevatli-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_n0lj5hevatli-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-2}.lst-kix_2rd41uz1tj0g-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_2rd41uz1tj0g-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2rd41uz1tj0g-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nd6yur9x2oka-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2rd41uz1tj0g-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2rd41uz1tj0g-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2rd41uz1tj0g-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2rd41uz1tj0g-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2rd41uz1tj0g-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2rd41uz1tj0g-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nd6yur9x2oka-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nd6yur9x2oka-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nd6yur9x2oka-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nd6yur9x2oka-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nd6yur9x2oka-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nd6yur9x2oka-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nd6yur9x2oka-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_2rd41uz1tj0g-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nd6yur9x2oka-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_hpx8lefhplos-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nd6yur9x2oka-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-4}.lst-kix_nd6yur9x2oka-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nd6yur9x2oka-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_hpx8lefhplos-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nd6yur9x2oka-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_hpx8lefhplos-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nd6yur9x2oka-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nd6yur9x2oka-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_hpx8lefhplos-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_hpx8lefhplos-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nd6yur9x2oka-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_hpx8lefhplos-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_hpx8lefhplos-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_hpx8lefhplos-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nd6yur9x2oka-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_hpx8lefhplos-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_2rd41uz1tj0g-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_wf2i4zi7byka-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wf2i4zi7byka-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_2rd41uz1tj0g-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_2rd41uz1tj0g-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_wf2i4zi7byka-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wf2i4zi7byka-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wf2i4zi7byka-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wf2i4zi7byka-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wf2i4zi7byka-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_2rd41uz1tj0g-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_2rd41uz1tj0g-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_wf2i4zi7byka-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_wf2i4zi7byka-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_2rd41uz1tj0g-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_nm50t4hzp2lw-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_b17ugshies3f-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_pi9uoq12ramz-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pi9uoq12ramz-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pi9uoq12ramz-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_pi9uoq12ramz-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_82qdmnj1t50y-1,lower-latin) ". 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CHAPTER IIDon't forget about the age old question of What is capital in economic resources?

11.1: The dissolution process

Review

  • Solution homogeneous mixture or 1000 or more substances
  • Solvent: Substance that is doing the dissolving (H20)
  • Solute : Substance being dissolved (NaCl)

Types of solutions

  • Unsaturated solution : contains less solute than the given amount of solvent has the capacity to dissolve
  • Saturated Solution contains the maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent
  • Super saturated solution contains more dissolved solute than is present in a Saturated solution (generally unstable)

Note: unsaturated & saturated solutions are made at a specific temperatures in supersaturated solutions, the temperature must be manipulated to create those conditions Don't forget about the age old question of What causes disease?

Traits of solutions

  • homogeneous
  • physical stoute of solution and solvent is the same
  • dissolved solute will not settle out or separate soot from the solution, even if it is heavier than the solvent
  • the components of the solution are dispersed and consist of a mixture of separate molecules, atoms, and / or ions

The solution process

  • solute uniformly disperses Into solvent
  • intermolecular attractions Before and After
  • natural tendency toward mixing - increases entropy (nature likes disorder)

If you want to learn more check out What causes northern lights?

*There are 3 types of IMES that influence whether substances will form a solution

  • solute-solute
  • solvent - solvent
  • Solute solvent (new relationships)

* In the diagram above the IMFS are..

  • dipole-dipole, H bonding, and dispersion forces

Formation of solutions (spontaneous process)

  • You can think of solution formation as a step-wise process
  • Step 1: solute - solute IMES must be overcome Energy is consumed
  • Step 2: Solvent -Solvent IMF must be overcome Energy is consumed
  • Solvation : solute-solvent attractive forces are established Energy is released

•Relative magnitudes of the energy changes for these 3 Steps determine whether the solution formation process is exothermic, endothermic, or doesn't occur at all. If you want to learn more check out What is a case study?

* 1) IF, |ΔH, + ΔH2| < |ΔH3| If you want to learn more check out Why is there no chinese revolution?

* 2) IF, |ΔH, + ΔH2| > | ΔH3l

* 3) If, |ΔH1 + ΔH2| >> |ΔH3|Don't forget about the age old question of Why is ocean acidification a problem for humans?

Golden Rule of Solubility

  • If two substances have similar IMFS, then they are likely to be soluble in one another

Energetics of solution formation

  • exothermic is favorable over endothermic

11.2 : Electrolytes

  • Electrolytes substances that dissolve in water and undergo a physical or chemical change to produce ions
  • Ionic compounds dissociate to form electrolyte solution
  • there are strong weak electrolytes

Nonelectrolytes : Substances that do not produce ions when dissolved in water

  • Molecular compounds dissolve, but don't dissociate

Ionic Electrolytes

  • H2O and other polar molecules are attracted to ions
  • The electrostatic attraction between an ion and a molecule with a dipole is called an on-dipole attraction
  • water molecules surround and solvate the separated ions (dissociation)

Solubility of ionic compounds

  • Competing forces influence the extent of solubility of an ionic compound
  1. Ion-dipole attraction: If this is the dominate force, then the compound is pulled into the solution and has very high water Solubility
  2. The force of attraction between oppositely charged ions: If this is the dominate force, then the compound tends to remain un-dissolved and in the solid stone

11.3: Solubility

  • Solubility
  • The maximum concentration of a solute that can be achieved in a particular solvent under given conditions
  • Principles of Solubility
  • The extent to which a solute dissolves in a solvent depends on several factors
  • The nature of the solvent and solute molecules and the interactions between them
  • The temperature at which the solution is formed
  • When dealing with a gaseous solute, the pressure is also important
  • Pressure and Gas solubility
  • Gas solubility (Cg) and partial pressure (Pg) are directly proportional (↑pressure = ↑ solubility)

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