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FAU / Department / DEP 3053 / How long does a zygote take to implant?

How long does a zygote take to implant?

How long does a zygote take to implant?

Description

School: Florida Atlantic University
Department: Department
Course: Psychology of Human Development
Professor: Lauren mavica
Term: Fall 2017
Tags: Psychology
Cost: 50
Name: Psychology of Human Development Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: These notes have definitions and examples to all of the keywords our Professor provided for the fill in the blank portion of the exam along with all of the lecture notes covering chapters 1-5
Uploaded: 02/04/2018
13 Pages 33 Views 18 Unlocks
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Psychology of Human Development  


How long does a zygote take to implant?



Exam 1 Study Guide

Chapters 1-5

*Our first exam is scheduled for Thursday February 8th and will consist of 40 multiple choice and 10 fill in the blank. For the fill in the blank questions, our professor sent  out a list of possible keywords which are found below with a definition and example  of each. REMINDER there will not be a word bank on the exam but if you know the  following words and the information provided then the fill in the bank should be  easy points �!! 

Theory: a set of concepts and propositions designed to organize, describe and  explain a set of observations. Ex- Children model aggressive behavior that they see  on TV (this predicts that children who see aggression on TV will act aggressively)


What is apgar scale?



Hypothesis: A theory-based prediction about what will hold true if we observe a  phenomenon. Ex- children who watch TV show aggressive behavior

Independent variable- The variable being changed, Ex- Amount of caffeine  consumed before a test

Dependent variable- The variable being measured, Ex- Performance of the test

Correlation- A mutual relationship or connection between two or more things,  measured with a correlation coefficient

Cohort effect- People of different ages were born in different times, may differ in  ways other than age. Ex- A 20-year-old born in 1998 compared to an 85-year-old  born during the Great depression have different experiences.

Longitudinal design- each participant is tested at a number of ages, follow the  same individuals to see how they changed over time.  


What is developmental research designs?



Cross-sectional design- different aged groups are tested at same time If you want to learn more check out What is verbal reports?

Sequential design-combination of cross sectional and longitudinal designs, Follow  one group of participants longitudinally If you want to learn more check out What is a longitudinal fissure?

Mitosis- Process in which a cell duplicates its chromosomes and then divides into  two genetically identical daughter cells

Meiosis- the process in which a germ cell divides, producing sperm or ova, each  containing half of the parent cell’s original complement of chromosomes.  

Genotype-the genetic makeup of an individual organism

Phenotype- The way a person’s genotype is expressed in physical characteristics,  ex- hair color, eye color, height

Ultrasound- method of examining physical organs by scanning them with sound  waves, Ex- scanning the womb to create a visual outline of the fetus to detect any  abnormalities or gender

Amniocentesis- process of sampling amniotic fluid. A long needle is inserted into  mother’s belly button and can test for any genetic factor

Chorionic villus sampling- Process of taking sample projections from the  membrane surrounding the fetus and is faster than amniocentesis.  

Concordance- likelihood that one person in a pair has a trait if the other person  has it, Ex- identical twins vs fraternal twin traits. Schizophrenia is one twin results in 40% likelihood in the other whereas fraternal twins is 17%. We also discuss several other topics like What is the definition of epithelial?

Shared environmental influences- experiences that individuals living in the  same home environment share and that work to make them similar

Non-shared environmental influences- variability among individuals with  identical genetics and home environments, different experiences cause differences  between the individuals

Gene-environment interaction- effects of genetics are dependent upon the  environment in which you are raised. Ex- There is a strong genetic influence on  height but in a deprived environment people with high and low potential end up  being the same height

Gene-environment correlation- One’s genetics influence the environment in  which one is raised

Zygote- name for a fertilized egg, formed at conception from the union of sperm  and egg

Blastocyst- a hollow sphere of about 100 to 150 cells that the zygote forms by  rapid cell division as it moves through the fallopian tube

Embryo- name for human offspring from the weeks 2-8 after fertilization Fetus- a name for human offspring beyond 8 weeks after fertilization We also discuss several other topics like What is hydrogen bond?

Placenta- an organ formed to provide nourishment of the unborn child and the  elimination of it s metabolic wastes. Allows exchange between mother and child’s  blood and protects from an immune response against baby.  

Amnion-membrane that forms around the embryo

Teratogen-environmental agents that can lead to harm in a developing organism,  Ex- alcohol, drugs, nicotine

Critical period- a defined period in the development of an organism when it is  particularly sensitive to certain environmental influences, outside this period the  same influences will have far less effect, Ex- language development within the first  few years of lifeIf you want to learn more check out What is a working distance?

Apgar scale- how to measure if a baby is okay or needs special care, (>= 7 is  normal)

Plasticity- the ability for nerve cells to change though experiences such as learning Myelin- fatty substance that insulates a neuron

Cephalocaudal principle- the principle that growth proceeds from the head to the tail

Proximodistal principle-the principle that growth proceeds from the center of the  body to the extremities

Orthogenetic principle- the principle that development proceeds from global and  undifferentiated states towards more differentiated and integrated patterns of  response

Pincer grasp- a grasp in which the thumb is used in opposition to the fingers,  enabling an infant to become more dexterous at liftin and manipulating objects.  

Chapter 1 

Development: Systematic changes and continuities in the individual that occur  between conception and death.

What causes Development? 

1. Maturation- changes dictated by genetic programming

2. Learning- changes dependent upon interactions with the environment Methods of Testing 

#1 Behavioral observation- observe the children on the playground and keep  track of aggressive behavior. There are two types of behavioral observation.  We also discuss several other topics like What is unpriming?

a.) Naturalistic observation- everyday environment

b.) Structured observation- set up an environment for the children, a lab  setting. An example is Bandura’s Bobo doll experiment

Limitations of Behavioral Observation  

1.) Observer influence- may act differently when they know they are being  watched. Solution? The use of an adaptation period can help this by letting  the child get used to the observer or have the observation be conducted by  people the child already knows

2.) Observer bias- Interpret behavior to be consistent with one’s theory. Solution? Blind scoring helps because the observers are not aware of what is supposed

to happen. The ideal situation is “double blind”. For example, an experiment  where there is a real drug vs a Placebo.

#2 Verbal Reports  

Ex: Self reports, interviews, and questionnaires.  

Participants provide information about their thoughts, feelings and past  experiences. For example, if someone were to ask “How many times does your child watch an aggressive act on tv?”

Two types of Interviews

a.) Clinical interviews- different for each person, the interviewer can change  the question based on the previous response.

b.) Structural Interview- everybody gets the same questions, can make  comparisons because everyone was treated the same.

*Limitation because may not be accurate. Ex. “How often do you zone out while  driving?” (Not a specific answer)

#3 Physiological Measurements

∙ fMRI- involves putting a person’s head in a magnetic field, can measure  where there is blood flow in the brain

∙ PET- same thing as fMRI, measures blood flow but does so by injecting a  radioactive tracer into blood

∙ EEG- putting a cap full of electrical sensors on a head, measures electrical  activity. Faster than the others, Limited spatial resolution and don’t know  exactly where activity is occurring

∙ Heart rate- heart rate activity, for instance if a child is scared by a stimulus

∙ Skin conductance- lie detectors, measures the sweat on the skin, if there is  an emotional response to a question then the sweat will increase. Not 100%  reliable

Research Designs 

1.) Correlational Design- most straightforward, measures two variable to see if  they relate and to see if there is a correlation. A correlation coefficient is used and varies from -1 to 1. If there is no relationship found, then the correlation  coefficient is 0. The sign reflects direction of relationship where as absolute  value reflects degree of relationship/strength.

Y-Values

6

4

2

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

20 15 10 5

0

Y-Values

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Positive correlation

Ex. Negative correlation

*You’re not attempting to change or influence a participant’s performance on either  variable, just measuring to see if there is a relationship

Limitation?

∙ Cannot infer cause and effect relationship

∙ Don’t know which variable is cause and which is effect

∙ Third variable effect- may infer two variables have a casual relationship when there is an actual 3rd variable involved (ex: Pellagra disease. Researchers  found that houses that had indoor housing sewage disposal didn’t have  pellagra disease compared to those who used outhouses. However, the third  variable involved was diet. People who were able to afford high protein and  high-quality food did not obtain the disease. (3rd variable= socioeconomic  status)

Experimental Designs 

∙ Directly manipulate the independent variable, the variable expected to cause changes in the second. IV= exposure to drug DV= prevalence of  disease

∙ Groups must be equal prior to manipulation of IV to infer cause and effect,  typically achieved by random assignment to groups

Problem? Not always ethical, ex: smoking causes lung cancer, it would be unethical  to put babies in a room full of cigarette smoke to prove this. This is why animals are

often times used for experimental designs because when combined with  correlational experiments we can develop a conclusion.  

Quasi-Experimental design 

∙ Natural situation in which two groups seem to differ only on variable of  interest

∙ Ex: cholera disease, researchers thought that it was spread through  exposure. There were two districts in London that were equally similar except  how they received their water. One received it upstream and one  downstream. Researchers found that upstream had less cholera than  downstream

∙ Can use this design because even though the experiment could be deemed  unethical, its already happening in the world

∙ Also called natural experiment

∙ Cannot be sure that groups differ on no other variables

Developmental Research Designs- Human development

1.) Cross sectional (most widely used)

∙ Different aged groups are tested at same time

∙ Weakness- does not allow on to study changes in an individual, also the  cohort effect (people of different ages were born in different times. May differ  in ways other than age). Ex: A 20-year-old born in 1998 compared to an 85  year old who was born into the Great depression.

2.) Longitudinal design

∙ Each participant is tested at a number of ages, follow the same individuals to  see how they changed over time.  

∙ Cohort effect is decreased

∙ Weakness- can require a long time to complete the study. Practice effects  (participants may learn from testing) for example students who take the ACT  and SAT normally score better the second time not because they are smarter  but because they learned HOW to take the test. Participant morality  (participants who drop out may differ from those who remain) this could  effect the statistical data from the study. And finally, results from one cohort  may not generalize. For example, the obesity epidemic. The average body  weight growth charts have changed over the years.  

3.) Sequential design- combination of cross sectional and longitudinal designs Chapter 2

Key development issues 

1.) Nature vs Nurture- nature theorists propose that development is driven by a  maturational program contained within one’s DNA whereas nurture theorists  propose that development involves changes in response to environmental  events

2.) Activity vs. Passivity- Passivity theorists propose that development is shaped  by environmental and genetic factors beyond one’s control. Ex: The  behaviorists view point believe you could make a child into anything due to  the environment. Activity theorists propose that people select and shape  their environments in order to influence their own development. Ex: we chose to stay in school longer than we had to in order to better shape our future.

3.) Continuity vs Discontinuity- Continuity theorists propose that development  involves gradually expanding the same structures and skills that were  present at birth. Ex: babies can see at birth but develop better eyesight over  time. Discontinuity theorists propose that development involves dramatic  reorganizations in structures or skills. Ex: butterfly cycle from a larvae to a  butterfly.  

Stage theory: a series of qualitatively different forms or ways of thinking,  basically means that we possess skills now that were not even possible when  we were young.

4.) Universality vs context-specificity- Universality is when people all go through  the same set of developments and context specificity is the idea that  development can follow different paths depending upon the circumstances of  development

Chapter 3 “Genetics”

Chromosomes: stores genetic information that we obtain from parents. Total of 46 in every cell

DNA- chemical substance that makes up chromosomes and can reproduce through  mitosis

Gene- segment of DNA that codes for a protein, we have about 20,000 genes Genetics and Heredity 

∙ Sperm and egg each have 23 chromosomes

∙ Created through process of meiosis

∙ They combine to form zygote with 23 pairs of chromosomes

Genetic Differences 

∙ Each child receives just one of 2 chromosomes in each pair from each parent  (2^23 possibilities)

∙ Crossing over occurs which is when the ends of a chromosomes switch  positions before assorting into sex cells

Twins 

∙ Identical twins- single fertilized egg (zygote) splits in 2 individuals after  conception. They are genetically identical

∙ Fraternal twins- two different eggs fertilized by two different sperm. Therefore they are no more similar than ordinary siblings

Genetic Counseling and Testing

Diagnostic procedures after conception 

1. Ultrasound- No risk, sound waves reflected off uterus, can get a good  estimate of due date, can see if there are any abnormalities

2. Maternal blood sampling- no risk, test fetal blood cells in mother’s  bloodstream

3. Amniocentesis- some risk, sample amniotic fluid. Long needle inserted into  mother’s belly button. Downside is it takes a couple of weeks for information,  cannot do it until around 12 weeks. Can test for any genetic factor

4. Chronic Villus sampling- sample projections from the membrane surrounding  the fetus. Advantage is that you can do it early (8 weeks). You get more  genetic material, so it is faster than amniocentesis. Some risk and is a rare  procedure.  

Behavioral Genetics

Examines the extent to which a trait is influenced by genetics and environment. Heritability: proportion of variation in a trait that can be linked to genetic differences Two measures of heritability 

1. Concordance- likelihood that one person In a pair has a trait if the other  person has it. “Either or traits”. Ex: Identical twins vs fraternal twins traits.  Schizophrenia in one twin results in 40% likelihood in the other whereas  fraternal twins is 17%

2. Correlation- degree of similarity on a trait between people with similar  genetics. Ex: if one twin’s IQ score is above average its likely the other  identical twin’s score is too

Causes of Variability on a trait 

1. Genetics- greater similarity on a trait by people with higher genetic similarity 2. Shared environmental influence

3. Non-shared environmental influences- variability among individuals with  identical genetics and home environment, different experiences cause  differences

Gene-Environmental Interactions

Do we get a trait from our environment? Genetics? Both?

∙ Effects of genetics are dependent upon the environment in which you are  raised  

∙ Ex: strong genetic influence on height. But in a deprived environment people  with high and low potential end up being the same height. Whereas in an  enriched environment your genetic potential will be expressed

∙ Genetics and environment work together  

Gene-Environment Correlations

*One’s genetics influence the environment in which one is raised

1. Passive correlations- Parents provide an environment consistent with  their genetics. We don’t have control over genetics or environment  because parents give both to us

2. Evocative correlation- the child becomes more active in shaping  environment. Ex: outgoing child, due to genes, will most likely be put  into an environment that compliments this

3. Active correlation- people seek out environments that match their  genetics abilities. Ex: college students choose to stay in school beyond  the time that they have to

Chapter 4 

Stages of Prenatal development

 1. Germinal Period (shortest) 

∙ 0-2 weeks after fertilization

∙ Fertilized egg=zygote

∙ 50% of fertilized eggs attach or miscarry

 2. Embryonic Period 

∙ 2-8 weeks after fertilization

∙ Amnion= membrane that forms around embryo

∙ Amniotic fluid= protects organism from external impact, cushions  embryo

∙ Chorion= sends hair-like projections to uterine wall for nourishment  ∙ Placenta= organ that allows exchanges between mother’s and  embryo’s blood. Protects from an immune response against baby ∙ Umbilical cord= connects embryo to placenta

3.) Fetal Period 

∙ 8 weeks after fertilization until birth (longest period)

∙ The baby is now known as a fetus

∙ This period is divided into trimesters

a) First trimester (3rd month) 

- The nervous system starts to connect with the muscles

- The fetus begins to kick, suck thumb, but is too small to feel - External genitals form and you might be able to tell on an  

ultrasound

 b.) Second trimester (4-6 months) 

- Movement can be felt by mother

- Most neurons are in place by 24 weeks

- The fetus is now 2-3 pounds

 c.) Third trimester (7-9 months) 

- The fetus is viable between 22-26 weeks

- Gains 5 lbs of weight during 3rd trimester

- Brain enlarges because of an increase in supporting cells

- Fetus becomes top heavy, turns upside down

- In breech: when fetus does not turn upside down, greater likelihood the umbilical cord will get pinched and stop flow of oxygen to fetus

Influences of Maternal Health

 1. Illness 

- Rubella (German form of measles) causes heart defects, mental  retardation

- Syphilis (STD) can lead to mental retardation or blindness. Doctors can  treat if identified in time.

- HIV, can be passed to children in 3 ways

a.) Through mixing of blood to placenta (rare)

b.) During childbirth, baby might be exposed

c.) Through breastfeeding- women in this situation are advised  to use formula and not breastfeed

 2. Nutrition 

- Malnourishment during 1st trimester can cause miscarriage or  deformities

- During the 3rd trimester, malnourishment can cause low brain weight  - Mother should gain at least 25-35 lbs during pregnancy

 3. Stress 

- Directs mother’s blood to heart, muscles, and brain for a fight or flight  response rather than to the uterus

- Stress is associated with miscarriage, prematurity, and low birth weight - Extreme stress such as fear for life ex: WWII mothers living in bomb  shelters

 4. Age  

- Increase in chromosomal abnormalities with age which can lead to  miscarriage

- Women 35 and above have a higher risk of Down Syndrome

- Amniocentesis is routinely performed for mothers over 35

- Teen mothers often have complications due to poor prenatal care  rather than physical readiness to have children

 Teratogens: Environmental factors that can affect pregnancy 

1.) Thalidomide- a drug used to help morning sickness. If a mother took  thalidomide in 4-6 weeks of pregnancy, then the limbs of the fetus would not  be fully developed or not developed at all

2.) Alcohol- fetal alcohol syndrome can occur and cause mental retardation. Can also cause facial effects that are associated with extreme alcohol use. Fetal  alcohol effects are a less dramatic form than the syndrome

3.) Nicotine- higher rate of women using nicotine, one of the most addictive  substances. The most common effect is low birth weight. Can lead to  hyperactivity in child

4.) Over the counter prescriptions and illegal drugs- Ex: antidepressants  and Aspirin. Aspirin is associated with low birth rate and slowed motor  development. Illegal drugs are highly addictive, and the baby becomes  addicted and goes through withdrawal when born.  

5.) Radiation- Ex: Hiroshima bombing. Any pregnant women within a mile  miscarries and those women who were a couple miles farther gave birth to a  child with deformities.

6.) Pollution- such as lead, older paint, and mercury which is found in fish

Four rules regarding teratogens  

1. Effects of teratogens are worst during critical period in which an impacted  organ system is developing  

2. Susceptibility is determined by the genetic makeup of mother and child 3. The higher the exposure, the higher the risk

4. Effects often depend on the quality of the prenatal and postnatal  development

Birth Complications

∙ Oxygen deprivation (anoxia)

- Puts baby at risk if more than 3 minutes

- Breech delivery: umbilical cord can get pinched  

- Can deliver by sea section

∙ Rh incompatibility: mother can develop antibodies to baby’s blood cell - Becomes a problem if a mother is Rh – and father is Rh +

- A vaccination can be given to avoid the development of the antibodies ∙ Birth Weight is low (less than 5 ½ lbs)

- Associated with greater risk of death, sensory and cognitive defects.  Two types of babies with low birth weight.

1.) Preterm- delivered early, may develop normally if given good  postnatal environment

2.) Small for date- baby is on time but small; may be indicative for  exposure to risk factors during pregnancy such as drug and alcohol  abuse

Apgar scale (>=7 is normal) – this is a way to measure if the baby is okay or needs special care. Calculated by adding together different points of each category. Things that are measured are…

1.) Heart rate- high heart rate is normal

2.) Respiration

3.) Reflexes- reacts to a light shining  

4.) Muscles- strong movements are healthy

5.) Color- pink means good blood flow

Chapter 5 

Newborn Survival reflexes 

1.) Breathing

2.) Eyeblink

3.) Pupillary- pupils constrict to bright light

4.) Rooting- turn head toward brushed check, helps in breastfeeding 5.) Sucking- suck on objects placed in mouth

6.) Swallowing

7.) Moro- embracing motion when dropped or startled, ex: Gorilla babies are  grabbing mother’s stomach while the walk

8.) Stepping- lift feet in alternation when they touch the ground, however lose  this reflex around 6 months

9.) Swimming- flap arms and legs in water, survival instinct and with stay afloat  long enough to be saved

10.) Grasping- grasp object placed in palm, eventually replaced by a  voluntary grasp, learn to do it when they want to

11.) Babinski- fan and curl toes when foot is touched, trying to grab  something with feet.  

*Our Professor will finish up Chapter 5 on Tuesday so whatever he covers during  that lecture will not be included in this study guide. GOODLUCK!!!!!! And don’t  forget a blue scantron.� �

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