lange in allele frequencies in a population over
* Four mechanisms of Evolutioni
- Changes in allele frequencies due to organisms wl advantageous alleles reproducing more successfully
than organisms we other alleres Genetic Drift
random changes in allele frequencies in a population Matation
- source of all new alielic diversity Migration,
- movement of alleles btwn populations
no We also discuss several other topics like What are the 4 types of planning?
-trait that evolves by selection for a particular
function (because it increases fitness) from an 4 ancestor that did not have that trait : Ly can be morphological, behavioral, or molecular is solve problems faced by different populations
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the vertical structure of the atmosphere?
& different populations may have different
Solutions to similar problems Phylogeny
- the evolutionary relationship of a group of t
organisms (species level a higher) Phylogenetic tree.
- diagram Of an cestral relationships among species Es describe patterns L> Provide info about when certain large events
may have occured
The study of the interaction of an organismes With the environment We also discuss several other topics like What makes the cell membrane semi-permeable?
The environment consists of biotic and
abiotic components Unganismal ecoloque
* The study of the interaction of an organism & its
environment - Behavior Ecology Don't forget about the age old question of How does equality affect efficiency?
• Responses to stimulus
• Group interactions en - Evolutionary Ecology
•Adaptations to the environment
• Events in ecological time (the length of time an - Organism experiences) influence evolutionary time
processes (Population Ecology
* A population is a group of individuals of the If you want to learn more check out Colligative properties depend on what?
same species living in the same area * Population ecology focuses on factors affecting how many individuals of a species live in an area
- most mathematically based subdiscipline If you want to learn more check out Who is the founder of the psych & psych lab?
of ecology Community Ecolgy
* A community is a group of interacting populations
of different species in an area * Community Ecology deals with whole array of
interacting specres in a community
Animal Diversity What is an animal?
Obtain carbon from organic sources using the energy of organic Chemical bonds - Cells contain nucleus t membrane bound
organelles - Tissues developed from embryonic layers tygote : Single cell from fertilization
• Blastula: Hollow ball of cells formed by
Cleavage Gastrula: Embryo has one end fold inward & layers
of tissues form. Gastrulation:
- Folding of embryo into layers
-Ectoderm covers the surface of becomes
the outer covering & in some phyla the
central nervous system
• Endoderm is the innermost germ layer that lines the digestive tract & organs such as
the lungs & liver in vertebrates
•Mesoderm is the third layer (between the other two) forming muscles & most other organs
°- Not all animals have mesoderm
- sets of morphological t developmental traits - Radial Symmetry
-cut animal w/ plane - 2 copies (identical) - Bilateral Symmetry (a halves)
Invertebrates Sponge Reproduction
Most sponges are Hermaphrodites
usually sequential hermaphroditism rameles come from Choanocytes or ameobocytes
· Eggs stay in mesohyl Sperm are released from Sponge o enter other sponges via pores Larvae are free swimming -settling on suitable substrate & then developing into adults
Stud/ Soup /
- movement by cilia
Size it few mm to 1.5m
- Found globally in marine systems - Cnidaria
- coral & jelly - radial animais - dipoblastic Simple
-Scyphozoa Cubozoa (sea wasp) Anthozoa (sea anemonae)