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FAU / OTHER / DEP 3053 / in traditional naturalistic observation, the subject or subjects being

in traditional naturalistic observation, the subject or subjects being

in traditional naturalistic observation, the subject or subjects being

Description

School: Florida Atlantic University
Department: OTHER
Course: Psychology of Human Developement
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Psychology
Cost: 50
Name: Psych. of Hum. Develp. Study Guide
Description: Vocab + Examples + Sample test questions
Uploaded: 02/06/2018
28 Pages 6 Views 7 Unlocks
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Psychology of Human Development  Exam 1 study guide


What is the Lifespan of Psychology?



*all answers are in the footnotes* 

CHAPTER 1: UNDERSTANDING LIFESPAN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Vocab Terms

• Lifespan Psychology is a scientific, developmental approach that focuses on human development • Development is a continuing process throughout the lifespan

• Age grade is the socially defined age group in a society  

• Age norms are the behavioral expectations by age

• Nature influences of heredity

• Nurture influences of environment

• Scientific Method is a process of generating ideas and testing them by making observations • Theory is a set of concepts and propositions intended to describe and explain a phenomenon • Verbal reports consist of interviews, questionnaires or surveys, etc., to ask people about themselves • Naturalistic observation is when you observe people in their natural surroundings and in everyday  life


What is development?



• Naturalistic observation is when you observe people in their natural surroundings and in everyday  life

• Structured observation is when you achieve more control over the conditions of observation by  creating tasks or conditions related to the behavior of interest

• Case Study is an in-depth examination of an individual or small number of individuals • The Experimental Method is when the investigator manipulates or alters some aspect of the  environment to determine how this affects the behavior of the sample of individuals who are being  studied

• The Correlational Method determines if two or more variables are related in a systematic fashion • Meta-Analysis combines the results of many previous studies to arrive at an answer to a question • Developmental Research Designs are specialized research designs to study how people change, and  remain the same, as they age


What is Verbal reports?



• Cross-Sectional Design is when different age groups or cohorts are studied at the same point in time  and compared

• Cohort is a group of individuals born at the same time; a particular generation of people • Longitudinal Designs is where one group of subjects is studied repeatedly over months or years • Sequential Designs combine the cross-sectional and the longitudinal approach and improve on bothDon't forget about the age old question of npb 130 study guide
Don't forget about the age old question of cogs 4970 study guide

Sample Questions

1. 3 broad domains of development are… 1 

2. What is the traditional view of development? 2 

3. 3 aspects of the Gain-Stability-Loss model… 3 

4. Which of the following is inconsistent with, (a challenge to), the gain-stability-loss model?  5. What is the modern view of development? 4 

6. Freshman, juniors and seniors are an example of a what? 5 

7. Feeling the need to get married before 30 is an example of what? 6 

8. ________ is the basis for a social clock 7 

9. 4 parts of the scientific method are…. 8 

10. What is the best approach to studying a random sample? 9 

11. If you’re trying to study an infant, which data collection should you avoid? 10 

12. If you’re trying to observe behavior but your subject displays rare or unusual behavior, you should  avoid using _________ observation. 11 

13. If you’re trying to avoid generalization during observation, you should avoid using these methods… 12 14. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is an example of ________. 13 

15. If you want rich information about complex/rare aspects of development, you should use this  method_____________. 14 

16. If you’re conducting an experiment that involves an independent and a dependent variable, you are  using the ____________ method. 15 

17. 3 critical features of true experiments… 16 

18. A good method for finding cause and effect would be… 17 If you want to learn more check out itnw 2321 study guide

19. What is the issue with correlational method? 18 

  

1 Physical, Cognitive, Psychosocial

2 Gain-Stability-Loss model

3 Growth, Stability, Biological aging

4 That developmental change at any age involves both gains and losses

5 Age grade

6 An age norm

7 Age norms

8 Observations, Hypotheses, Testing, Theories

9Sample selection

10 Verbal Reports

11 Naturalistic  

12 Structured Observation and Case Study

13 Physiological Measurements

14 Case Study

15 Experimental  

16 Random assignment of individuals to treatment conditions, Manipulation of independent variable, Experimental  control

17 The Experimental Method

18 Correlation does not always equal causation

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Which of the following is inconsistent with, (a challenge to), the gain-stability-loss model? 19 

a. Physical strength increases until early adulthood and then decreases

b. The ages at which children and adolescents become sexually mature varies across culture

c. Adults aged 60 and older score higher on vocabulary test than adults aged 18 to 30

d. There is no universally recognized indicator of "adulthood"

2. The greatest advantage of the naturalistic observation method is that it 20 We also discuss several other topics like 429 test

a. can tell us what people do in everyday life

b. is easily conducted in a laboratory setting

c. untangles age effects from cohort effects

d. readily leads to the discovery of cause-effect relationships

3. Dr. Dre is interested in infants' reactions to different music styles. In order to study the phenomena, he built a special lab  crib containing audio speakers. He then individually brings six-month-olds into the lab, places them in the crib, plays rap  music, and watches each baby's reactions. Given this description, Dr. Dre appears to be using the ___________ technique. 21 a. naturalistic observation

b. structured observation

c. case study analysis

d. self-report investigation

4. A true experiment involves the __________ of the independent variable 22 

a. correlation

b. measurement

c. elimination

d. manipulation

5. To study prejudice, a researcher gives some children red T-shirts and others blue T-shirts to see how children interact with  members of the "in-group" and members of the "outgroup". This is called: 23 We also discuss several other topics like byu idaho accounting

a. 0.00

b. +0.70

c. -0.70

d. +.20

6. Every 10 years, a researcher assesses the religious participation of a group of adults who were 20 at the start of the study, and then assesses similar groups of adults who were age 20, 30, and 40 at the end of the study. What kind of research design  is this? 24 

a. cross-sectional

b. quasi-experimental

c. correlational

d. sequential

7. A researcher demonstrates that as the amount of time spent watching TV goes up, the grades of college students goes  down. Which of the following correlational coefficients might reflect this relationship? 25 

a. 0.00

b. +0.70

c. -0.70

d. +.20 If you want to learn more check out mcb uc davis

  

19 C

20 A

21 B

22 D

23 B

24 D

25 C

CHAPTER 2: THEORIES OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Vocab Terms

• Central notion- humans have instincts that motivate behavior

• Instincts are the inborn biological force assumed to motivate a particular response or class of  responses

• Unconscious motivation- feelings, experiences and conflicts that influence a person’s thinking  and behavior even though they cannot be recalled

• Libido is the psychic energy of the sex instinct- shifts from one body part to another seeking to  gratify different biological needs

• Fixation is when the libido is tied to an earlier stage of development

• Oedipus complex is a boy’s unconscious desire for his father

• Electra Complex is a girl’s unconscious desire for her mother

• Defense mechanisms are the unconscious coping devices that the ego adopts to defend itself  against anxiety

• Identification is when you ignore personal belief to fit in with a group as not create conflict and  to fit in, however when away from the group, you revert to your original ways

• Repression is when you unconsciously suppress memories that traumatize you • Regression is when you revert to an earlier stage to avoiding dealing with situations that trouble  you

• Projection is when you displace unwanted feelings onto someone else, to justify unacceptable  behavior

• Reaction Formation is when you do the exact opposite of an undesired feeling to hide the fact  that you feel that way

• Behaviorism is the belief that human development should be based on observations of  overt behavior rather than on speculation about unconscious motives or other  unobservable phenomena

• Tabula rasa (blank slate) – A part of behaviorism. The idea that the mind of an infant is  a “blank slate” and that all knowledge, abilities, behaviors, and motives are acquired  through experience

• Classical Conditioning is to change involuntary behavior based on feedback • Operant Conditioning is to change voluntary behavior based on stimulus-response feedback

• Reinforcement is when a consequence strengthens a response or makes it more likely  to occur

o Positive- something pleasant or desirable is added

o Negative- something unpleasant or undesirable is removed, escaped, or avoided

• Punishment is the presentation of an aversive stimulus or the removal of a pleasant one  following some behavior

• Social Cognitive Theory is the learning that results from observing the behavior of other  people (models)

• Latent learning is the learning occurs but is not evident in behavior • Vicarious reinforcement is a process in which learners become more or less likely to  perform a behavior based on whether consequences experienced by the model they  observe are reinforcing or punishing

• Overimitation is an adaptive and apparently universal tendency of children to imitate  every detail of what they see a model do, even actions that are not directly useful in  achieving a goal

• Human agency are the ways in which people deliberately exercise cognitive control • Self-efficacy is a high or low sense that one can effectively produce desired outcomes in  a particular activity

• Reciprocal determinism is the flow of influence between people and their environments  is a two-way street; the environment may affect the person, but the person’s  characteristics and behavior will also influence the environment

• Constructivism is how children actively construct new understandings of the world  based on their experiences

• Bio-Ecological Model describes how the environment is organized and how it affects  development

• Microsystem is the activities and interactions in the child's immediate surroundings  • Mesosystem is the relationships among the entities involved in the child's microsystem • Exosystem is the social institutions which affect children indirectly • Macrosystem is the broader cultural values

• Chronosystem is the changes which occur during a child's life, personally and culturally

Sample Questions

1. Who emphasized the importance of unconscious motivation in determining behavior? 26 2. What is the focus of the psychoanalytic theory? 27 

3. A person who hates skirts sees her coworkers wearing them and does so herself to fit in. However, at  home and on the weekends, she only wears pants. This is an example of________.28 4. If you get in a car accident and cannot recall being in one, this is an example of _________. 29 5. If a 6 year-old’s mother brings home another baby, and they start wetting the bed and sucking their  thumb again, this is an example of ____________. 30 

6. If a woman is convinced that her mother in law hates her she is the one who actually hates hates her  in law, this is an example of _____________. 31 

7. If a person who enjoys killing animals feels guilty about it and then converts to veganism, this is an  example of __________. 32 

8. Who is the father of behaviorism? 33 

9. If you ate shrimp and got food poisoning and now are nauseous whenever you smell shrimp. This is  an example of______________. 34 

10. A child getting a sticker after a doctor’s appointment is an example of ______ reinforcement. 35 11. A child not having to do chores after getting on the honor roll is an example of ______  reinforcement. 36 

12. A child receiving a spanking after talking back to his dad is an example of a ____________  punishment. 37 

13. A child losing playtime after purposefully breaking his toys is an example of ______________  punishment. 38 

14. ________ set out to demonstrate that children could learn a response neither elicited by a  conditioned stimulus (as in classical conditioning) nor performed and then strengthened by a  reinforcer (as in operant conditioning). 39 

15. If a dog is taught to shake but doesn’t do it unless given a treat, this is an example of _______.40 16. If you see your sister got in trouble for staying out past curfew and don’t do so yourself because of it,  this is an example of ____________. 41 

  

26 Sigmund Freud

27 Personality

28 Identification  

29 Repression

30 Regression

31 Projection

32 Reaction formation

33 John B. Watson

34 Classical conditioning

35 Positive

36 Negative

37 Positive

38 Negative

39 Bandura

40 Latent learning

41 Vicarious reinforcement

17. A child clapping their hands before opening a box to get a cookie just because they saw the model do  it, is an example of ________. 42 

18. Not cursing in public when you normally would, is an example of _______. 43 

19. A person with high _________ in math believes they are the best mathematician and can solve any  problem. 44 

20. A man nervous about an interview, worries aloud while in the waiting room. This making those  around him nervous too and they also start to worry, making the man even more nervous about the  upcoming interview. This is an example of ___________. 45 

21. If an infant uses senses and motor actions to explore and understand the world there are in this  stage of cognitive development according to Piaget. 46 

22. If a child uses their capacity for symbolic thought to develop language, engage in pretend play, and  solve problems, there are in this stage of cognitive development according to Piaget. 47  23. If a child can solve real-world problems through trial and error approach but have difficulty with  hypothetical/abstract problems, they are in this stage of cognitive development according to Piaget.  48

24. If an adolescent can form hypotheses and test them, they are in this stage of cognitive development  according to Piaget. 49 

25. _________________ believed that cognitive development is shaped by its sociocultural context and  children’s interactions with members of their culture. 50 

26. Parents, school, friends, etc. are all part of the _______________. 51 

27. Parents' interactions with teachers, a school's interactions with the daycare provider are all part of  the _________________. 52 

28. Parents' work settings and policies, extended family networks, mass media, community resources are all part of the ____________. 53 

29. Laws and governmental resources are all part of the ________. 54 

30. The birth of a sibling and the Iraq war are all part of the ____________. 55 

31. Stage theorists include…56 

32. Learning theorists include…57 

  

42 Overimitation  

43 Human agency

44 Self-efficacy

45 Reciprocal determinism

46 Sensorimotor  

47 Preoperational

48 Concrete operations

49 Formal operations

50 Lev Vygotsky

51 Microsystem

52 Mesosystem

53 Exosystem

54 Macrosystem

55 Chronosystem

56 Freud, Erikson, and Piaget

57 Watson, Skinner, and Bandura

Multiple Choice Question

1. Lisa and Lyle both want to stay up past their bed times to watch TV. When their parents say "No", Lisa  throws a fit, while Lyle says, "Please, I'll brush my teeth and get into Pj's so that I can just pop into bed the  minute the show if over?!? From a Freudian perspective, Lisa is responding from her __________, while  Lyle is communicating through his __________. 58 

a. id;ego

b. id;superego

c. superego;id

d. ego;id

2. Qualitative changes are best thought of as changes in __________, while quantitative changes are best  thought of as changes in __________. 59 

a. kind; degree

b. amount; type

c. shape; size

d. continuity; discontinuity

3. Miley is a strong believer in the power of nature in determining the way her son Cyrus acts. As a result,  she is most likely to agree that Cryrus's aggression is the result of… 60 

a. watching violent tv

b. too much sugar in his diet

c. bad parenting

d. inheriting genes for violence

4. When describing her theory of development, Candice says, "The basic idea is that I take a stimulus that at  first has no effect on an individual. Then I pair that stimulus with a second stimulus that does elicit some  response. After the two have been paired together many time, I test to see if the initial stimulus now  elicits a response similar to the one elicited by the second stimulus". Given this description, Candice  would best be classified as a(n)__________ 61conditioning theorist.

a. Operant

b. Instrumental

c. Classical

d. Social

5. Elizabeth tells her daughter Taylor, "I will stop nagging, which you find unpleasant, as soon as you clean  your room today and continue to clean it in the future". This description indicates that Elizabeth is trying  to use 62 

a. positive reinforcement

b. negative reinforcement

c. positive punishment

d. negative punishment

  

58 A

59 A

60 D

61 C

62 B

6. How could an elementary teacher effectively use negative punishment in the classroom? 63 a. Give "stars" that can be converted into treats to students who do well on exams

b. Give a slap on the wrist to kids who lie about cheating

c. Take away homework (something they find unpleasant) to increase hand raising behavior d. Take away recess time (something they want) to decrease misbehavior

7. Cindy watches her big sister, Marsha, get ready for a date by applying a lot of eye makeup. When Cindy  and Marsha come downstairs, their Mother screams at Marsha and tells her to go back upstairs and  remove the eye makeup. Later, when Cindy is getting ready to go out, she looks at the makeup on her  dresser and decides against putting it on. What concept best explains Cindy's decision? 64 a. Vicarious reinforcement

b. classical conditioning

c. defense mechanisms

d. regression

8. Constructivism proposes that children learn best 65 

a. by doing

b. when an adult completes a task for them

c. when genetics determine a behavior

d. through vicarious reinforcement

  

63 D

64 A

65 A

CHAPTER 3: GENES, ENVIRONMENT, AND DEVELOPMENT Vocab

• Natural selection is the idea that individuals who have characteristics advantageous for survival in a  particular environment are most likely to survive and reproduce

• Conception is the moment when an egg is fertilized by a sperm  

• Zygote is a single cell formed at conception from the union of a sperm and an ovum • Chromosomes are threadlike bodies in the nucleus of each cell and contain stretches called genes • Meiosis is the specialized process of cell division where sperm and ova have only 23 chromosomes • Mitosis is the more usual process of cell division where the single-celled zygote formed at conception  becomes a multiple-celled organism

• Genotype is the genetic makeup a person inherits

• Phenotype is the characteristic or trait the person eventually has

• Gene Expression is the activation of particular genes in particular cells at particular times • Sex-Linked Inheritance is when a characteristic is influenced by single genes located on sex chromosomes • Polygenic Inheritance is when traits Influenced by multiple pairs of genes interaction with environmental  factors

• Behavioral genetics is the scientific study of the extent to which genetic and environmental differences  among individuals are responsible for differences among them in traits such as intelligence and  personality  

• Heritability is the amount of variability in a population on some trait dimension that is attributable to  genetic differences among those individuals

• Selective breeding is the attempt to breed animals for a particular trait to determine whether the trait is  heritable

• Twin studies is the study of twins, both identical and fraternal, reared apart and together  • Adoption Studies is the study of twins and their likeness to biological and adoptive parents  • Temperament is the tendencies to respond in predictable ways that serve as the building blocks of  personality

• Gene-Environment Interactions are the effects of genes depend upon the nature of the environment and  how the individual responds to the environment

• Gene–environment correlations are the ways that a person’s genes and his environment are  systematically interrelated

o Passive gene–environment is the phenomenon in which, because parents provide children with  both their genes and a home environment compatible with those genes, the home environments  to which children are exposed are correlated with (and typically reinforce) their genotypes

o Evocative gene–environment is the phenomenon in which children’s genotypes evoke certain  kinds of reactions from other people so that their genetic makeup and experiences are  correlated

o Active gene–environment is the phenomenon in which children’s genotypes influence the kinds  of environments they seek out and therefore experience

Sample Questions

1. The DNA in each normal human being is about ______ the same as every other normal human  being. 66 

2. _______________ is involved in replacing damaged cells. 67 

3. _______________ is involved in sexual reproduction. 68 

4. ______________ can cause identical twins to look different. 69 

5. Conceived during different pregnancies… 70 

6. Product of 2 different sperms and eggs, but are conceived during the same pregnancy… 71 7. Conceived during the same pregnancy with only one sperm and one egg that split apart to form  separate embryos…72 

8. Whose chromosome determines the baby’s sex? 73 

9. A ___________ gene trait will be expressed. 74 

10. A ___________ gene trait will be expressed only when the it is paired with another recessive  gene for the same trait.75 

11. A red flower and a white flower producing a pink flower is an example of _________. 76 12. AB blood type is an example of ______________. 77 

13. Colorblindness is an example of ___________. 78 

14. Intelligence is an example of ___________. 79 

15. Chromosomal abnormalities occur when… 80’

16. Breeding cows that specifically produce a lot of milk is an example of ________. 81 

  

66 99.9%

67 Mitosis

68 Meiosis

69 The environment

70 Regular siblings

71 Fraternal twins

72 Identical twins

73 The father’s

74 Dominant

75 Recessive

76 Incomplete dominance

77 Codominance

78 Sex-Linked Inheritances

79 Polygenic Inheritance

80 there are errors in chromosome division during meiosis

81 Selective breeding

Multiple Choice Questions

1. The idea individuals who have characteristics advantageous for survival in a particular  environment are most likely to survive and reproduce is82 

a. genetic counseling

b. natural selection

c. shared environmental influences

d. crossing over

2. Kettlewell's research on the color of moths and their geographic location demonstrates 83 a. cultural evolution

b. shared environmental influences

c. the interaction between genes and environment

3. We know that two people have precisely 50 percent of their genes in common if they are 84 a. siblings

b. grandchild and grandparent

c. identical twins

d. parent and child

4. Tyler is conducting a study of identical twins in their 20's who were adopted at birth by separate  families. Any differences he identifies in their weight can likely be attributed to  ______________.85 

a. genes

b. mutations

c. environment

d. copy number variations

  

82 B

83 C

84 D

85 C

CHAPTER 4: PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT AND BIRTH

Vocab

• Artificial insemination is when a sperm is directly inserted into a woman’s cervix  

• In vitro fertilization (IVF) is when the egg is fertilized by sperm in dish and then placed into uterus • Organogenesis is the formation of every major organ

• Amnion is the membrane that fills with fluid that cushions and protects the embryo  • Chorion is the membrane that surrounds the amnion and eventually becomes the lining of the placenta • Placental barrier allows small molecule to pass but prevents blood cells of embryo and mother from  mingling  

• Ectoderm evolves into the central nervous system  

• Mesoderm evolves into muscle tissue, cartilage, bone, heart, arteries, kidneys, gonads – • Endoderm evolves into the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, bladder

• Spina bifida is a neural tube condition where the spinal cord is exposed, creating a bubble on the baby’s  lower back  

• Anencephaly is a neural tube condition where a large part of the skull/brain is missing • Reciprocal influences are the transactions between the developing organism and its physical and social  environments begin at conception

• Fetal programming is when environmental events during pregnancy may alter the expected genetic  unfolding of the embryo/fetus

• Teratogens is any disease, drug, or environmental agent that can harm a developing organism prenatally  • Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the death of a sleeping baby because of a failure of the  respiratory system; linked to maternal smoking

• Rubella (German measles) can be transmitted from pregnant mother to fetus; can result in blindness,  other physical problems, and death

• Anoxia is when a baby experiences oxygen shortage  

• Cesarean section is a surgical procedure in which an incision is made in the mother’s abdomen and uterus  so that the baby can be removed

• Couvade is when men experience physiological symptoms associated with pregnancy • Neonatal pertains to events or developments in the first month after birth

Sample Questions

1. Who studies early growth and development? 86 

2. Zygote divides through mitosis and forms a blastocyst in this period. 87 3. Organogenesis occurs in this period. 88 

4. Sexual differentiation occurs during this period. 89 

5. Organogenesis is complete in this period. 90 

6. Movement can be felt by mother in this period. 91 

7. Is an unborn baby guaranteed to have AIDS if the mother has AIDS? 92 8. Thalidomide would be an example of a ________. 93 

9. Malnutrition of a pregnant mother could lead to a ____________. 94 10. Maternal obesity could lead to ____________. 95 

11. Older paternal age could lead to higher risks of ____________ and ______________. 96 12. Mother experiences regular contractions during the ___________ stage of childbirth. 97 13. Mother delivers baby during the ___________ stage of childbirth. 98 14. Mother delivers placenta during the _____________ stage of childbirth. 99 15. Severe oxygen shortage can result in ___________ and ____________. 100 16. Analgesics and anesthetics are used to_________. 101 

17. Sedatives are used for_________. 102 

18. Stimulants are used to ___________. 103 

19. ____________ is the leading cause of infant mortality. 104 

  

86 Embryologists  

87 Germinal

88 Embryonic

89 Embryonic

90 Fetal

91 Fetal

92 Not necessarily because the blood of the mother and the baby don’t mix

93 Teratogen

94 stillbirth

95 Offspring obesity and diabetes

96 Miscarriage; down syndrome  

97 First  

98 Second  

99 Third  

100 Memory impairment; cerebral palsy

101 Reduce pain

102 Relaxation

103 induce or intensify uterine contractions

104 Prematurity

Psychology of Human Development  Exam 1 study guide

*all answers are in the footnotes* 

CHAPTER 1: UNDERSTANDING LIFESPAN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Vocab Terms

• Lifespan Psychology is a scientific, developmental approach that focuses on human development • Development is a continuing process throughout the lifespan

• Age grade is the socially defined age group in a society  

• Age norms are the behavioral expectations by age

• Nature influences of heredity

• Nurture influences of environment

• Scientific Method is a process of generating ideas and testing them by making observations • Theory is a set of concepts and propositions intended to describe and explain a phenomenon • Verbal reports consist of interviews, questionnaires or surveys, etc., to ask people about themselves • Naturalistic observation is when you observe people in their natural surroundings and in everyday  life

• Naturalistic observation is when you observe people in their natural surroundings and in everyday  life

• Structured observation is when you achieve more control over the conditions of observation by  creating tasks or conditions related to the behavior of interest

• Case Study is an in-depth examination of an individual or small number of individuals • The Experimental Method is when the investigator manipulates or alters some aspect of the  environment to determine how this affects the behavior of the sample of individuals who are being  studied

• The Correlational Method determines if two or more variables are related in a systematic fashion • Meta-Analysis combines the results of many previous studies to arrive at an answer to a question • Developmental Research Designs are specialized research designs to study how people change, and  remain the same, as they age

• Cross-Sectional Design is when different age groups or cohorts are studied at the same point in time  and compared

• Cohort is a group of individuals born at the same time; a particular generation of people • Longitudinal Designs is where one group of subjects is studied repeatedly over months or years • Sequential Designs combine the cross-sectional and the longitudinal approach and improve on both

Sample Questions

1. 3 broad domains of development are… 1 

2. What is the traditional view of development? 2 

3. 3 aspects of the Gain-Stability-Loss model… 3 

4. Which of the following is inconsistent with, (a challenge to), the gain-stability-loss model?  5. What is the modern view of development? 4 

6. Freshman, juniors and seniors are an example of a what? 5 

7. Feeling the need to get married before 30 is an example of what? 6 

8. ________ is the basis for a social clock 7 

9. 4 parts of the scientific method are…. 8 

10. What is the best approach to studying a random sample? 9 

11. If you’re trying to study an infant, which data collection should you avoid? 10 

12. If you’re trying to observe behavior but your subject displays rare or unusual behavior, you should  avoid using _________ observation. 11 

13. If you’re trying to avoid generalization during observation, you should avoid using these methods… 12 14. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is an example of ________. 13 

15. If you want rich information about complex/rare aspects of development, you should use this  method_____________. 14 

16. If you’re conducting an experiment that involves an independent and a dependent variable, you are  using the ____________ method. 15 

17. 3 critical features of true experiments… 16 

18. A good method for finding cause and effect would be… 17 

19. What is the issue with correlational method? 18 

  

1 Physical, Cognitive, Psychosocial

2 Gain-Stability-Loss model

3 Growth, Stability, Biological aging

4 That developmental change at any age involves both gains and losses

5 Age grade

6 An age norm

7 Age norms

8 Observations, Hypotheses, Testing, Theories

9Sample selection

10 Verbal Reports

11 Naturalistic  

12 Structured Observation and Case Study

13 Physiological Measurements

14 Case Study

15 Experimental  

16 Random assignment of individuals to treatment conditions, Manipulation of independent variable, Experimental  control

17 The Experimental Method

18 Correlation does not always equal causation

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Which of the following is inconsistent with, (a challenge to), the gain-stability-loss model? 19 

a. Physical strength increases until early adulthood and then decreases

b. The ages at which children and adolescents become sexually mature varies across culture

c. Adults aged 60 and older score higher on vocabulary test than adults aged 18 to 30

d. There is no universally recognized indicator of "adulthood"

2. The greatest advantage of the naturalistic observation method is that it 20 

a. can tell us what people do in everyday life

b. is easily conducted in a laboratory setting

c. untangles age effects from cohort effects

d. readily leads to the discovery of cause-effect relationships

3. Dr. Dre is interested in infants' reactions to different music styles. In order to study the phenomena, he built a special lab  crib containing audio speakers. He then individually brings six-month-olds into the lab, places them in the crib, plays rap  music, and watches each baby's reactions. Given this description, Dr. Dre appears to be using the ___________ technique. 21 a. naturalistic observation

b. structured observation

c. case study analysis

d. self-report investigation

4. A true experiment involves the __________ of the independent variable 22 

a. correlation

b. measurement

c. elimination

d. manipulation

5. To study prejudice, a researcher gives some children red T-shirts and others blue T-shirts to see how children interact with  members of the "in-group" and members of the "outgroup". This is called: 23 

a. 0.00

b. +0.70

c. -0.70

d. +.20

6. Every 10 years, a researcher assesses the religious participation of a group of adults who were 20 at the start of the study, and then assesses similar groups of adults who were age 20, 30, and 40 at the end of the study. What kind of research design  is this? 24 

a. cross-sectional

b. quasi-experimental

c. correlational

d. sequential

7. A researcher demonstrates that as the amount of time spent watching TV goes up, the grades of college students goes  down. Which of the following correlational coefficients might reflect this relationship? 25 

a. 0.00

b. +0.70

c. -0.70

d. +.20

  

19 C

20 A

21 B

22 D

23 B

24 D

25 C

CHAPTER 2: THEORIES OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT

Vocab Terms

• Central notion- humans have instincts that motivate behavior

• Instincts are the inborn biological force assumed to motivate a particular response or class of  responses

• Unconscious motivation- feelings, experiences and conflicts that influence a person’s thinking  and behavior even though they cannot be recalled

• Libido is the psychic energy of the sex instinct- shifts from one body part to another seeking to  gratify different biological needs

• Fixation is when the libido is tied to an earlier stage of development

• Oedipus complex is a boy’s unconscious desire for his father

• Electra Complex is a girl’s unconscious desire for her mother

• Defense mechanisms are the unconscious coping devices that the ego adopts to defend itself  against anxiety

• Identification is when you ignore personal belief to fit in with a group as not create conflict and  to fit in, however when away from the group, you revert to your original ways

• Repression is when you unconsciously suppress memories that traumatize you • Regression is when you revert to an earlier stage to avoiding dealing with situations that trouble  you

• Projection is when you displace unwanted feelings onto someone else, to justify unacceptable  behavior

• Reaction Formation is when you do the exact opposite of an undesired feeling to hide the fact  that you feel that way

• Behaviorism is the belief that human development should be based on observations of  overt behavior rather than on speculation about unconscious motives or other  unobservable phenomena

• Tabula rasa (blank slate) – A part of behaviorism. The idea that the mind of an infant is  a “blank slate” and that all knowledge, abilities, behaviors, and motives are acquired  through experience

• Classical Conditioning is to change involuntary behavior based on feedback • Operant Conditioning is to change voluntary behavior based on stimulus-response feedback

• Reinforcement is when a consequence strengthens a response or makes it more likely  to occur

o Positive- something pleasant or desirable is added

o Negative- something unpleasant or undesirable is removed, escaped, or avoided

• Punishment is the presentation of an aversive stimulus or the removal of a pleasant one  following some behavior

• Social Cognitive Theory is the learning that results from observing the behavior of other  people (models)

• Latent learning is the learning occurs but is not evident in behavior • Vicarious reinforcement is a process in which learners become more or less likely to  perform a behavior based on whether consequences experienced by the model they  observe are reinforcing or punishing

• Overimitation is an adaptive and apparently universal tendency of children to imitate  every detail of what they see a model do, even actions that are not directly useful in  achieving a goal

• Human agency are the ways in which people deliberately exercise cognitive control • Self-efficacy is a high or low sense that one can effectively produce desired outcomes in  a particular activity

• Reciprocal determinism is the flow of influence between people and their environments  is a two-way street; the environment may affect the person, but the person’s  characteristics and behavior will also influence the environment

• Constructivism is how children actively construct new understandings of the world  based on their experiences

• Bio-Ecological Model describes how the environment is organized and how it affects  development

• Microsystem is the activities and interactions in the child's immediate surroundings  • Mesosystem is the relationships among the entities involved in the child's microsystem • Exosystem is the social institutions which affect children indirectly • Macrosystem is the broader cultural values

• Chronosystem is the changes which occur during a child's life, personally and culturally

Sample Questions

1. Who emphasized the importance of unconscious motivation in determining behavior? 26 2. What is the focus of the psychoanalytic theory? 27 

3. A person who hates skirts sees her coworkers wearing them and does so herself to fit in. However, at  home and on the weekends, she only wears pants. This is an example of________.28 4. If you get in a car accident and cannot recall being in one, this is an example of _________. 29 5. If a 6 year-old’s mother brings home another baby, and they start wetting the bed and sucking their  thumb again, this is an example of ____________. 30 

6. If a woman is convinced that her mother in law hates her she is the one who actually hates hates her  in law, this is an example of _____________. 31 

7. If a person who enjoys killing animals feels guilty about it and then converts to veganism, this is an  example of __________. 32 

8. Who is the father of behaviorism? 33 

9. If you ate shrimp and got food poisoning and now are nauseous whenever you smell shrimp. This is  an example of______________. 34 

10. A child getting a sticker after a doctor’s appointment is an example of ______ reinforcement. 35 11. A child not having to do chores after getting on the honor roll is an example of ______  reinforcement. 36 

12. A child receiving a spanking after talking back to his dad is an example of a ____________  punishment. 37 

13. A child losing playtime after purposefully breaking his toys is an example of ______________  punishment. 38 

14. ________ set out to demonstrate that children could learn a response neither elicited by a  conditioned stimulus (as in classical conditioning) nor performed and then strengthened by a  reinforcer (as in operant conditioning). 39 

15. If a dog is taught to shake but doesn’t do it unless given a treat, this is an example of _______.40 16. If you see your sister got in trouble for staying out past curfew and don’t do so yourself because of it,  this is an example of ____________. 41 

  

26 Sigmund Freud

27 Personality

28 Identification  

29 Repression

30 Regression

31 Projection

32 Reaction formation

33 John B. Watson

34 Classical conditioning

35 Positive

36 Negative

37 Positive

38 Negative

39 Bandura

40 Latent learning

41 Vicarious reinforcement

17. A child clapping their hands before opening a box to get a cookie just because they saw the model do  it, is an example of ________. 42 

18. Not cursing in public when you normally would, is an example of _______. 43 

19. A person with high _________ in math believes they are the best mathematician and can solve any  problem. 44 

20. A man nervous about an interview, worries aloud while in the waiting room. This making those  around him nervous too and they also start to worry, making the man even more nervous about the  upcoming interview. This is an example of ___________. 45 

21. If an infant uses senses and motor actions to explore and understand the world there are in this  stage of cognitive development according to Piaget. 46 

22. If a child uses their capacity for symbolic thought to develop language, engage in pretend play, and  solve problems, there are in this stage of cognitive development according to Piaget. 47  23. If a child can solve real-world problems through trial and error approach but have difficulty with  hypothetical/abstract problems, they are in this stage of cognitive development according to Piaget.  48

24. If an adolescent can form hypotheses and test them, they are in this stage of cognitive development  according to Piaget. 49 

25. _________________ believed that cognitive development is shaped by its sociocultural context and  children’s interactions with members of their culture. 50 

26. Parents, school, friends, etc. are all part of the _______________. 51 

27. Parents' interactions with teachers, a school's interactions with the daycare provider are all part of  the _________________. 52 

28. Parents' work settings and policies, extended family networks, mass media, community resources are all part of the ____________. 53 

29. Laws and governmental resources are all part of the ________. 54 

30. The birth of a sibling and the Iraq war are all part of the ____________. 55 

31. Stage theorists include…56 

32. Learning theorists include…57 

  

42 Overimitation  

43 Human agency

44 Self-efficacy

45 Reciprocal determinism

46 Sensorimotor  

47 Preoperational

48 Concrete operations

49 Formal operations

50 Lev Vygotsky

51 Microsystem

52 Mesosystem

53 Exosystem

54 Macrosystem

55 Chronosystem

56 Freud, Erikson, and Piaget

57 Watson, Skinner, and Bandura

Multiple Choice Question

1. Lisa and Lyle both want to stay up past their bed times to watch TV. When their parents say "No", Lisa  throws a fit, while Lyle says, "Please, I'll brush my teeth and get into Pj's so that I can just pop into bed the  minute the show if over?!? From a Freudian perspective, Lisa is responding from her __________, while  Lyle is communicating through his __________. 58 

a. id;ego

b. id;superego

c. superego;id

d. ego;id

2. Qualitative changes are best thought of as changes in __________, while quantitative changes are best  thought of as changes in __________. 59 

a. kind; degree

b. amount; type

c. shape; size

d. continuity; discontinuity

3. Miley is a strong believer in the power of nature in determining the way her son Cyrus acts. As a result,  she is most likely to agree that Cryrus's aggression is the result of… 60 

a. watching violent tv

b. too much sugar in his diet

c. bad parenting

d. inheriting genes for violence

4. When describing her theory of development, Candice says, "The basic idea is that I take a stimulus that at  first has no effect on an individual. Then I pair that stimulus with a second stimulus that does elicit some  response. After the two have been paired together many time, I test to see if the initial stimulus now  elicits a response similar to the one elicited by the second stimulus". Given this description, Candice  would best be classified as a(n)__________ 61conditioning theorist.

a. Operant

b. Instrumental

c. Classical

d. Social

5. Elizabeth tells her daughter Taylor, "I will stop nagging, which you find unpleasant, as soon as you clean  your room today and continue to clean it in the future". This description indicates that Elizabeth is trying  to use 62 

a. positive reinforcement

b. negative reinforcement

c. positive punishment

d. negative punishment

  

58 A

59 A

60 D

61 C

62 B

6. How could an elementary teacher effectively use negative punishment in the classroom? 63 a. Give "stars" that can be converted into treats to students who do well on exams

b. Give a slap on the wrist to kids who lie about cheating

c. Take away homework (something they find unpleasant) to increase hand raising behavior d. Take away recess time (something they want) to decrease misbehavior

7. Cindy watches her big sister, Marsha, get ready for a date by applying a lot of eye makeup. When Cindy  and Marsha come downstairs, their Mother screams at Marsha and tells her to go back upstairs and  remove the eye makeup. Later, when Cindy is getting ready to go out, she looks at the makeup on her  dresser and decides against putting it on. What concept best explains Cindy's decision? 64 a. Vicarious reinforcement

b. classical conditioning

c. defense mechanisms

d. regression

8. Constructivism proposes that children learn best 65 

a. by doing

b. when an adult completes a task for them

c. when genetics determine a behavior

d. through vicarious reinforcement

  

63 D

64 A

65 A

CHAPTER 3: GENES, ENVIRONMENT, AND DEVELOPMENT Vocab

• Natural selection is the idea that individuals who have characteristics advantageous for survival in a  particular environment are most likely to survive and reproduce

• Conception is the moment when an egg is fertilized by a sperm  

• Zygote is a single cell formed at conception from the union of a sperm and an ovum • Chromosomes are threadlike bodies in the nucleus of each cell and contain stretches called genes • Meiosis is the specialized process of cell division where sperm and ova have only 23 chromosomes • Mitosis is the more usual process of cell division where the single-celled zygote formed at conception  becomes a multiple-celled organism

• Genotype is the genetic makeup a person inherits

• Phenotype is the characteristic or trait the person eventually has

• Gene Expression is the activation of particular genes in particular cells at particular times • Sex-Linked Inheritance is when a characteristic is influenced by single genes located on sex chromosomes • Polygenic Inheritance is when traits Influenced by multiple pairs of genes interaction with environmental  factors

• Behavioral genetics is the scientific study of the extent to which genetic and environmental differences  among individuals are responsible for differences among them in traits such as intelligence and  personality  

• Heritability is the amount of variability in a population on some trait dimension that is attributable to  genetic differences among those individuals

• Selective breeding is the attempt to breed animals for a particular trait to determine whether the trait is  heritable

• Twin studies is the study of twins, both identical and fraternal, reared apart and together  • Adoption Studies is the study of twins and their likeness to biological and adoptive parents  • Temperament is the tendencies to respond in predictable ways that serve as the building blocks of  personality

• Gene-Environment Interactions are the effects of genes depend upon the nature of the environment and  how the individual responds to the environment

• Gene–environment correlations are the ways that a person’s genes and his environment are  systematically interrelated

o Passive gene–environment is the phenomenon in which, because parents provide children with  both their genes and a home environment compatible with those genes, the home environments  to which children are exposed are correlated with (and typically reinforce) their genotypes

o Evocative gene–environment is the phenomenon in which children’s genotypes evoke certain  kinds of reactions from other people so that their genetic makeup and experiences are  correlated

o Active gene–environment is the phenomenon in which children’s genotypes influence the kinds  of environments they seek out and therefore experience

Sample Questions

1. The DNA in each normal human being is about ______ the same as every other normal human  being. 66 

2. _______________ is involved in replacing damaged cells. 67 

3. _______________ is involved in sexual reproduction. 68 

4. ______________ can cause identical twins to look different. 69 

5. Conceived during different pregnancies… 70 

6. Product of 2 different sperms and eggs, but are conceived during the same pregnancy… 71 7. Conceived during the same pregnancy with only one sperm and one egg that split apart to form  separate embryos…72 

8. Whose chromosome determines the baby’s sex? 73 

9. A ___________ gene trait will be expressed. 74 

10. A ___________ gene trait will be expressed only when the it is paired with another recessive  gene for the same trait.75 

11. A red flower and a white flower producing a pink flower is an example of _________. 76 12. AB blood type is an example of ______________. 77 

13. Colorblindness is an example of ___________. 78 

14. Intelligence is an example of ___________. 79 

15. Chromosomal abnormalities occur when… 80’

16. Breeding cows that specifically produce a lot of milk is an example of ________. 81 

  

66 99.9%

67 Mitosis

68 Meiosis

69 The environment

70 Regular siblings

71 Fraternal twins

72 Identical twins

73 The father’s

74 Dominant

75 Recessive

76 Incomplete dominance

77 Codominance

78 Sex-Linked Inheritances

79 Polygenic Inheritance

80 there are errors in chromosome division during meiosis

81 Selective breeding

Multiple Choice Questions

1. The idea individuals who have characteristics advantageous for survival in a particular  environment are most likely to survive and reproduce is82 

a. genetic counseling

b. natural selection

c. shared environmental influences

d. crossing over

2. Kettlewell's research on the color of moths and their geographic location demonstrates 83 a. cultural evolution

b. shared environmental influences

c. the interaction between genes and environment

3. We know that two people have precisely 50 percent of their genes in common if they are 84 a. siblings

b. grandchild and grandparent

c. identical twins

d. parent and child

4. Tyler is conducting a study of identical twins in their 20's who were adopted at birth by separate  families. Any differences he identifies in their weight can likely be attributed to  ______________.85 

a. genes

b. mutations

c. environment

d. copy number variations

  

82 B

83 C

84 D

85 C

CHAPTER 4: PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT AND BIRTH

Vocab

• Artificial insemination is when a sperm is directly inserted into a woman’s cervix  

• In vitro fertilization (IVF) is when the egg is fertilized by sperm in dish and then placed into uterus • Organogenesis is the formation of every major organ

• Amnion is the membrane that fills with fluid that cushions and protects the embryo  • Chorion is the membrane that surrounds the amnion and eventually becomes the lining of the placenta • Placental barrier allows small molecule to pass but prevents blood cells of embryo and mother from  mingling  

• Ectoderm evolves into the central nervous system  

• Mesoderm evolves into muscle tissue, cartilage, bone, heart, arteries, kidneys, gonads – • Endoderm evolves into the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, bladder

• Spina bifida is a neural tube condition where the spinal cord is exposed, creating a bubble on the baby’s  lower back  

• Anencephaly is a neural tube condition where a large part of the skull/brain is missing • Reciprocal influences are the transactions between the developing organism and its physical and social  environments begin at conception

• Fetal programming is when environmental events during pregnancy may alter the expected genetic  unfolding of the embryo/fetus

• Teratogens is any disease, drug, or environmental agent that can harm a developing organism prenatally  • Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the death of a sleeping baby because of a failure of the  respiratory system; linked to maternal smoking

• Rubella (German measles) can be transmitted from pregnant mother to fetus; can result in blindness,  other physical problems, and death

• Anoxia is when a baby experiences oxygen shortage  

• Cesarean section is a surgical procedure in which an incision is made in the mother’s abdomen and uterus  so that the baby can be removed

• Couvade is when men experience physiological symptoms associated with pregnancy • Neonatal pertains to events or developments in the first month after birth

Sample Questions

1. Who studies early growth and development? 86 

2. Zygote divides through mitosis and forms a blastocyst in this period. 87 3. Organogenesis occurs in this period. 88 

4. Sexual differentiation occurs during this period. 89 

5. Organogenesis is complete in this period. 90 

6. Movement can be felt by mother in this period. 91 

7. Is an unborn baby guaranteed to have AIDS if the mother has AIDS? 92 8. Thalidomide would be an example of a ________. 93 

9. Malnutrition of a pregnant mother could lead to a ____________. 94 10. Maternal obesity could lead to ____________. 95 

11. Older paternal age could lead to higher risks of ____________ and ______________. 96 12. Mother experiences regular contractions during the ___________ stage of childbirth. 97 13. Mother delivers baby during the ___________ stage of childbirth. 98 14. Mother delivers placenta during the _____________ stage of childbirth. 99 15. Severe oxygen shortage can result in ___________ and ____________. 100 16. Analgesics and anesthetics are used to_________. 101 

17. Sedatives are used for_________. 102 

18. Stimulants are used to ___________. 103 

19. ____________ is the leading cause of infant mortality. 104 

  

86 Embryologists  

87 Germinal

88 Embryonic

89 Embryonic

90 Fetal

91 Fetal

92 Not necessarily because the blood of the mother and the baby don’t mix

93 Teratogen

94 stillbirth

95 Offspring obesity and diabetes

96 Miscarriage; down syndrome  

97 First  

98 Second  

99 Third  

100 Memory impairment; cerebral palsy

101 Reduce pain

102 Relaxation

103 induce or intensify uterine contractions

104 Prematurity

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