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UF / Biology / BSC 2010 / What is saturated fatty acid?

What is saturated fatty acid?

What is saturated fatty acid?

Description

School: University of Florida
Department: Biology
Course: Integrated Principles of Biology 1
Professor: James gillooly
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Macromolecules, Proteins, Biology, Nucleic Acids, Lipids, sciemtific, and method
Cost: 50
Name: BSC 2010 Exam 1 Study Guide Part 1
Description: Covers chapters 1-3 based on lecture notes and textbook. This will be the main part of the exam. Review done the day before the exam will be uploaded later.
Uploaded: 02/06/2018
28 Pages 8 Views 7 Unlocks
Reviews



What is saturated fatty acid?



BSC 2010 Exam I Study Guide List and give examples of the Characteristics of life 

.living thugs , are complex and organized .11mg things acquire and use materials and 

Part 

energy . 

•hung things remain homeostatic . ninny things respond to stimulus . •living things growand reproduce . living things evolve . 

•hung thingsexnst in three domains

- bactem } prokaryotes 

-arched 

. Eukaryotes

"

(Compare and contrast the turns"hypothesis " scientific theory ," and "conjecture ." hypotheses one possible answers to qnstons , 

isThat known and on observations , 

Mme scientific 'then Is a strengthened hyphae based on several exponents . BUT conjectures based on incomplete information

Compare and contrast an atom and mdeuu Mrs oneml smallest unit of an 

element that is characterized by the same chemedlfnpenrs as the element . molecule one when atoms shame elections and form Stable associations . 


What is phospholipids?



compareand contrast now ionic , coveunt , and medwgen bonds form and how the bonds differ from one another . 

come bonds form between a cotton ( postal an anon C pregameion ) ,when

am 

aneatoms that had lost or gained an caeeuntbmdsAm anem electors due 

eleemm . 

beingsnared between two among . hydrogenbonds fom whenthe negdtne 

PEET molecule bonds to the 

positive pole of another porno molecule . they ane between mokcuse , Not atoms . Explain me clnflenenee between polar and non polar coueunt bonds . 

polar bonds occur when atoms in a 

- shame electrons unequally . the meme electronegative atom becomes slightly 

concert molecule 

negatuehe charged . nonpoint occur when atoms pnaneelections equally .

Discuss the special properties of water and now they are fundamental to life water is one of the most abundant subsumes 


Why fats are important to enerygy storage?



Don't forget about the age old question of select the two overarching perspectives about management:

on earth , and . all iwmytnngs regime water and am composed 60 -9090 water . 

PROPERTFSC of WATER ? 

D water hers A Mgn specific heat - it is dement to change the temperature of water ,WMCM 

allows cwngtnngsto mermanat 

2) water has Mgm heatof vaponzdton - 

homeostasis . 

It ahsoms a lot of heat when it changes from liquid to vaporfrom ( sweat ... ) 

" annual Swant ' ' -be case 

WheaterLs poloniumand polarcompany 

3) water is one 

dissolve nearly ,while nmpolar do not dissolveeasily . 

a) cohesionand okaeslm make water " sticky " .Cohesion is when want shoes togetherand adhesion Ls when cooper Armsto otherwww.fconeownt Don't forget about the age old question of kronos uncc

admeswn = capillary Acton , which is the asensim ot liquids Up a sum tube .

§ stair Arce Imam is .when water " sticks "together 

mine tightly on me surface than below the surface .

6) frozen water is Uss dense than liquid water because water expands when it freezes when dden molecules bonded to four other molecules in arigid crystalline sometime . 

Identfy funenndlgnep and Moueuar dvlgumsot mayor orynnremcnwnewand polymers . 

funetondl groups one small groupsof drums MM Speake onemeal pwpemetand comment behouormdt change the property at mdnraopohs when my dttdetr to them * hydwphobr indcdnes the when of fnnetohal

gnupo * 

polar ; hydrogenbonds asnwakv to help 

R -OHdissolve maeals .enables lnkagetoomer hydroxyl maeurus by condensation . Cea: ethanol 0 the C=O groupis veryneaemednd

R -C is important in manymolecules and 

aldehydeIn energy -neleatng neaenns . 

\ H 

GX iaeetaldenyae ) If you want to learn more check out anat 215

" C 0=0 groupis important m carbohydrates o 

R - C -R repo 

and in energy reactions . # acetone )

11 aader ,comes m wing tissues to am 

° 

R - C - coot and Ht ,centers into condensation \ OH neacnns by giving up - OH . .some carboxylCarbon " acids important in energy - releasing reactors ( ex : acetic acid

/H bask ; accepts ntinuung tissues R -N to form -NH3t .enters into \ It condensation neaenns by giving amno upH ( ex : methylamine ) 

P Acidic .enters into condensation

R - 0-10=0 

-neaenns by giving up - OH .when 

1bonded to another phosphate, 0 -hydrolysis releases much energy , phosphate ( ex : z .pnospnoglycerak ) 

R - SH by giving upH , +00 - SH groups SUHHYDMI can nldct to tom a disulfide bridge ,thus stdbulyzng pwben 

structure (eximercdptoethanol ) 

mommy are small individual buldng blocks ,when one ahzdholabon and its functional groups , wmupoYmeb_ one monomers joined together bycovelawt bonds

Contrast dehydrator synthesis and nydwlusls 

reactors . 

dydmnn synthesis aka condensation occurs - 

when a person #udrdkd ;they have 

men sunny monomers inoryunemaeaus no water wtninf hydrolyse . 

when water lead ( think about 

is when breaking apart monomers 

in organic moms happens : water comes into break the bond .Etnink about the suffix "lyses ."it refers to the dissolution or destruction of something ) 

Compare and contrast the properties , structure and functions of the four major biological macromolecules (carbohydrates , lipids, nucleic adds , and pwhens ) . We also discuss several other topics like ba 352

CARBOHYDRATES - usually .haul the general formula Cm Hzn On ("M"and "n"are numbers ) . they are anadened to be hydrates of carbon Arena the name ) be caseof the [ Had ratio between hydwyen and oxygen ,but not really because whaler is not intact in a carbohydrate .

carbons are bonded wth hydrogen atoms 

and hydwxl groups : 

H - C -OH

energy

carbohydrates perform four mayorbiochemical 

roles : 

D they are a source of stoned energythat can be released in a form organisms

canuse . 

2) they une used to transport

stoned 

with complex organisms . 

3) they function as stuctuml molecules that give organismstheir shapes . 

a) they serve as recognition or signalingmolecules that can tmgger specific biological responses . The monomerfor carbohydrates ane monosaccharide . 

- relatively smpk made upof up to seven (7) carbons ,where manyof them have the same number of atoms but they are arranged differently 

- ex : pentoses ? ribose and deoxyr , pose hexoses ..mannose ,ssaladose , glucose,fructose

disaccharides one two monosaccnands limned by covalent bonds for short tem energy storage ( ex : snrnse and fomdhmof Don't forget about the age old question of what are the seasons around the globe?

iaaooel ⇐.+[yj→wE¥T gnreooe Auemseµzo ¥ Snowse 

oligos demanded one of there to EO menosachands user for cell signaling and 

necgnihm . 

polysaccharidesonehundreds to thousands of memosaccmandld for long term energy 

storageand structural suppose ( starch , glycogen, clllulool ) 

LIPIDS - canshme energy , proven smeetuny support ,Seoul as hormonal signals ,or assist ugnt energyhardest . they due hydrophobic bearse theycontour nonpotar content ponds . the monomer for lipids are glyeerob and fatty adds .

Fats and 0ns ( tmghcerdes ) : 

.glycerol is a small molecule Mm time hydwxl gnups . 

. forty dad consists Of long nonpoor hydro - carbon chan attached to the polar

carboxyl group . 

. triglycerides anl firmed by three condensation much ,which mauls it nail mm pdany and is very hydrophobic

* saturated fatty acid : an the bonds between the carbon atoms in me mdwcaokt chum are smyu ,"there ane no double bonds .Ah of the avuwdk bonds are saturated with hydrogen atoms ; nelahuely rigid and straight and pack together tightly . 

* unsammhd fatty and : contains more double bonds cuwsnyKinks in the Chan ,when prevent the move city from packing together tightly .

temperature .su#/IE ' " 9nA at room temperature We also discuss several other topics like chem 1305 ttu

saturated fats 

• from mammdb al from plants and Gsn .ex : butler ,lard / .ex : penut on ,fish oil fats are important for energy storage because lgmm of fat has zx as much energyas 1 gram glycogen or starch . they are also important for neuron

insulation , 

Phospholipids? 

a phosphate -eontung ampmd replaces the funnyacid group( one at them ) .they ane party hydrophobic and party hydwpneb ) aka amphipatnic. 

phospholipids form KOWYKMI Membranes , line the pnegpnolpld bilayer ,which has nydwpylhe

heady and nyawphobk fatty dad " tolls " 

00000 - 

tails → 4 gsssg - 

0000000

heads 

Stents ane 4 carbon rings fused together which molded cholesterol and hormones 

NUCLEIC ACIDS 

polymers that stone ,transmit , and express hereditary ( genetic ) information Ml monomers of nucleic acids are nueleuokded , the Polymers one 

de oxynbose nucleic dad ( DNA ) and ribonucleic dad ( RNA ) 

structured of a pnoopndk , sugar ,and

a base 

- pyrimidines

Cytosine

try mne 

umul ( RNA only ) 

-pumes

adenine

guanine

Rnnt exists in single Strands wme DNA is double stranded. RNA is more flexible than DNA

bonds 

A - T or M Llf RNA ) G -G 

PROTFNS

, enzyms - metabolism

.support -Keratin in hair nails , , cause n in ligaments ,skin .transport -hemoglobin ; membrane protons . 

. defense -antibodies , recognition Of invaders

. hormones -insulin

. motion -muscle pwblns and man . tnbres

.genetic control -help determine when gene products are made . The monomerof a protein is an amino add .

Amino aad stnuctuul is an amino groupbonded to a cartoony group by a cdvpuh and an " R ' 'group , which differs . 

proton structure :

Pnmum -sequenceof amino add 

secondary - coils or folds due to 

hydrogen bonding 

tenancy .folds in more in Itself , becoming 3:

quaternary - interaction between 

pnkens . 

enrymsls work as cutdysts for biological processes , but can be combined by aampetdtue or nohcmix mmlpilor .A cmpettkl inhibitor will

bond to the actul site of the enzyme , wnle a non cenpenuue one will net but will altar me shape 

of he enzyme and make the mdecue unable to bond to the active site . enzymes also change shape due to temperature ( too high causes them to denature ) or pm ( they thrive within certain ranges )

BSC 2010 Exam I Study Guide List and give examples of the Characteristics of life 

.living thugs , are complex and organized .11mg things acquire and use materials and 

Part 

energy . 

•hung things remain homeostatic . ninny things respond to stimulus . •living things growand reproduce . living things evolve . 

•hung thingsexnst in three domains

- bactem } prokaryotes 

-arched 

. Eukaryotes

"

(Compare and contrast the turns"hypothesis " scientific theory ," and "conjecture ." hypotheses one possible answers to qnstons , 

isThat known and on observations , 

Mme scientific 'then Is a strengthened hyphae based on several exponents . BUT conjectures based on incomplete information

Compare and contrast an atom and mdeuu Mrs oneml smallest unit of an 

element that is characterized by the same chemedlfnpenrs as the element . molecule one when atoms shame elections and form Stable associations . 

compareand contrast now ionic , coveunt , and medwgen bonds form and how the bonds differ from one another . 

come bonds form between a cotton ( postal an anon C pregameion ) ,when

am 

aneatoms that had lost or gained an caeeuntbmdsAm anem electors due 

eleemm . 

beingsnared between two among . hydrogenbonds fom whenthe negdtne 

PEET molecule bonds to the 

positive pole of another porno molecule . they ane between mokcuse , Not atoms . Explain me clnflenenee between polar and non polar coueunt bonds . 

polar bonds occur when atoms in a 

- shame electrons unequally . the meme electronegative atom becomes slightly 

concert molecule 

negatuehe charged . nonpoint occur when atoms pnaneelections equally .

Discuss the special properties of water and now they are fundamental to life water is one of the most abundant subsumes 

on earth , and . all iwmytnngs regime water and am composed 60 -9090 water . 

PROPERTFSC of WATER ? 

D water hers A Mgn specific heat - it is dement to change the temperature of water ,WMCM 

allows cwngtnngsto mermanat 

2) water has Mgm heatof vaponzdton - 

homeostasis . 

It ahsoms a lot of heat when it changes from liquid to vaporfrom ( sweat ... ) 

" annual Swant ' ' -be case 

WheaterLs poloniumand polarcompany 

3) water is one 

dissolve nearly ,while nmpolar do not dissolveeasily . 

a) cohesionand okaeslm make water " sticky " .Cohesion is when want shoes togetherand adhesion Ls when cooper Armsto otherwww.fconeownt

admeswn = capillary Acton , which is the asensim ot liquids Up a sum tube .

§ stair Arce Imam is .when water " sticks "together 

mine tightly on me surface than below the surface .

6) frozen water is Uss dense than liquid water because water expands when it freezes when dden molecules bonded to four other molecules in arigid crystalline sometime . 

Identfy funenndlgnep and Moueuar dvlgumsot mayor orynnremcnwnewand polymers . 

funetondl groups one small groupsof drums MM Speake onemeal pwpemetand comment behouormdt change the property at mdnraopohs when my dttdetr to them * hydwphobr indcdnes the when of fnnetohal

gnupo * 

polar ; hydrogenbonds asnwakv to help 

R -OHdissolve maeals .enables lnkagetoomer hydroxyl maeurus by condensation . Cea: ethanol 0 the C=O groupis veryneaemednd

R -C is important in manymolecules and 

aldehydeIn energy -neleatng neaenns . 

\ H 

GX iaeetaldenyae ) 

" C 0=0 groupis important m carbohydrates o 

R - C -R repo 

and in energy reactions . # acetone )

11 aader ,comes m wing tissues to am 

° 

R - C - coot and Ht ,centers into condensation \ OH neacnns by giving up - OH . .some carboxylCarbon " acids important in energy - releasing reactors ( ex : acetic acid

/H bask ; accepts ntinuung tissues R -N to form -NH3t .enters into \ It condensation neaenns by giving amno upH ( ex : methylamine ) 

P Acidic .enters into condensation

R - 0-10=0 

-neaenns by giving up - OH .when 

1bonded to another phosphate, 0 -hydrolysis releases much energy , phosphate ( ex : z .pnospnoglycerak ) 

R - SH by giving upH , +00 - SH groups SUHHYDMI can nldct to tom a disulfide bridge ,thus stdbulyzng pwben 

structure (eximercdptoethanol ) 

mommy are small individual buldng blocks ,when one ahzdholabon and its functional groups , wmupoYmeb_ one monomers joined together bycovelawt bonds

Contrast dehydrator synthesis and nydwlusls 

reactors . 

dydmnn synthesis aka condensation occurs - 

when a person #udrdkd ;they have 

men sunny monomers inoryunemaeaus no water wtninf hydrolyse . 

when water lead ( think about 

is when breaking apart monomers 

in organic moms happens : water comes into break the bond .Etnink about the suffix "lyses ."it refers to the dissolution or destruction of something ) 

Compare and contrast the properties , structure and functions of the four major biological macromolecules (carbohydrates , lipids, nucleic adds , and pwhens ) .

CARBOHYDRATES - usually .haul the general formula Cm Hzn On ("M"and "n"are numbers ) . they are anadened to be hydrates of carbon Arena the name ) be caseof the [ Had ratio between hydwyen and oxygen ,but not really because whaler is not intact in a carbohydrate .

carbons are bonded wth hydrogen atoms 

and hydwxl groups : 

H - C -OH

energy

carbohydrates perform four mayorbiochemical 

roles : 

D they are a source of stoned energythat can be released in a form organisms

canuse . 

2) they une used to transport

stoned 

with complex organisms . 

3) they function as stuctuml molecules that give organismstheir shapes . 

a) they serve as recognition or signalingmolecules that can tmgger specific biological responses . The monomerfor carbohydrates ane monosaccharide . 

- relatively smpk made upof up to seven (7) carbons ,where manyof them have the same number of atoms but they are arranged differently 

- ex : pentoses ? ribose and deoxyr , pose hexoses ..mannose ,ssaladose , glucose,fructose

disaccharides one two monosaccnands limned by covalent bonds for short tem energy storage ( ex : snrnse and fomdhmof 

iaaooel ⇐.+[yj→wE¥T gnreooe Auemseµzo ¥ Snowse 

oligos demanded one of there to EO menosachands user for cell signaling and 

necgnihm . 

polysaccharidesonehundreds to thousands of memosaccmandld for long term energy 

storageand structural suppose ( starch , glycogen, clllulool ) 

LIPIDS - canshme energy , proven smeetuny support ,Seoul as hormonal signals ,or assist ugnt energyhardest . they due hydrophobic bearse theycontour nonpotar content ponds . the monomer for lipids are glyeerob and fatty adds .

Fats and 0ns ( tmghcerdes ) : 

.glycerol is a small molecule Mm time hydwxl gnups . 

. forty dad consists Of long nonpoor hydro - carbon chan attached to the polar

carboxyl group . 

. triglycerides anl firmed by three condensation much ,which mauls it nail mm pdany and is very hydrophobic

* saturated fatty acid : an the bonds between the carbon atoms in me mdwcaokt chum are smyu ,"there ane no double bonds .Ah of the avuwdk bonds are saturated with hydrogen atoms ; nelahuely rigid and straight and pack together tightly . 

* unsammhd fatty and : contains more double bonds cuwsnyKinks in the Chan ,when prevent the move city from packing together tightly .

temperature .su#/IE ' " 9nA at room temperature

saturated fats 

• from mammdb al from plants and Gsn .ex : butler ,lard / .ex : penut on ,fish oil fats are important for energy storage because lgmm of fat has zx as much energyas 1 gram glycogen or starch . they are also important for neuron

insulation , 

Phospholipids? 

a phosphate -eontung ampmd replaces the funnyacid group( one at them ) .they ane party hydrophobic and party hydwpneb ) aka amphipatnic. 

phospholipids form KOWYKMI Membranes , line the pnegpnolpld bilayer ,which has nydwpylhe

heady and nyawphobk fatty dad " tolls " 

00000 - 

tails → 4 gsssg - 

0000000

heads 

Stents ane 4 carbon rings fused together which molded cholesterol and hormones 

NUCLEIC ACIDS 

polymers that stone ,transmit , and express hereditary ( genetic ) information Ml monomers of nucleic acids are nueleuokded , the Polymers one 

de oxynbose nucleic dad ( DNA ) and ribonucleic dad ( RNA ) 

structured of a pnoopndk , sugar ,and

a base 

- pyrimidines

Cytosine

try mne 

umul ( RNA only ) 

-pumes

adenine

guanine

Rnnt exists in single Strands wme DNA is double stranded. RNA is more flexible than DNA

bonds 

A - T or M Llf RNA ) G -G 

PROTFNS

, enzyms - metabolism

.support -Keratin in hair nails , , cause n in ligaments ,skin .transport -hemoglobin ; membrane protons . 

. defense -antibodies , recognition Of invaders

. hormones -insulin

. motion -muscle pwblns and man . tnbres

.genetic control -help determine when gene products are made . The monomerof a protein is an amino add .

Amino aad stnuctuul is an amino groupbonded to a cartoony group by a cdvpuh and an " R ' 'group , which differs . 

proton structure :

Pnmum -sequenceof amino add 

secondary - coils or folds due to 

hydrogen bonding 

tenancy .folds in more in Itself , becoming 3:

quaternary - interaction between 

pnkens . 

enrymsls work as cutdysts for biological processes , but can be combined by aampetdtue or nohcmix mmlpilor .A cmpettkl inhibitor will

bond to the actul site of the enzyme , wnle a non cenpenuue one will net but will altar me shape 

of he enzyme and make the mdecue unable to bond to the active site . enzymes also change shape due to temperature ( too high causes them to denature ) or pm ( they thrive within certain ranges )

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