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CAL / Psychology / PSYCH 61 / Who discovered the structure of benzene in 1865?

Who discovered the structure of benzene in 1865?

Who discovered the structure of benzene in 1865?


School: University of California Berkeley
Department: Psychology
Course: Mind, Brain, and Behavior
Professor: David presti
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Psychology and Nueroscience
Cost: 25
Name: Psych C61, week 3 notes
Description: These are notes from the week of the 29th
Uploaded: 02/06/2018
4 Pages 45 Views 6 Unlocks

Psych C61 Notes

Who discovered structure of benzene in 1865?

Week Three


August Kekule (1829-1896)

■ Discovered structure of Benzene (1865)

■ Made further advancements in carbon structures

Linus Pauling (1901-1994)

■ Discovered the alpha helix in proteins

● Won Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1954)

■ Exposed the effects of nuclear weapon testing in atmosphere

● Resulted in 1963 treaty banning all nuclear weapon

testing in atmosphere, outer space, and underwater

● Won Nobel Peace Prize for contributions

● Made known the beneficial effects of additional Vitamin C

to one’s diet

Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

■ Wrote The Origin of Species (1859)

Who discovered the alpha helix in proteins?

● Diversity of living organisms is understandable in terms of

evolution and natural selection

Gregor Mendel (1822- 1884)

■ Discovered traits segregate and sort in an orderly fashion during Don't forget about the age old question of Is there a difference between vision and mission?

reproduction (1865)

■ Tried to figure out simple mathematics to explain heredity

■ Used pea plants for experiments

Niels Bohr (1885-1962)

■ Famous quantum physicist

■ “It is misleading to think believe that physics describes how nature

is; physics concerns what we can say about nature.”

■ Would often argue with Einstein

Max Delbruck (1906-1981)

■ Atomic fission

■ On the Nature of Gene Mutation and Gene Structure

Who discovered that dna was a double helix?

● Speculated that genes were large molecules

■ Injected bacteria with viruses

● Viruses replicate in the bacteria

■ Viruses are made mostly of protein and DNA Don't forget about the age old question of Who was considered the greatest writer of tragedy?

● Genes must be either protein or DNA

● Genes thought to be proteins (1940s)

Wendell Stanley (1904-1971)

■ Crystallization of tobacco mosaic virus (1935)

Oswald Avery (1877-1955)

■ Proved DNA carries genetic information (1944)

■ Peopled ignored it because he used a different technique than everyone else

Hershey and Chase

■ Blender experiment (1952)

■ Showed DNA carried genetic information

■ Everyone believed them because of how simple the experiment was

Francis Crick and James Watson

■ Discovered DNA was a double helix (1953)

■ Explains heredity

Rosalind Franklin (1920-1958)

■ Provided the picture that led Crick and Watson to their discovery J. Robert Oppenheimer (1904-1967)

■ Created world's first atomic bomb

■ Accused of being communist because of his concern about


Frank Oppenheimer If you want to learn more check out What does who stand for?

■ Directly related to results of brothers concerns

■ Also accused of being communist

■ Created SF exploratorium (1969)

Edward Tolman (1886-1959)

■ Psychology professor UC Berkeley 1918-1951

■ Most renowned psychologist of the time

■ Refused to sign oath of loyalty

● Got fired

● Took argument to supreme court

○ Won the case

■ All state employees must sign oath of loyalty (1951)

William James

■ Interested in the science of the mind

■ Wrote Principles of Psychology

● Behavior (psychology)

● Biological underpinnings (neuroscience)

● Mental experiences (introspection)

Alan Hodgkins and Andrew Huxley

■ Squid axon experiment (1939)

● Recorded voltage change when nerve cells sent a signal

● Sudden change in voltage

-Deoxyribonucleic Acid: DNA

● Nucleotides

○ Adenine If you want to learn more check out What is the goal of practicing patient education skills?

○ Cytosine Don't forget about the age old question of In what way does terrifying and terrorism not the same thing?

○ Guanine

○ Thymine


● Some kind of fundamental unit of heredity

● Historical background

○ ~1000 years of selective breeding

● Genes underlie traits

● Particular factors that segregate during reproduction


● dispersion of molecules in a space

● Diffusion with barrier

○ Will only spread out on one side of barrier

■ Impermeable

○ Will selectively let things through

■ Semipermeable

● Molecules/ions will balance out based on concentration of charge

-Ion channels

● Proteins through phospholipids membrane

● Only allows certain ions through

● Concentration of ions are different based on whether they’re inside/outside ○ Outside Don't forget about the age old question of What are some mental disorders that are related to delinquency?

■ Na+ (most)

■ Cl-

■ Ca++

■ K+

○ Inside

■ K+ (most)

■ Na+

■ Cl-

■ Ca++

-Resting membrane potential/voltage

● -65 millivolts

○ Negative because inside the neuron is negative

○ millivolt= 1000th of a volt

● Membrane potential gets higher as ions enter through channels ○ Hyperpolarization

■ Movements relative to resting potential away from zero

○ Depolarization

■ Movements relative to resting potential towards zero

● Refractory period

○ Prevents reverse propagation and reverberation to the nerve impulse ○ Nerves have to recover before doing another signal

-Na+/K+ pump

● Pumps sodium out of neuron

● Pumps potassium in to neuron

● Channels and pumps are different

○ If a is open there is neutral diffusion of ions

○ Pumps require energy to keep pumping sodium and potassium in and out ■ Energy source = ATP

● Adenosine triphosphate

● Intracellular energy currency

● 3 Na+ 0ut, 2 k+ in =1 ATP

○ Remember by simple 3,2,1 count

● Remember sodium is outside of the neuron while potassium is inside by the “banana in the ocean” trick

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