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FIU / OTHER / ZOO 3731 / human anatomy fiu

human anatomy fiu

human anatomy fiu

Description

School: Florida International University
Department: OTHER
Course: Human Anatomy
Professor: Lisa brinn
Term: Spring 2017
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Human Anatomy ZOO 3731- Exam 1 Study Guide Ch 1-8
Description: Includes notes from video lectures for Ch 1-8 and some diagrams as mentioned in lecture
Uploaded: 02/06/2018
18 Pages 9 Views 8 Unlocks
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What is the anatomical position in humans?



CHAPTER 1

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Terms to know :

a Anatomical position : stand up, palms out, face straight, arms down. ~ Supine : lying down, face up ~ prone Iging down, face down ~Cytology: study of cells - Histology : study of tissues

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Organizaton

Sechonau Anato

The

Body Cantes

Coronal anterior/ posterior Midsagittal - left Inght Transverse → inferior / superior

Thoraac : lungs + heart SL Abdominopelvic digestive

Directions

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Proxima Distol Cranial Caudal

Gross Anatomy

Surface → morphology Reqional → specific region Systemic → entre system

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Organization Levels

US Elements → H O > C >N Molecules → H2O > Proteins > Lipids > Carbohydrates Body → cells → Tissues → Organs → Organ System


what is the definition of epithelial?



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Vital Properties / Processes :

Responsiveness > response to change

adaptability / irritability If you want to learn more check out austin community college summer 2019

Growth + Differentiation y size growth can change

e functions

Reproduction Creare subsequent If you want to learn more check out luzu cream for toenail fungus

generatons

f Movement

physical movement or interna/ exterous

flow

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Metabolism

Anabolism: compounds — I compound

catabolism: compound → compounds Absorption 4 ex: respiration, exerchon, digestion

(Homeostasis

mountain internal

environment

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11 systems

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s

INTEGUMENTARY

environmental hazard protection

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SKELETAL

support ; protection ; contains minerals

MUSCULAR

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mohon ; support i heat production stimuli response i coordination


What are the characteristics of Epithelial?



NERVOUS

ENDOCRINE

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involves changes of organ systems transports cells / materials

CARDIOVASCULAR

ЧАР

works against infection I disease

RESPIRATORY

our for gas exchange

DIGESTIVE

food a nutrient absorption

URINARY

eliminahon + balance of pH

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REPRODUCTIVE

sex cells + hormones

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All organ systems belong to circulatory * If you want to learn more check out math 32a ucla

.

@studySoup

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CHAPTER 3

Tissue level of Organizaton

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4 types: epithelial, connective, musde, neural 13 trillion cells

E 200 cell types Epithelial

Definihon: covers exposed surface j lines internal passage ) cavity

- epithelia + glands characteristics :

~ cellularity - consishng of, composed of or containing a cell no polarity - spahal differences in shape, structure, of function Capical/basou) av attachment - interachon between cell surface molecules If you want to learn more check out my.chamberlain.edu

a vascularity - having few/ no blood vessels narranged into sheets Yiayers

rregeneration - renewal, restorahon, a growth Funchons ;

protects, permeable, sensation, secreton ?

ulia: movement microvilla: 13.4.

of part des for absorption +xzo

may, have long Secrehonj move

stereoailia Opicou

thout do not move surface

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intercellular connechons CAMS, Proteoglycans,

Basau lamina Cholds epithelia. w

connective tissue)

Basal lamind O crear layer © dense layer

* stem cells and in

maintenance self renewou

o

assou

Classificaton of Epithelium

Type

Location If you want to learn more check out organic chemistry exam 2

simple squamous lining ventral body

lining neart of

vessels uning cornea; alveoli

* look at apicou for

Stratfied Appearance

squashed

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Strathfied squamous

skin surface; mouth, throat, esophagus, rechim, anus, vagina lining

simple wiboidal

glands ; ducts ; pornons of kidney; thyroid

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stranhed cuboidale

lining of some ducts

Ce

le

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simple columnar

stomach, intestine, gall bladder, utenne tubes

lining

and the areas of pharynx, epigloths, anys, mammary salwary

glands

stratfied columnar

TITU

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Pseudostrathed

Cillared columnar

trachea,

mashame

transitional

epithelium

uning nasal cavity, tradea, bronchi Crespiratory)

stretched urinary bladder, renal

pelvis; ureters

relaxed

COHO

Stud: 710.

Glandular Epithelia. If you want to learn more check out eastern michigan canvas

mucous : muans - Dok pou e foamy "secretons"

Serous : enzymes Exocrne

H send us a mucous cells sub mandibular sohvary gland" O type of secreton: columnar mucous produces mucous to protect from aud

structure : unicellular/mulhelluar

simple compound gland depends on ducts

& tubular e coiled a branched

branched secretion mode

Compound

Merocrine : exocytosis on well surface

Apocrine: apical sheds a secretory product releasedlo, rearows

Holocrine : destroys gland cells i cell is filled ; bunts to release * H.A.M harder → easier

Connected

matrix

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Basic components : specized cells, extracellular protein hbert, fluid Specialized cells

fibroblasts - fibers of connective tissue

est. framework 0 macrophages - pathogens to kill

transport matenals mast cells - stimulate to deal wimpact recovery- defense from invasion o lymphocytes - produce Tcells to fight pathogens Neutrophils / Eosinophils - remove debris recruit

protect organs & support Melanocytes - produce melanin

cally adipocytes - store lipids Ifat for energy

- store energy ☺ classificahon of connective

connective tissue proper -less fiber is loose and scattered

more fiber is dense and packed 243) Fluid + supporting connective tissues

a

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Connechve Tissue nas

fixed cells): stationary ; local mantenance, repair om energy storage wandering: defend it repour 75 guer

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repair + energy storage "gas stahon

2

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CHAPTER 4

INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

Basic Functions:

• Biggest organ. 1 protection from environment

. work win immune system

• absorbs vitamin D3 (co2+ bones)

Cutaneous contains

Epidermis (top)

proiect, permeable, sensory immune Dermis (under eps)

contains papillary rehcular

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Epidermis

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30 cell layers thick ; dead; flat; no - Stratum, nudeus ; water resistant

corneum "insensible perspiraton" soo mL evaporated

H20 from body shede "dead skin" - stratum = thick skin ; 1-2 cells thick ; dead; flat,

lucidum

no hudeus Stratum granulosum = 2 cell layer ; last layer for cells alive

- Contains kerahoocytes Stratum

with Kerato hyalin → form granuoles

keratin filaments form filament strands Crate of production influenced by environment) w 1 frichon = 1 keratohyalın + keratin =

thick skin callus formation Stratum

Granubles form ECM A releases via exatosis basale

for rich nipids .

- water resistant to protect nutrients innermost ; new cells i melanocytes Lproduce melanin) Merkel cells (detect stimuli) * no hair

basale cells form keratinocytes L cell layer

Vos melanots Langerhaun lengur

dy

re

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* Fingerprint from epidermol. mogeldermis dermal populla contouring w) basale) Skin Color

Blood Supply : via a routes (superficial deep veins)

~ blood on superficial exposed to heat

* poor circulation - cyanosis Thickness: vanes compared to palms of soles of feet carotene : orange from Keratinocytes i converked to vitamin A, for eyes Melanin: from melanocytes = goes to keratinocyres

# produced = color of skin

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Dermis

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hour

shaft

Sweat Glands n Apocrine :

part of cytoplasm

15 lost Merocrine :

cytoplasm not

lost

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ON

dermau papilla e

e. Stud

papillary

arrector pile muscle : "goose bumps"

sweat gland: watery

Reticular

sebaceous gland: dily

adipose tissue

hour follide

Stud

Hair

inner medulla : Soft , flexible outer cortex hard keratin staff cuncte: dead kerahnized cells coating hour

Hair structure Follide micture

innermost

outermost medula > cortex. > unde > internal VOD+ 7 ex Herna roota

sheath

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sheath

is

me

Nail

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lunula: pale crescent out base

→ hyponychium : holds dirt

noul body : cover nail bed

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CHAPTER 5 Skeleton System Bones Connective Tissues (cartilage + Ligamento)

Funchons :

support, protect, move, produce blood cells, stort minerals + homeostasis

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Bone Structure

(Matrix : Spong y loone

blood vessels

Calcium phosphate - medullary cavity

-hard bone -endosteum : cell thick ; unes medullary cavity

- excess crates bone TA periosteum : prolechoniatach

- less than stored amount compact

lolood vessels

goes into body loone

Collagen hbers

- not too britie bone

- helps with flexibility Bone Cells

Osteocytes : in bone matrix i nutrients provided Osteoblast : "bone building" --becomes osteocyte Osteoclas+ : "remove bone enzymes eat at bone Maintenance Remodeling

Resting - Resorption → Reversal → Matrix → Mineralizaton

Osteoclast eats smoothed out Depositon osteocytes trappeal

out bone

mononuclear cells osteoblasks

in mathx to Mart

secrete matrix bone matura rzatvor * Remodel + rearowth affected by

essential nutrients, vitamins, hormones (sex, parathyroid, calatonin) Calcium Homeostasis

Ca2+ Tos limbalance)

Normal Blood

Ca2+ levels

ca zt & Cimbalance)

Caicitonin released from thyroid

Release PTH hormone from PTGands

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Blood?

1 caz+ in kidneys

Ca2+ deposit in bones Corteoblast)

& Ca 2+ in kidneys

cart

release Ca 2+ from bones loy osteoclasts

"resorption"

Blood Ca2+ 4

10012+ in inteshnes

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le

Types Of Bones

Compact "cortical" : outer bone

osteons ~ lamellae "rings" wcentro canal : allows blood into bone

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noshocytes : dots in oston to

maintain lamelge canaliculi : communication

between ulls

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Spongy cancellous . Trubecular"

minner bone i spacious a trabeculae forms lattice

A branching network

Long Bone

udySOur

ep

epiphysis : nas bone marow

spongy covered by corncal

Ymeta

diaph

diaphysis: dense bone; mainly

corncou; more stress here

*Skeleton is hyaline

carnlage 1st * Osteogenesis :

formation of bone * Coucificohon:

calcium into bone,

A

meta

metaphysis : wide porhon ; Tlength

ep

→ epiphyseal ploute i becomes

bone from carhiqge articular carhlage.

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Ossificahon

- Intramembrous : clavicle, mandible, skull, face -Endochondrol : limbs, vertebrae, hips

Endochondra Ossfication

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Bone Types

Fla+ Bones

surrounding cranial bones ribs scapula

Long Bones Sternum

limbs Clavice

Short Bones

d

wrist : carpals ankie : tartals Las

Sesamold Bones

Outline of Bone O in Diaphysis, Hyalın carhlage

chondrocytes grow 4 die when matrix cucifies in Diaphysis, blood vessels attach on outer area. Penchondrium creales ositoplast to cover shart with thin bones (periosteum). Blood vessels move into carhlage. Osteoblast now where carniage is in

Center as "Primary Ossificanon center" ♡ shaft has spongu bone - Osteod osts

create medulları cavity, osteoblast Start to attacke metaphysis.

Length of Bone < "Secondary Ossi cohon center"

capillanes Orteo blasts into epi metaphysis O spongy bone n epiphysis

formed epiphyseal cortlage; Osteoblast to shaft side of epiphyseal cartilage forms bone and cornlage enlarges . Osteoblast activity to

epiphyseal cortilage ....

forming en line length diameter

in joint in tendons "pebble like "

parella

Irregular bones

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vertebral column hip bones cranium based

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CHAPTERο

Ακια

Axial bones are skull, thorax 4 vertebral column

Skull

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Neuro cranium : upper - protects braun Viscero cranium: involves orqans, protects tissues

Anterior

alon

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·

O Frontal Bone : forehead 2 parietal Bone : side of neurocranium ,

Temporal Bone : sides deep near ear; has

organs of hearing O capital Bone: nape of neck sphenoid

Rethmoid more internal

zygomatic : cheekbone

Maxilla : upper Heth wl bony palate

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romer bottom of middle nasal septum

Lateral infenor nasal concha : turbinares y separate bones

jutting out; regulate air HOW mandible: hold botom teeth palanne : postenor to bony polare Lacrimal 5 teardluct

Nasal bone Is Supra orbital foramen : hole above orbit

above eye socket for a nerve to Optic Canal: craniou nerve passage i nerve

that connect eye + broun Infra orbital foramen: under orbit

Inferior Superor Orbital fissure : long hole

Inferor Orbital fissure : innerorlott 29 External Acoustic meatus : hole outside ear 3D internal Acoushc meatus : Hauditory complex 2 Mastaid process : lump 9 styloid process 29 Mandibular Fossa: arhwulahon for mandible 3 Mandibular foramen : inside of mandible 2 Mentos foramen: chin outside of mandible 21 Ocupial condyle :joint for o capitol 28 poglosso canal : underoccipital condyle 29 Foramen magnum: for spinal cord

32 carotid canal 30 sugular foramen: for jugular vein

palate

Stuebony

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Sphenoid "Butterfly " Sella Turcica : horse saddle; holds pituitary gland Ophc Canal Foramen Rotundum

on

"

Ovale

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Spinosum

Etmoid

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perpendicular plate: thin piece of bone down nasal cavity Cnsta qolla: point Cribnform plate: little holes for olfactory nerve smell

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* Mandible

contains alveolar pourt for tooth voort

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Cy sour

CHAPTER 6 Axial

Thoracic Cage Cribs 4 stemum) + Vertebral Column (oui vertebrae) Vertebral column Curves

cervical flexibility

• supports torso weight

"Lordosis" -anteriorly bend

K1: Horacic "kyphosis" - posteriorly bend develop curves over time

Tumbar. L. Abnormalities

* Hyperkyphosis : "hunchback

sachim - Hyperlordosts: significant abdomen weight "pregnancy

-Scoliosis: overcurvature laterally

Ti-T72.

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21-25

) Study

Сосслух

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Common for All vertebrae (except ci)

* Centra : round body out anterior i holds weight of each * Transverse process : from transverse plane (LAR) ; muscles attach here * Spinous process: right down spine ; "bumpy feel of spine * Vertebral foramen : hole for spinal column

CERVICAL

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CI & C2

CI: Atas C2: AXIS

occipital condyle : wlows connecton to C7

*goint lets you shake"yes" Dens: in axis ; body for attas; shaks

up where centra showd be Transverse ligament: hoids dens to atas

and allows ino" movement * Transverre Foramen: holds arienes to

Ir supply blodd to braun

oll Other

Quick

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THORACIC

TI-T12

* Ahach to ribs by centrum + transverre processes * costal Facets : rib surfaces to attach

LUMBAR

L1-L5

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abdomen region no special attributes

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Intervertebrou

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-DISCs : carnlage separating soint

conne chng centra together -Arncular process : arculanon

amongst vertebraes ..- Vertebral canal: joining of

verebral foramen to form

a long canal for spinal tube -Intervertebral foramina

left riant when vertebrae joined ; spinou nerves through here

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Sacrim

- fared out when connected

to hip bone -sacral body: 154 vertebrae

where Lš joins -1919 : Hares for weight - Soural foramina: 2 holes for spinal --Sacral hiatus : bottom back

expose verebro canal to environment

i -Coccyx

the

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Stemum * flexible allowing expansion for lungs Manubrium

Vertebrosternou (Trie) attach to stemum va costal carhlage (1-7) vertebrochondral (false) attach to sterum but is* fuse (8-10)

with other ribs Vertebrau (Ho ahng> atach to vertebrae only (11-12)

*wide tall Xiphold process

Body

udy Soup

Rib Structure st.

no costal face to on

trans verte process + centnim

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tubercle of rib

attaches

head attaches

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neck costal groove

pocket" seen in pustenor

U Study Sour

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CHAPTER 7

Appendicular

Pectoral Girdle : clavideos Pelvic Girdle : coxal

PECTORAL GIRDLE

Study Sour

Clavide

superior

Antenor surface

acromial end attaches to acromion

on scapula

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condial

tubercle ligament attachee

for stabilizaton

Sternal end attaches to sternum

Inferior Surface

**

Costol

tuberosity

Study Sour

Scapwa

qui

coracoid

process for muscler

SAN

-

andligament

- Quromial

process

supraspinous

fossa superdrto pine

glenoid

O fossa holds humenus

head

Anterior

Posterior

Stud

Subscapular

fossa large depression

infraspinous

fossa inferior to

spine

Study Soup:

These bones allow :

Elevaton + Depression : (shnugging) Protrachon a Retrachon: (punch + pull back) lateral /Medial Rotahon : raise arm + down

3) Study Soup

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Anterior

Posterior HUMEKU

head afenoid fossa

for

greater

tubercle : muscle

* Epicondyles :

above condyles for muscles ligament to attaci

for

less er tubercle : murcles

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anatomical

surgical

neck

heck

interhibercular groove

depression for biceps brachu

murder

* can turn

deltoid tuberosity

for deltid muscle

arms in to supine form "Supinates or "pronare"

for radius on top of wna.

soute

laterad 2picondyle

olecranon

fossa. ulna when not

bent

coronoid fossa Wina when bent

medial

Mepicondyle

IV

radial fossa radius sitt when

bent

> Study Soup

trochlea

capitulum round, radius attaches

Hat; uina P Attaches here

Study So

:

head

12vole cranon process

Shets out when arm bends -trochlear noten: aligns with trochlea coronoid process

goes into coronoid fossa

on humenis

Study Soup

(

radiat

HEAD

notch

radial

liberosity

Pollex: thumb

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witale

fraperium

trapezoid.ee

* Radius physically attached to carpals not

ulna

scap, capitale

gunahamare

triquetrum

- pisiform

carpals

interdsseus membrane

Stud

metacarpals

7 proximou middle

distal I phalanges

Study Soup

ulnar

notch uinar

for

hea

Styloid

head distaus

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process

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radius Lateral

ulna Medial

Study Sou

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CHAPTER 7

Appendicular

Pelvic Girdle : coxal bone

girolle connects to axial skeleton mia pelvis

Study Sour

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iliaccrest: rough for

ligament * muscle

Hachment

ac fossa

sowi

sacroiliac joint

num

sacrum

greater scianc

notch

tachment for

> muscles of ligaments Lesser sciocc u ate nerve"

notch tacetabulum: femur head attaches

here

) StudySour

pubis

is chrum

obturator, passage of obturator foramen : vein nerve

Studyse

ischio

Spine ischiau tuberosity bumpy projechon

sit on

pubic symphysis

• Abrocarhlage in pregnancy hormone relax in flexible during childbirth

Femur

Delvis

iarnculates w/ -Headl acetabulum

Male

- Neck

greater

trochanter

* taller

rounder

• narrow center of pelvis

Female

• shorter

wider . more space

below pubic

• center of:

lesser

trochanter

gluteal : rough

potch

e

pelvis is wider

huberosity for

muscle als pera rough line

linea

down shaf

mediou

epicondyle

dos

-lateral

Patella : *type of sesamoid bone

sesamoid bones in tendon to

reduce fachon * Arhcular surface

i with femur / patellar.surface * within quadnceps femors tendon * has a patellar ligament

ottached to tibia

epicondyle lateral condule articulate w)

tibia for kne

Anterior

Postenor

patellar

surface. arhculate femur

patella

mecloud.arnculate w/ condyle hold for knee

Study so Pay

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Fibula

Tibia

Fibular head

lateral

"flat" condyles pemur medial

arculates condyle 'tbiau huberosty

for ligament that holds

patella in piace

* Pemur

arh cuiales with Hbia *cant

pronate rotate

Study Sour

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cuntenor tablou marom: crest

sharp border - interosseus

on front of membrane

shin

Study Swin.

Study sou

saterou

meella malleolus

malleolus for attachment near ankle

Antenor

Study Soup

Foot

Abulo

-hibia

medial malleolus

trochlea: surface of talus

lateral malleolus

- talus:tabiat

TUTUS. fhula here eoul couneus

Wheel 4 navicular

- cuneiform

tarsals

cuboid

metatarrals

Hallux

phalanges

*under foot

sesamoid on hallux

metatars! * tendons out bottom of

foot bend bly tot 4 all of weight relies here at some point * longitudinal arch

under foot for

locomohon *arch maintained

by caucaneo-navicular

ligament

"spring" * Hat foot · fallen arches

Study Soup

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CHAPTER 8.

Arhculatons

Joints

Study Sour

classified by motion or connective tissue type

O Synorthrosis - immovable

Amphiarthrosis - 811ghtly movable

- © Diarthrosis- freely movable "synovial is fiber +

cartilage

Abbous Carhlaginous craniol suture epiphyseal alle interosseous mem. pubic symphsu

Joints in limbs Joininos

* Sutures : 2 bones joined wl fibrous tissue

· * syndesmosis: a bones joined by nigament

*Synchondrosis : 2 arculating bones joined by rigid, carnlage * Symphysis: a bones joined by Abrocartilaginous joint Diarthrosis

Joint Strichure

wends of each joint has articular cartilage to help with frichon + Shocta absorphon wat joint coupsule has a layers outer white avascular fibrous layer and

inner synovial membrane

the synovial membrane decretes fuld to All up carity Synoviou Aud O lubricahon

nourish chondrocyte

shock absorption Accessory Structures

Meniscus fibrous carnage pad to absorb shocic Extracapsular ligament :

> bone to bone to limit movement Intracapsular ligament: Tendon : allows movement to be made Bursa : reparates synovial mem 4 fuld Joint Strength vs Mobility

shape of articular surface (ex: shoulder vs hip) types / quanhty of accessory structures (ligaments vs tendon amount)

Joint Movements

(2) Study Soup

Examples

.

Fype of Lo coton Coronal

CAppendicular)

Type of

Movement Abduction, Adduction

shoulder, hip, wrist metacarpo + tarso phalangeal

Flexion / Extension

Sagittau

(Appendicular

Axis)

vertebral column joints, elbow, hip, knee, wrist, fingers, toe

Study Soup

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