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UF / Biology / BSC 2010 / What is Hydrogen bond?

What is Hydrogen bond?

What is Hydrogen bond?

Description

School: University of Florida
Department: Biology
Course: Integrated Principles of Biology 1
Professor: James gillooly
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Bio1, Biology1, BSC2010, BSC, and BSC2010studyguide
Cost: 50
Name: BSC2010 Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers the learning outcomes from Unit 1
Uploaded: 02/06/2018
7 Pages 3 Views 10 Unlocks
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BSC2010 Exam 1 Study Guide


What is Hydrogen bond?



Giulia Gardini

Unit One: Cells and Molecules Learning Concepts and Things to Know

 Life

 List and give examples of the characteristics of life

 Living things are complex and organized, acquire and use energy, remain  

homeostatic, respond to stimulus, grow and reproduce (DNA), and evolve  3 domains: bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes

 Compare and contrast the terms “hypothesis”, “scientific theory” and  

“conjecture”

 Hypotheses- educated predictions formed off of a question  

 Scientific Theory- body of scientific work in which rigorously tested facts  and principles are used to make predictions about the natural world  

(formed and strengthened from hypotheses, NOT conjecture)

 Conjecture- a conclusion formed upon incomplete information  Chemistry of Life

 Difference between an atom and a molecule


What is the difference between polar and nonpolar covalent bonds?



 Atom: made up of neutrons, protons, and electrons

 Molecule: two or more atoms sharing electrons

 How ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonds form (and how they differ)  Ionic bond: a bond that forms between a positive ion (cation) and a  

negative ion (anion)

 Covalent bond: a bond that forms between two atoms that are sharing  

electrons with each other (electron pairs)

 Hydrogen bond: only form between molecules, not atoms. The negative  pole of one polar molecule is attracted to the positive pole of another  

molecule (H is attracted to a strongly electronegative atom)

 How two atoms might form bonds

 Depends on their electronegativity/charge/shell filling

 Difference between polar and nonpolar covalent bonds

 Polar covalent bond: atoms do not share electrons equally; electrons are  


What are the 6 special properties of water?



pulled towards atoms with greater electronegativity (more protons)  Nonpolar covalent bond: atoms share bonds equally

 Special properties of water; how they are fundamental to life  6 special properties of water:  We also discuss several other topics like What is the due process clause?

∙ High specific heat (hard to change water’s temperature)

∙ High heat of vaporization

∙ Universal solvent (because it is polar)

∙ Water molecules are sticky (cohesion- they stick together; and  adhesion- they stick to surfaces)

∙ Surface tension (invisible layer of “skin” on water surface because they

stick more tightly at the surface)

∙ Frozen water is less dense than liquid water (it expands when it  

freezes)

 Fundamental to life because all living things require water, life probably  

originated in it, and living things are composed of 60-90% water  Macromolecules

 Identify functional groups and molecular diagrams of organic monomers and  

polymers

 Functional groups- small groups of atoms with specific chemical properties Don't forget about the age old question of What are the two types of change?

and consistent behaviors  

Functional Group: Class:

(R being the rest of the molecule, a hydrocarbon)

Hydroxyl: R-OH Alcohols

Aldehyde: R-COH Aldehydes

Keto: R-CO-R Ketones

Carboxyl: R-COOH Carboxylic Acids

Amino: R-NH2 Amines

Phosphate: R-PO4 Organic Phosphates

Sulfhydryl: R-SH Thiols

 Monomer- small individual building block molecule; consists of a  

hydrocarbon and its associated functional groups

 Polymer- monomers joined together by covalent bonds

 Macromolecule- largest polymers

 Differences between dehydration synthesis and condensation reactions  Dehydration synthesis: joining monomers by condensation (water leaves  Don't forget about the age old question of Who is William Morris?

the two molecules, bringing them together)

 Hydrolysis: breaks apart molecules by adding water  

 Identify molecular diagrams of carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and  

proteins

 Carbohydrates: monomers- monosaccharides (carbon rings, simple  sugars), disaccharides (two monosaccharides), oligosaccharides (3-20  

monosaccharides), and polysaccharides (thousands of monosaccharides)  Lipids: monomers- glycerols (an alcohol) and fatty acids (long chains) ∙ 3 categories: fats and oils (triglycerides, 3 fatty acid tails attached to a  We also discuss several other topics like Sludge means what?

glycerol), phospholipids (glycerol and phosphate form a polar head,  with two fatty acid tails attached) (major part of cell membranes), and  

sterols (4 carbon rings fused together)

 Nucleic acids: monomers- nucleotides (base, phosphate, and a sugar),  polymers- DNA and RNA

 Proteins: monomers- amino acids (side chain, amino group, carboxyl  

group), polymers- polypeptides

 Differences and similarities between the properties, structures, and functions  of the four major biological macromolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic  

acids, and proteins)

 Carbohydrates: Carbon rings. Sugars. Used to store energy. (EX: glucose,  

starch, cellulose)

 Lipids: Nonpolar bonds, mostly hydrophobic. store energy, provide  structural support, serve as hormonal signals, or assist in light energy  harvest. In fatty acids, all single bonds between the carbons mean  saturated (fats); double bonds mean unsaturated (oils). Important neuron  

insulation. (EX: butter, peanut oil)

 Nucleic Acids: polymers (made up of nucleotides) that store, transmit, and express genetic information. RNA has a ribose. DNA has a deoxyribose  (one less oxygen). Base is either a pyrimidine (one ring: Cytosine,  

Thymine, or Uracil) or purine (two rings: Adenine, or Guanine).

 Proteins have LOTS of functions: enzymes (crucial for metabolism),  support (keratin, collagen, skin), transport (hemoglobin; membrane  proteins), defense (antibodies), hormones, motion, genetic control, etc.  Made of an amino group, a carbon, and a carboxyl group attached to an R  group. The only thing that defines the type of protein is R, the rest stays  the same. There are 20 different choices for R; thus, 20 different amino  acids. Polypeptides link with peptide bonds. (know primary, secondary,  tertiary, and quaternary structures of proteins) (know about enzymes) If you want to learn more check out what is Constructivist arguments?

 Cells

 List and describe the universal components of cells, and describe the  differences between cell components of the three (major) domains of life, and

plant and animal cells

 Cells: the smallest unit of life. All cells have a plasma membrane, DNA,  

cytoplasm or cytosol, and ribosomes (the site of protein synthesis).  Eukaryotes: Phospholipid bilayer for plasma membrane, linear  

chromosomes, has a nucleus, DNA made of histone proteins. Their  organelles are: nucleus, (smooth and rough) endoplasmic reticulum,  peroxisomes, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, mitochondria, and chloroplasts.  Cytoskeleton, vacuoles. NUCLEUS

 Prokaryotic: circular chromosomes (extra ones called plasmids), does not  

have a nucleus

 Bacteria: Phospholipid bilayer for plasma membrane, DNA made of  nucleoid proteins. Has a capsule, cytoplasm, ribosomes, nucleoid, cell  membrane, and a cell wall (made of peptidoglycan). NO NUCLEUS.  We also discuss several other topics like How people use the space to communicate with others?

Plasmids present. Circular DNA

 Archaea: branched isoprene chains (instead of fatty acids) in plasma  

membrane. NO NUCLEUS. Plasmids present. Circular DNA

 Animal Cells: Has a nucleus, (smooth and rough) endoplasmic reticulum,  peroxisomes, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, mitochondria, ribosomes, and  centrioles. No chloroplasts or cell walls. SMALL vacuoles. Extracellular  

matrix

 Plant Cells: has a nucleus, (smooth and rough) endoplasmic reticulum,  peroxisomes, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, mitochondria, and chloroplasts,  a cell wall, and a LARGE central vacuole. Cellulose cell wall, has  

plasmodesmata

 List and describe the function of the major types of membrane proteins  Peripheral membrane proteins: lack hydrophobic groups and are not  

embedded in the bilayer

 Integral membrane proteins: at least partly embedded in the phospholipid  

bilayer due to hydrophobic regions

 Channel proteins: tubular; allow free passage of specific molecules through

membrane

 Carrier proteins: transport substance across membrane by binding to it,  causing it to change shape (like a key and lock deal), and assist their  

passage though the membrane

 Compare and contrast the requirements and limitations for a substance to  cross a cell membrane using diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, or active  

transport

 Passive transport: no energy required, requires a concentration gradient  (movement of solutes from areas of higher concentration to lower  

concentration)

∙ Simple diffusion: O2, CO2, and small, nonpolar lipid-soluble molecules  cross the phospholipid bilayer (through passive transport, down the  gradient)

∙ Osmosis: diffusion of water across a plasma membrane (also down the  concentration gradient) (look at hypertonic, isotonic, and hypotonic  

cells)

∙ Facilitated transport/diffusion: requires a concentration gradient AND  one of two types of integral proteins: channel (for ions), or carrier (for  

larger, polar molecules). Down the concentration gradient

 Active Transport: requires a carrier protein and energy in the form of ATP  (how cells move substances against the concentration gradient, like uphill)  

often called pumps, using ATP hydrolysis

 Bulk transport: for macromolecules that cannot pass through a membrane,  

usually involves pieces of the cell membrane “pinching” off

∙ Endocytosis: stuff moves into the cell, 3 types; phagocytosis,  

pinocytosis, and receptor mediated endocytosis

∙ Exocytosis: stuff moves out of cell

 Predict whether a cell will shrink, swell, or remain the same size given the  

concentration of a submerging solution

 Hypertonic: concentrated solutes OUTSIDE; animal cells lose water and  

shrivel, plant cell body shrinks and pulls away from cell wall

 Isotonic: equivalent solute concentration, normal cells

 Hypotonic: dilute solutes outside, concentrated solutes INSIDE; cells swell  

up

 Identify the correct pathway and organellar roles for production and secretion  

of proteins from the inside to the outside of a (eukaryotic) cell

 Uses cell recognition proteins (provide unique chemical ID for cells), and  receptor proteins (binds with signal molecule to create chemical messages  

in the cell and make a response)

∙ Signal is received

∙ Signal is transduced

∙ Signal is amplified

∙ Cell responds

 Energy Flow

 Outline the flow of energy in a terrestrial ecosystem and the roles of  

photosynthesis and respiration in energy flow

 Sun (photosynthesis)  producers (heat through respiration)  Consumers  (heat through respiration)/Decomposers (heat given off through  

respiration)  inorganic nutrient pool  back to producers

 Respiration creates heat, photosynthesis creates the energy in producers  Contrast catabolism and anabolism

 Metabolism: sum total of all chemical reactions in an organism

∙ Anabolic reactions: complex molecules are made from simple  molecules; energy input is required (endergonic reaction, consumes  

energy, decreased disorder)

∙ Catabolic reactions: complex molecules are broken down to simpler  ones and energy is released (exergonic reaction, release energy,  

increased disorder)

 Describe the function and regulation of enzymes and their effect on  

metabolic reactions

 Enzymes are catalysts: lowering the activation energy requirements for  

metabolic reactions

 Metabolic pathways are linked reactions occurring in a sequence (products because reactants of a later reaction), specific enzymes are required for  

each step

 Allosteric regulation: noncompetitive regulation, in which the final product  acts as a noncompetitive inhibitor of the first enzyme, which shuts down  

the pathway

 Glycolysis, Cellular Respiration, and Fermentation

 Summarize the four pathways involved in complete glucose  breakdown/aerobic cellular respiration and the reactants and products of  

each

 Cellular respiration= the complete oxidation of glucose, transferring the  

energy from the bonds of glucose into the chemical bonds of ATP ∙ 1. Glycolysis (glucose is oxidized and broken into pyruvate, 2 three

carbon molecules; energy investment, and energy harvest. Creates 2  

ATP and 2 NADH)

∙ 2. Pyruvate Oxidation (2 pyruvates oxidized and broken down into 2  

acetyl Co-A, 2 CO2, 2 NADH)

∙ 3. Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle) (2 acetyl Co-A combines with 2  oxaloacetate to form citric acid, carbons break off and form CO2; NADH, FADH2, and ATP are made during redox reactions, oxaloacetate is  

recycled at the end)

∙ 4. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) and Oxidative Phosphorylation (all  accumulated electron carriers (NADH and FADH2) are oxidized, donate  their electrons to the ETC. 32-34 ATP are produced via ATP synthase  

(the pumping of H+ ions). O2 is the final electron acceptor

 Identify the physical locations when glucose breakdown/aerobic cellular  respiration take place

 Glycolysis in the cytoplasm, pyruvate oxidation in the mitochondrial  matrix, citric acid cycle in the mitochondrial matrix, ETC and oxidative  

phosphorylation in the inner mitochondrial membrane

 Draw the Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle) and identify points where electron  

carriers CO2, and ATP are produced, and what molecule is recycled at the end  Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle) (2 acetyl Co-A combines with 2  

oxaloacetate to form citric acid, carbons break off and form CO2; NADH,  FADH2, and ATP are made during redox reactions, oxaloacetate is recycled  

at the end) as stated above

 The role of oxygen in aerobic respiration

 Two major glucose fermentation pathways

 Benefits and drawbacks when a cell capable of aerobic respiration switches  solely (if temporarily) to a fermentation pathway for glucose metabolism

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