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FSU - ARH 2100 - Study Guide - Midterm

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FSU - ARH 2100 - Study Guide - Midterm

School: Florida State University
Department: Art History
Course: Introduction to Archaeology
Professor: Peres
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Intro to Archaeology and Archaeology
Name: Study guide for Chapters 1-4
Description: This is my rough draft of a study guide, I'll update it as soon as I can.
Uploaded: 02/07/2018
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background image Introduction to Archaeology- Chapter 1: Meeting some real 
archaeologists
Outline  I. Introduction II. The Discovery of Deep Time III. A Brief History of Archaeology IV. Archaeology at Mid-Twentieth Century V. Archaeology in the Twenty-First Century VI. Conclusion: Archaeology’s Future Who is an archaeologist? a. Indiana Jones, Lara Croft, Hunter Ellis?
b. The media sensationalizes archaeology.
c. Real Archaeologists:
i. Document everything, ii. Work with notebooks, calipers, and state-of-the –art 
technologies, 
iii. Extract residue from stone tools, and date remains iv. Reconstruct ancient social and political 
organizations and 
v. Analyze remains to determine diet vi. Time Team America-series from PBS that follows 
real-life archaeologists
I. Introduction a. Artifacts-human made objects retrieved from sites that  are the primary source of information for archaeologists b. Archeologists “think from things
c. The best way to introduce archaeology is through its 
history d. Who was the first Archaeologists? i. Most historians list Nabonidus, the last king of the 
neo-Babylonian Empire as the “first archaeologist” 
ii. Nabonidus rebuilt temples of ancient Babylon and 
searched the foundations for inscriptions of earlier 
kings.
iii. “Nabonidus looked to the physical residues of 
antiquity-things- to answer questions about the 
past.”(2)
iv. Scholars grappled with the idea of “the past” v. Middle Age-Europe recognized a remote past reified
through myth and legend, largely through the Bible
vi. During the Renaissance, Francesco Petrach 
proposed that the remote past was an ideal of 
perfection and he looked to antiquity for moral 
background image philosophy and he looked to antiquity for moral 
philosophy
vii. Archaeology Alphabet soup BC-(“before Christ”): for instance, 3200BC; 
note that the letters follow the date
AD-(“anno Domini”): meaning “in the year of 
our Lord,” indicates a year that falls within  
the Christian era (that is, after the birth of 
Christ). Given the English translation, 
archaeologists place the “AD” before the 
numerical age-we say the Norman Invasion 
occurred in “AD 1066” rather than “1066 AD.”
The earliest AD date is AD 1; there is no AD 0 
because this year is denoted by 0 BC and 
double numbering is not allowed.
CE-(“Common Era”): Basically the same as 
AD, except that it is intended to avoid 
religious connotations or privilege.
BCE-(“before Common Era”): Basically the 
same as BC, but as CE, it avoids the religious 
connotation.
BP-(“Before present”): most archaeologists 
prefer to use on age estimate (with AD 1950 
arbitrarily selected as zero point).
viii. Archaeology can be controversial People and leaders have used the past to 
justify their actions in the present, such that 
accounts of the past conflict with each other
Nazi Movement and Eugenics  The Society for Antiquaries, dissolved in 1614
and reformed in 1707, was the first of many 
British scholarly societies interested in the 
relevance of the past to the present
Antiquarianism With the goal to map, record, and preserve 
national treasures, members of Europe’s 
leisure classes considered an interest in 
classical antiquities to be an important 
ingredient in the “cultivation of taste.” 
II. The Discovery of Deep Time a) Up to the 18 th  Century, archaeological research proceeded  in accord with the tradition of Petrarch clarifying the 
picture of the classical civilizations of the Mediterranean. 
Lore at the time did not challenge the Christian 
Bible as an account of the world and humans .
background image b) Crude stone tools discovered in England and continental  Europe, along with bones of long-extinct mammals “prove 
the existence of very ancient man” (Jacques Boucher 
Crèvecoeur de Perthes, 1778-1868). 
c) Boucher de Perthes  Challenged the understanding that the age of the 
earth was no more than about 6000 years
James Ussher (1581-1656) creation on 
4004BC
“tools” found by Boucher de Perthes were
meteorites , or produced by lightning elves 
or fairies
Charles Lyell.1863, The Geological Evidences of
the Antiquity of Man. 
Uniformitarianism-geological processes 
occurring today have always occurred on 
Earth
 Charles Darwin. 1859 On the Origin of Species Theory of Evolution and Natural 
Selection
d) British Archaeology   British Archaeology billowed out across two 
divergent courses:
One direction: Archaeology became 
involved with the problems of remote 
geological time and the demonstration of 
long-term human evolution
The other focused on: Classical 
Archaeology-
the branch of archaeology 
that studies  the “classical studies,”  
particularly ancient Greece and Rome the 
Near East. (given prevalence due to those 
civilizations’ contributions to Western 
Civilization)
e)   Archaeology and Native Americans There was much controversy in the study and 
theories of Native Americans.
Investigators began to recognize the continuities 
between the prehistoric and historic populations 
of Native Americans. 
Thomas Jefferson  American scholars saw living Native Americans as
“living fossils,” relics of times long past .
background image New World archaeology involved Euro-Americans 
digging up Native Americans’ ancestors, leading 
to a consideration of the ethical treatment of 
archaeological remains
III. A Brief History of Archaeology a) A few individuals typify the archaeology of the time  through their careers and their lives. b) Their stories demonstrate the stages in the growth of  archaeology and how goals and perspectives have changed
over time.
c) Giovanni Battista Belzoni: Circus Strongman-and Early  Archaeologist Giovanni Battista Belzoni was born in Italy and was
one of the earliest antiquarians 
Antiquarian- studied antiquities (ancient 
objects) largely for the sake od the objects 
themselves, not the people of cultures that 
produced them
 Belzoni was a circus strongman with knowledge of
hydraulics, stuck in Egypt to become a pillager
 He used destructive methods, but took notes, 
made illustrations and observations
Interest in what ancient “things had to tell is the 
beginning of the science of archaeology
d) Jens Jacob Asmussen Worsaae: The First Professional  Archaeology Professional archaeologists had to set out to create
a chronology of the collections generated by 
antiquarians.
Jens, J.A. Worsaae a native of Denmark (1821-
1885)  was fascinated by artifacts. (He worked in a 
museum)
He received informal training from Christian 
Thomsen
 (1788-1865) who devised the 
typological scheme of Stone Age, Bronze Age 
and Iron Age. 
Introduced inquiry into archaeology: excavating to 
answer questions 
Demonstrated existence of middens or trash
heaps 
Documented potsherds, or fragments of 
pottery, along with charcoal, bones and 
stone implements
e)  Alfred Vincent Kidder (1885-1963)
background image Graduated from Harvard with the 6 th  Ph.D in  anthropology and archaeology. Using potsherds explained how ceramic 
decoration could help determine cultural 
relationships among prehistoric groups 
Established archaeology as “the branch of 
anthropology which deals with prehistoric peoples”
:from things to people 
American Southwest Pecos Pueblo, New 
Mexico
Maya ruins of Central America Additional notes:  o Pottery trends changed generally every  10-20 years o Extremely rare for archaeologists to find  clothing/organic materials o When clay is fired, it becomes inorganic
o Bones found vary according to density of 
bones and environment that they are 
found in
f) Gertrude Caton-Thompson (1888-1985) Advanced archaeology intellectually, and studied 
various disciplines
Studied settlement patterns: excavated a village 
site in Egypt
Conducted interdisciplinary work: surveyed the 
northern Fayum Desert in Egypt, working with Sir 
Flinders Petrie 
Established the importance of site 
stratigraphy a site’s physical structure 
produced by the deposition of geological 
and/or cultural sediments into layers, or 
strata to reveal age and original inhabitants
Great Zimbabwe site proved the indigenous 
people built site
IV. Archaeology at Mid-Twentieth Century a) Most professional archaeologists worked with museums,  universities, or private sectors to preserve cultural 
heritage.
b) Most were practicing culture history documenting how  material culture changed over time and space. c) Main goal-tracking the migrations and developments of  prehistoric cultures d) H. Marie Wormington: Ancient Man of North America

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School: Florida State University
Department: Art History
Course: Introduction to Archaeology
Professor: Peres
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Intro to Archaeology and Archaeology
Name: Study guide for Chapters 1-4
Description: This is my rough draft of a study guide, I'll update it as soon as I can.
Uploaded: 02/07/2018
21 Pages 99 Views 79 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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