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SC / exercise science / EXSC 530 / What makes the cell membrane semi-permeable?

What makes the cell membrane semi-permeable?

What makes the cell membrane semi-permeable?

Description

School: University of South Carolina - Columbia
Department: exercise science
Course: Physiology of Muscular Activity
Professor: Sarah shumacher
Term: Spring 2018
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Study Guide Exam 1
Description: Study guide covering bioenergetics, skeletal muscle structure and function, and exercise metabolism
Uploaded: 02/08/2018
3 Pages 49 Views 2 Unlocks
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EXSC 530 Study Guide Exam 1


What makes the cell membrane semi permeable?



∙ Metabolism

o Sum of all chemical reactions in the body

∙ Anabolism

o synthesis of molecules

∙ Catabolism

o breakdown of molecules

∙ ATP Hydrolysis

o Powers all forms of biologic work

∙ Sarcolemma

o Smipermeable membrean that separaets cells for environment  ∙ Nucleus

o Contains genes that regulate protein synthesis  

∙ Sarcoplasm

o Fluid portion of the cell

∙ Strength training increases synthesis of ______

o Contractile protein

∙ Coupled reaction


What happens to energy during endergonic and exergonic reactions?



o Liberated energy in exergonic reaction drives an endergonic reaction ∙ Oxidation We also discuss several other topics like How does equality affect efficiency?

o Removing an electron

∙ Reduction

o Gaining an electron  

∙ Enzyme levels in the blood indicate_____.

o Disease/tissue damage Don't forget about the age old question of Colligative properties depend on what?

∙ Kinase

o Enzyme that adds a phosphate group

∙ Dehydrogenases

o Enzyme that removes a hydogren atom

∙ Oxidases

o Enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions involving oxygen ∙ Isomerases

o Enzyme that rearranges the structure of molecules

∙ Glycogen synthase


What happens when a tissue is damaged?



o Synthesizes glycogenesis

∙ Glycogen phosphorylase

o Catalyzes glycogenloysis

∙ Carbohydrates If you want to learn more check out Who is the founder of the psych & psych lab?

o primary ATP substrate for muscles and brain

∙ Examples of monosaccharides

o glucose, fructose, galactose

∙ Examples of disaccharides

o sucrose, lactose

∙ Examples of polysaccharides

o starch, glycogen

∙ 1 g carbs =  

o 4 kcal

∙ Muscle fatigue is usually caused by depletion of ____

o Glycogen  

∙ Primary type of fat used by muscles for energy___ We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of open internet?

o Free fatty acids

∙ Free fatty acids are obtained through the breakdown of____ o Triglyercides  

∙ Enzyme used for lipolysis____

o Hormone sensitive lipase

∙ Every 1g fat creates ____ of energy  

o 9 kcal

∙ Gluconeogenesis

o Conversion of protein to glucose in the liver

∙ Alanine

o Protein that is converted to glucose during gluconeogenesis ∙ Luceine

o Protein that can enter into Krebs cycle if necessary

∙ ATP synthase ____

o catalyzes hydrolysis of ATP

∙ Short term, high intensity exercise synthesizes ATP through ___. o Phosphagen system and anaerobic glycolysis

∙ Resting state and long duration exercise synthesizes ATP through  o Glycolysis/beta oxidation, krebs cycle, and ETC We also discuss several other topics like What is forensic science?

∙ Most rapid and simplest soure of ATP

o ATP- PC system

∙ Catalyzes ATP-PC system, rate limiting enzyme

o Creatine kinase

∙ During the energy investment phase of glycolysis, a molecule of glucose  requires ___ ATP, and a molecule of glycogen requires___ATP. Glucose  nets___ATP, and glycogen nets___ATP.

o 2, 1, 2, 3

 Glucose- same, glycogen-uses less created more

∙ Enzyme used for energy investment phase of glycolysis o Hexokinase  If you want to learn more check out What steps were taken to enact reconstruction?

∙ Enzyme used to convert pyruvate to lactate

o Lactate dehydrogenase

∙ Anaerobic glycolysis produces___, and aerobic glycolysis produces____. o 2 lactate/2 pyruvate and 2 NADH

∙ Glycolysis can provide muscles with energy for about ___ minutes o 2

∙ Derived from cholestrol, used for sex hormones

o Steroids

∙ ___are mostly used for prplonged, lower intensity exercise o Fats

∙ Increases muscle PC stores for improved performance in high intensity  exercise

o Creatine monohydrate supplementation

∙ Location of aerobic glycolysis

o Mitchondria

∙ Location of anaerobic glycolysis

o Sarcoplasm

∙ Describe the intermediate step in betwee glycolysis and the Krebs cycle o Pyruvate converted to acetyl co-A, carbon dioxide given off, and 1  NADH produced  

∙ Acetyl co-A combines w/___to from___ in the Krebs cycle

o Oxaloacetate, citrate

∙ Catalyzes formation of acetyl co-A to citrate in Krebs cycle o Citrate synthase

∙ Rate-limitng enzyme in the Krebs cycle

o Isocitrate dehydrogenase

∙ 1 molecule of glucose will produce ___ in the Krebs cycle

o 6 NADH, 2 FADH, and 2 ATP

∙ Describe two ways in which NADH is oxidized back to NAD+ o Conversion of pyruvic acid to lactic acid, shuttling H+ into  mitochondria

∙ The conjugate base of lactic acid

o Lactate

∙ Rate-limiting enzyme of ETC  

o Cytochrome oxidase

∙ Term used to describe electron carriers of the ETP made up of iron o Cytochromes

∙ (NADH/FADH) produces more energy than (NADH, FADH)

o NADH, FADH

∙ Number of H+ ions needed to cross the mitochondrial membrane to produce  1 ATP

o 3

∙ Electrons removed from NADH and FADH move down a set of carriers to  produce ATP. Each NADH produces 2.5 ATP and each FADH produces 1.5 ATP o Chemiosmotic hypothesis

∙ How long does energy from PC last?

o About 10 seconds

∙ High levels of stimulates creatine kinase, which causes the breakdown of___  to resynthesize ATP

o ADP, phosphocreatine

∙ Describe two locations in the body where glycolysis occurs o Glycogen- muscle glycogen, phosphorylase or blood glucose- liver

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