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FIU / Engineering / ZOO 3731 / What urinary system do?

What urinary system do?

What urinary system do?

Description

School: Florida International University
Department: Engineering
Course: Human Anatomy
Professor: Lisa brinn
Term: Spring 2017
Tags: Human Anatomy
Cost: 50
Name: Human Anatomy ZOO 3731- Exam 1 Study Guide Ch 1-8
Description: Study Guide Ch 1-8
Uploaded: 02/08/2018
18 Pages 90 Views 6 Unlocks
Reviews


CHAPTER 1


What urinary system do?



Terms to know :

Anatomical position : stand up, palms out, face straight, arms down ~ Supine : lying down, face up ~ prone Iging down, face down ~Cytology: study of cells - Histology : study of tissues

Organizaton


What are the four types of tissue?



Sechonau Anato

Body Cavites

Coronal anterior/ posterior Midsagittal - left Inght Der Transverse - inferior / superior

Thoraac : lungs + heart Abdominopelvic i digestive

Directions

SOU

Proximou Distal

Cranial Caudal

Gross Anatomy

Surface → morphology Reqional → specific region Systemic → entire system


What is the glandular epithelium?



ganization Levels

Elements → H O > C >N Molecules → H2O > Proteins > Lipids > Carbohydrates Body → cells → Tissues → Organs → Organ System We also discuss several other topics like When does the price fall?

Vital Properties / Processes :

Responsiveness > response to change

adaptability / irritability

Growth + Differentiation y size growth can change

e funchons

Reproduction create subsequent Don't forget about the age old question of What is the peripheral nervous system?

generatons

f Movement

physical movement or interna/ exterous

flow

Metabolism

Anabolism: compounds — I compound

catabolism: compound → compounds Absorption 4 ex: respiration, excrchon, digestion If you want to learn more check out What are the characteristics of action potentials in cardiac muscle?

(Homeostasis

mountain internal

environment

Studs

Il systems We also discuss several other topics like How a case proceeds throughout a trial?

INTEGUMENTARY

environmental hazard protection

SKELETAL

support ; protection ; contains minerals

MUSCULAR

mohon ; support i heat production stimuli response i coordination

NERVOUS

ENDOCRINE

Study SD

involves changes of organ systems transports cells / materials Don't forget about the age old question of What is titchener's structuralism?

CARDIOVASCULAR

ЧАР

works against infection I disease

RESPIRATORY

our for gas exchange

DIGESTIVE

food a nutrient absorption

URINARY

eliminahon + balance of pH Don't forget about the age old question of What are non linguistic signs?

REPRODUCTIVE

sex cells of hormones

All organ systems belong to circulatory *

.

CHAPTER 3

Tissue level of Organizaton

vity

4 types: epithelial, connective, musde, neural 13 trillion cells

ZODce typer Epithelial

Definihon: covers exposed surface j lines internal passage ) cavity

~ epithelia u glands characteristics :

~ cellularity - consisting of composed of or containing a cell * polarity - spatial differences in shape, structure, of function Capical/basoul av attachment - interachon between Ceil surface molecules

a vascularity - having few/ no blood vessels narranged into sheets Yiayers

rregeneration - renewal, restorahon, a growth Funchons ;

protects, permeable, sensation, secrehon

cilia : movement microvilla: 13.4.

of part des for absorption +xzo

may, have long Secrehonj move

stereoailia Opicou

thout do not move

surface

Intercellular connechons CAMS, Proteoglycans,

Basau lamina Cholds epithelia. w

connective tissue)

Basal lamina O clear layer

dense layer

* stem cells and in

maintenance self renewou

o

Classificaton of Epithelium

Type

Location

simple squamous lining ventral body

lining neart of

vessels uning cornea; alveoli

* look at apicou for

Stratified Appearance

squashed

Strathfied squamous

skin surface; mouth, throat, esophagus, rechim, anus, vagina lining

simple wiboidal

glands ; ducts ; pornons of kidney; thyroid

Strahhed cuboid al

lining of some ducts

simple columnar

stomach, intestine, gall bladder, utenne tubes

lining

and the areas of pharynx, epigloths, anys, mammary salwary

glands

strated columnar

TTTU

Pseudostrathed

Cillared columnar

transitional

epithelium

uning nasal cavity, tradea, MAA bronchi Crespiratory

stretched urinary bladder, renal

pelvis; ureters

a

u

relaxed

COHO

Glandular Epithelia.

mucous : muans - Dok pou e foamy "secretons"

Serous : enzymes Exocrne

H send us a mucous cells , sub mandibular sohvary gland" O type of secreton: columnar mucous produces mucous to protect from aud

structure : unicellular/mulhelluar

simple compound glands depends on ducts

& tubular e coiled a branched

branched

Compound secretion mode

Merocrine : exocytosis on well surface

Apocrine: apicou sheds secretory product released, reanws Holocrine : destroys gland cells i cell is filled ; bunts to release * H.A.M harder → easier

Connected

matrix

Basic components : specized cells, extracellular protein hbert, fluid Specialized cells

fibroblasts - fibers of connective tissue

est. framework 0 macrophages - pathogens to kill

transport matenals mast cells - stimulate to deal wimpact recovery defense from invasion lymphocytes - produce Tcells to fight pathogens Neutrophils / Eosinophils - remove debris recruit

protect organs & support Melanocytes - produce melanin

cally adipocytes - store lipids Ifat for energy

- store energy ☺ classificahon of connective

connective tissue proper -less fiber is loose and scattered

more fiber is dense and packed 243) Fluid + supporting connective Hissues

9

Study Soup

Connechve Tissue nas

fixed cells): stationary ; local mantenance, repair om energy storage wandering: defend it repour 75 guer

"gas stochon

de

repair 4 enerov storiae

CHAPTER 4

INTE GUMENTARY SYSTEM

Basic Functions:

• Biggest organ 1 protection from environment

. work win immune system

• absorbs vitamin D3 (co2+ bones)

Cutaneous contains

Epidermis (top)

proiect, permeable, sensory immune Dermis (under epi)

contains papillary rehcular

Epidermis

30 cell layers thick ; dead; flat; no - Stratum, nudeus ; water resistant

corneum "insensible perspiraton" soo mL evaporated

H20 from body sheds "dead skin" - stratum = thick skin ; 1-2 cells thick ; dead; flat ;

lucidum

no nucleus 9 Stratum granulosum = 2 cell layer ; last layer for cells alive

- Contains kerahoocytes Stratum

with Kerato hyalin → form granuoles

keratin filaments form filament strands Crate of production influenced by environment) w 1 frichon = 1 keratohyalın + keratin =

thick skin callus formation Stratum

Granubles form ECM A releases via exatosis basale

for rich nipids .

- water resistant to protect nutrients innermost ; new cells i melanocytes Lproduce melanin) Merkel cells (detect stimuli) * no hair

basale cells form keratinocytes L cell layer

19)

100

DIDIOT 727177

* Fingerprint from epidermalnoge (dermis déral populla contouring w) basale) skin color

Blood Supply : via a routes (superficial deep veins)

~ blood on superficial exposed to heat

* poor circulation - cyanosis Thickness: vanes compared to palms of soles of feet carotene : orange from Keratinocytes ; converked to vitamin A, for eyes Melanin: from melanocytes 5 goes to keratinocyres

# produced = color of skin

Dermis

hour

shaft

Sweat Glands ~ Apocrine:

part of cytoplasm

is lost Merocrine :

cytoplasm not

lost

100

dermau papilla e

papillary

arrector pili muscle : "goose bumps"

sweat gland: watery

Reticular

sebaceous gland: dily

hour follide

adipose tissue

Hair

inner medulla : Soft , flexible outer cortex hard keratin staff cuncte: dead kerahnized cells coating hour

Hair structure

innermost

Follide strictures

outermost cutidé s internal VOD+ 7 ex Hernal routo

sheath

sheath

medula >

cortex.

me

Nail

lunula : pale crescent out base

-→ hyponychium : hoids dirt

noul body : cover nail bed

CHAPTER 5

Skeleton System

Bones

Connective Tissues

(cartilage 4 ligaments)

Funchons :

support, protect, move, produce blood cells, stort minerals + homeostasis

Bone Structure

(Matrix : Spong y loone

blood vessels

Calcium phosphate - medullary cavity

-hard bone - endosteum: cell thick unes medullary cavity

- excess crates bone A periosteum : prolechoniatach

- less than stored amount compact

lolood vessels

goes into body loone

Collagen Obers

- not too britie bone

- helps with flexibility Bone Cells

Osteocytes : in bone matrix i nutrients provided

Osteoblast : "bone building" --becomes osteocyte

Osteoclas+ : "remove bone enzymes eat at bone Maintenance. Remodeling

Resting - Resorption → Reversal

- Matrix → Mineralizaton Osteoclast eats smoothed out Depositon osteocytes trappeal

out bone

mononuclear cells osteoblasks

In mathx to start

secrete matrix bone marerairzatvor * Remodel + rearowth affected by

essential nutrients, vitamins, hormones (sex, parathyroid, calatonin) Calcium Homeostasis

Normal Blood

Ca2+ levels

ca zt & Cimbalance)

limbalance)

Caicitonin released from thyroid

Release PTH hormone from PTGands

Blood

1 caz+ in kidneys

Ca2+ deposit in bones corteoblast)

& Ca 2+ in kidneys

Cazt

release Ca 2+ from bones loy osteoclasts

"resorption"

Blood Ca 2+ 4

10012+ in inteshnes

Types Of Bones

Compact "cortical" : outer bone

osteons ~ lamellae "rings" wcentro canal : allows blood into bone

noshocytes : dots in oston to

maintain lamelge

no canaliculi : communicaton

between ulls

Spongy cancellous - Trubecular"

~ inner bone i spacious

a trabeculae forms lattice n branching network

Long Bone

epi

epiphysis : nas bone marow

spongy covered by corncal

meta

dioph

diapnusis : clense bone; maunly

corncou; more stress here

* Skeleton is hyaline

carnlage 1st * Osteogenesis :

formation of bone * Coucification:

calcium into bone,

meta

2.0

metaphysis : wide pornon ; f length

→ epiphyseal ploute i becomes

bone from carhlage articular carhlage.

Ossificahon

- Intramemorous : clavice, mandible, skul, face -Endochondrol : limbs, vertebrae, hips

Endochondra Ossfication

Bone 1

Fla+ Bones

surrounding cranial bones ribs scapula

Long Bones Sternum

limbs

Clavice Short Bones d wrist : carpals

pols

k ankie : tartals . Please

Sesamold Bones

Outline of Bone O in Diaphysis, Hyalın carhlage

chondrocytes grow 4 die

wner matrix caucifies @ in Diaphysis, blood vessels attach

on outer area. Penchondrium creales ositoplast to cover shart with thin bones (periosteum). Blood vessels move into carhlage. Osteoblast now where carniage is in Center as "Primary Ossificanon center" shaft has spongu bone - Osteod osts create medullara cavity, osteoblast Start to attack metaphysis.

Length of Bone < "Secondary Ossi cohon center"

capillanes Orteo blasts into epi metaphysis O spongy bone n epiphysis

formed epiphyseal cortlage; Osteoblast to shaft side of epiphyseal cartilage forms

bone and cornlage enlarges 0. osteoblast activity to

epiphyseal cortilage ....

forming en line length diameter

in joint in tendons "pebble like "

parella

Sou

Irregular bones

vertebral columns hip bones cranium based

CHAPTER 6

Axial

Axial bones are skull, thorax + vertebral column

Skull

SUV SOU

Neuro cranium : upper - protects braun Viscero cranium: involves

, protects tissues

Anterior

·

O Frontal Bone : forehead @ Parietal Bone side of neurocranium ,

Temporal Bone : sides deep near ear; has

organs of hearing O capital Bone: nape of neck sphenoid

Rethmoid? more internal

zygomatic : cheekbone * Maxilla : upper teeth wl bony palate romer bottom of middle nasal septum

Lateral infenor nasal concha : turbinares y separate bones

jutting out ; regulate air HOW mandible: hold botom teeth palanne : postenor to bony polare Lacrimal 5 teardluct

Nasal bone Is Supra orbital foramen : hole above orbit

above eye socket for a nerve fb Ophe Canal: craniou nerve passage i nerve

that connect eye + broun Infra orbital foramen: under orbit

Inferior Superor Orbital fissure : long hole

Inferor Orbital fissure : innerorlott 29 External Acoustic meatus : hole outside ear 3D internal Acoushc meatus : Hauditory complex 2 Mastaid process : lump 9 styloid process 29 Mandibular Fossa: arhculaton for mandible 5 Mandibular foramen ; inside of mandible 2 Mentos foramen: chin outside of mandible 21 Ocupial condyle :joint for o capitol 28 poglosso canal : underoccipital condyle 29 Foramen magnum: for spinal cord

32 cartid canal 30 sugular foramen: for jugular vein

palate

-

Sphenoid "Butterfly a Sella Turcica : horse saddle ; holds pituitary gland Ophc Canal Foramen Rotundum

on

"

Ovale

Spinosum

Eth mold

perpendicular plate: thin piece of bone down nasal cavity Cnsta qolla: point Cribnform plate: little holes for olfactory nervermell

* Mandıble contains alveolar pourt for tooth roott

CHAPTER 6

Axial

Cl-C7

Ti-112

Thoracic Cage Cribs 4 stemum) + Vertebral Column (oui vertebrae) Vertebral column Curves

cervical L a flexibility

• supports torso weight

Kil: toracic "Lordosis" -anteriorly bend

"kyphosis" - posteriorly bend

• develop cures over time

lumbar. L. Abnormalities

* Hyperkyphosis : "hunchback

sachim Hyperlordosts: significant abdomen weight "pregnancy e coccyx -Scoliosis: overcurvature laterally

LI-LS

Common for All vertebrae (except ci)

* Centra : round body out anterior i holds weight of each * Transverse process : from transverse piane (L4R); muscles attach here * Spinous process: right down spine ; "bumpy feel of spine * Vertebral foramen : hole for spinal column

CERVICAL

CI & C2

CI: Atas C2: AXIS

occipital condyle : allows connection to C7

*goint lets you shake"yes" Dens: in axts; body for attas; shaks

up where centra showd be Transverse ligament: hoids dens to atas

and allows ino" movement * Transverre Foramen: holds arienes to

Ir supply blodd to braun

oll Other

THORACIC

TI-T12

* Ahach to ribs by centrum + transverre processes * costal Facets : rib surfaces to attach

LUMBAR L1-L5 abdomen region no special attributes

f

Intervertebrou

-DISCs : carnlage separating Joint

conne chng centra together -Arncular process : arculanon

amongst vertebraes ..- Vertebral canal: joining of

vertebrau foramen to form

a long canal for spinal tube -Intervertebral foramina

left right when vertebrae joined ; spinal nerves through here

Sacrim

- fared out when connected

to hip bone -sacral body: 154 vertebrae

where Lš joins -1916: Flarer for weight - Soural foramina: 2 holes for spinal --Sacral hiatus : bottom back

expose verebral canal to environment les -Coccyx

restes

Stemum * flexible allowing expansion for lungs Manubrum

Vertebrosterna (Trie) attach to stemum va costa cartilage (1-7) vertebrochondral (false) attach to sterum but is* fuse (8-10)

with other ribs Vertebrau (Ho ahng> atach to vertebrae only (11-12)

*wide tall Xiphold process

Body

Rib

Structure

no costal face to on

trans verte process + centnim

tubercle of rib

attaches

head attaches

neck costal groove

pocket" seen in pustenor

CHAPTER 7

Appendicular

Pectoral Girdle : clavideos Pelvic Girdle : coxal

PECTORAL GIRDLE

Clavide

superior

Antenor surface

acromial end e attaches to acromion

on scapula

Study Soun

condial

tubercle ligament attachee

for stabilizaton

Sternal end attaches to sternum

Inferior Surface

**

Costou

tuberosity

Scapwa

coracoid

process for muscler

SAN

-

andligament

223

- Quromial

process

"spine"

supraspinous

fossa superdrto pine

glenoid

O fossa holds humenus

head

Anterior

Posterior

Subscapular

fossa Targe depression

infraspinous

fossa inferior to

spine

These bones allow :

Elevaton + Depression : (shnugging) Protrachon a Retrachon: (punch + pull back) lateral /Medial Rotahon : raise arm + down

Study Soup

Anterior

Posterior HUMEKU

head afenoid fossa

for

greater

tubercle : muscles

* Epicondyles :

above condyles for muscles ligament to attaci

for

less er tubercle : murcles

anatomical

surgical

neck

heck

interhibercular groove

depression for biceps brachu

murdes

* can turn

deltoid tuberosity

for deltold musde

arms in to supine form "Supinates or "pronare"

for radius on top of wna.

laterad 2picondyle

olecranon

fossa. ulna when not

bent medias

coronoid fossa Wina when bent

Mepicondyle

IV

radial fossa radius sitt when

bent

» Shad SOU

trochlea Haut; uin a Attaches here

capitulum

round, radius attaches

Studs

head

12vole cranon process

Shets out when arm bends -trochlear noten: aligns with trochlea coronoid process

goes into coronoid fossa

on humenis

radiat

HEAD

notch

radial

liberosity

Pollex: thumb

um 2o1da

Lape no cap

tate

e nama

ed

fraperium

trapezoid.ee

* Radius physically attached to carpals not

ulna

scap, capitale

suna hamare

friquetrum

- pisiform

I carpals

interdsseus membrane

metacarpals

7 proximou middle distal

phalanges

ulnar

notch uinar

for

head

Styloid

head distaus

process

radius Lateral

ulna Medial

CHAPTER 7

Appendicular

Pelvic Girdle : coxal bone

girolle connects to axial skeleton mia pelvis

iliacerest: rough for

ligament * muscle

Hachment

11ac

fossa

whil

sacroiliac joint

sacrum

greater scianc

notch attachment for

> muscles #liqaments Lesser sciocc u ate nerve"

notch tacetabulum: femur head attaches

here

siand

is chrum

obturator, passage of obturator

foramen : vein nerve

ischio

Spine ischiau tuberosity bumpy projechon

sit on

pubic symphysis

• Abrocarhlage in pregnancy hormone relax in flexible during childbirth

Femur

iarnculates w/

Delvis

Head: acetabulum

Male

- Neck

greater

trochanter

* taller

rounder

• narrow center of pelvis

Female * shorter

wider . more space

below pubic

• center of:

lesser

trochanter

e

pelvis is wider

huberosity for

gluteal : rough

potch

muscle als pera rough line

linea

down shaf

mediou

epicondyle

dos

-lateral

Patella * type of sesamoid bone

sesamoid bones in tendon to

reduce fachon * Arhcular surface

with femur / patellar.surface * within quadnceps femors tendon * has a patellar 12gament

ottached to tibia

epicondyle lateral Condule articulate w)

tibia for kne

Anterior

Postenor

patellar

surface. arhcutate femur

patella

mecloud.arnculate w/ condyle hold for knee

Soup

Fibula

Tibia

TOSH

-lateral

Fibular head

"flat" condyles pemur medial

arculates condyle 'tbiau huberosty

for ligament that holds

patella in piace

* Pemur

arh cuiales with Hbia *cant

pronate rotate

cuntenor tablou margin: crest

sharp border -interosseus

on front of membrane

shin

Shadys

saterou

meella malleolus

malleolus for attachment near ankle

Antenor

Foot

Abula

-hibia

medial malleolus

trochtea: surface of talus

lateral malleolus

- talus:tabiat

TUTUS. fhula here eoul couneus

Wheel 4 navicular

- cuneiform

tarsals

cuboid

metatarrals

Hallur

phalanges

*under foot

sesamoid on hallux

metatarra! * tendons out bottom of

foot bend bly tot 4 all of weight relies here at some point * longitudinal arch

under foot for

locomohon *arch maintained

by caucaneo-navicular

ligament

"spring" * Hat foot · fallen arches

CHAPTER 8.

Arhculatons

Joints

classified by motion or connective tissue type

O Synorthrosis - immovable

Amphiarthrosis - 811ghtly movable

- © Diarthrosis - freely mt

Hole "synoviou os fiber

carhlage"

Abrous Carnilaginous craniol suture epiphyseal interosseous mem. pubic symphs

Joint in limb

* Sutures : 2 bones joined wl fibrous tissue

· * syndesmosis: a bones joined by nigament

*Synchondrosis : 2 arculating bones joined by rigid, carnlage * Symphysis: 2 bones joined by Abrocartilaginous joint Diarthrosis

Joint Strichure

menols of each joint has arhcuour cartilage to help with frichon * should obdrphon wat joint coupsule has a layers outer white Qvascular fibrous layer and

inner synovial membrane

the synovial membrane decretes fuld to All up carity Synovio Fud O lubricahon

nourish chondrocyte * shock absorption Accessory Structures

Meniscus fibrous carnage pad to absorb shocic Extracapsular ligament :

is bone to bone to limit movement Intracapsular ligament: Tendon : allows movement to be made Bursa : separates synonio mem of fuld Joint Strength vs Mobility

shape of articular surface (ex: shoulder vs hip) types / quanhty of accessory structures (ligaments vs tendon amount)

Joint Movements

EU

Type of

Movement

Examples

Fype of Lo coton Coronal

CAppendicular)

Abduchon) Adduction

shoulder, hip, wrist metacarpo + tarso phalangeal

Flexion / Extension

Sagittau

(Appendicular

Axis)

vertebral column joints, elbow, hip, knee, wrist, fingers, + toe

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