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AMH Exam #1 Study GuideAMERICA’S GILDED AGE, THE SOUTH AND WEST (1870s and 1880s)T he Redeemers and the “New South”TextilesTobacco MiningThe Situation for African AmericansVoting SharecroppingMigrationIndustries Commercial FarmingMining RailroadReconstruction: the period (1865–77) that followed the Civil War and during which attempts were made to redress the inequities of slavery and its political, social, and economic legacy Redemption: the overthrow or defeat of Radical Republican (white and black) by white democrats marking the end of the Reconstruction era in the South. Redeemer: a political coalition in the South during the Reconstruction era, who sought to overthrow the Radical Republican coalition. Sharecropping: a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops Exodusters: African Americans who migrated from states along the Mississippi River to Kansas in the late nineteenth century.Homesteaders: settlers who brought cheap land from the federal government Railroad Monopolies: railroad companies that were in competition for exposure in the West.LIFE AND POLITICS IN AMERICA’S GILDED AGE, THE NORTH (1870s and 1880s)Monopolies The Standard Oil Company (John D. Rockefeller)The Carnegie Steel Company (Andrew Carnegie) Vertical and horizontal IntegrationThe groups:“Old” vs. “New” Immigrants Issue divides along the lines of race and class
Tariffs If you’re from an area in the US with a large manufacturing base, you like high tariffs (Less competition easier and more profitable for companies in your area to sell their goods better for your area’s industries and economy).If you’re from an area in the US without a large manufacturing base, you like low tariffs (More competition price of goods is cheaper).Political CoalitionsRepublican Coalition:+Nativeborn whites in the North, esp. in the upper and middle classes (Favor high tariffsand temperance)+African Americans (Party of Lincoln, party that pushed the for Blacks to become citizens) Democratic Coalition+Native born whites in the South (Want low tariff) +Urban immigrants and the working class in the North (Oppose temperance)Presidential Election of 1880North favored Republicans South favor DemocratsWest: are swing states James Garfield, Republican, becomes president.Government Officials focused primarily on: Patronage (strengthening their political organization) TariffsLaissezfaire towards regulation Very limited steps towards fighting corruptionMonopolies: a single seller, selling a unique product. Lack of competition, higher prices and inferior products.Trusts: stockholders of competing corporation turn in their stuck to trustees in exchange for a trust certificate entitling them to a dividend.Standard Oil Company: the largest oil refinery formed in 1863. In 1870, Rockefeller bought up all the other competition and formed them into one large company. Ended in 1911, because of the US Supreme Court claims that it was an illegal monopoly. Carnegie Steel Company: Corporation under the leadership of Andrew Carnegie that came to dominate the American steel industry “Old” Immigration Northern or western Europe, protestant, literate and skilled, came before 1880’s “New” Immigration: Southern and eastern Europeans, Catholic/ orthodox/ Jewish, illiterate
and unskilled, came after 1880’s Tenements: Shabby, lowcost innercity apartment buildings that housed the urban poor in cramped, poorly ventilated apartments Political Machines: A network of political activists and elected officials, usually controlled by a powerful ‘boss,” that attempts to manipulate local politics Temperance: A widespread reform movement, led by militant Christians, focused on reducing the use of alcoholic beverages. Tariffs: Shabby, lowcost innercity apartment buildings that housed the urban poor in cramped, poorly ventilated apartments Patronage: giving privilege or financial encouragement to a person or organization.LaissezFaire: French for “leave alone or to allow to do.” An economic and political doctrine that holds that economies function most efficiently when not messed with by the government.Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act: passed to regulate and improve the civil service. Supposed to break the Spoil System. It was signed in 1883.Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC): Signed in 1887. Designed to regulate the railroad industry and provide rates that are reasonable and just.Sherman AntiTrust Act: Signed in 1890. The first federal act that outlawed monopolies and trusts.UNION MEMBERS, FARMERS, AND POPULISTS IN THE 1890sFarmersCost of manufactured equipment is high Thirdparty costs are high (Transportation, Storage)Prices for crops down Consequently, many farmers take out loans, go deeply into debtFarmers FightCreates the People’s Party: Historians refer to the members of this group as the Populists Populists Want: Governmental control of railroads, Creation of a graduated national income tax,Coinage of silverGold vs. Silver In the 1880s and ‘90s, US backs papermoney with gold (monometallism)Populists want US to back paper $ with gold AND silver (bimetallism) Since silver was a less scarce commodity than gold its use drives down the value of paper money (in other words, it has less purchasing power). This causes prices of goods to rise, so a farmer gets more money selling his crop, while the amount of his debt stays constant. It’s then easier for him to pay off his debts.Bimetallism helps farmers and people in debt – but it is opposed by groups Labor Unions: organized employees created for the purpose of employeeemployer relations.
Strikes: an organized collective work stoppage caused by mass refusal of employees to work. Haymarket Riot: a labor protest against the labor movement. In Chicago, someone threw a bomb at the police, at least eight people died. Homestead Steel Strike: a violent labor strike against Carnegie Steel Company, to oppose wage cut. Pullman Strike: a national strike that shut down the country’s railroad system for laying workers off and slashing their wages. Populists: a political party representing the common people, advocate the free coinage of silver, and the government control of monopolies. Monometalism: the support of paper money with gold.Bimetallism: the support of paper money with both silver and gold. Presidential Election of 1892: Republican strong in north east. Democratic strong in south east. Populist strong in west (wins 5 states). Presidential Election of 1896: Voter turnout was unexpected. Bryan carried most of the states and won presidency. William McKinley: the 25th president, a supporter of big businesses and high protective tariffs. He was a Republican. William Jennings Bryan: the opponent of Mckinley, favored free silver. He was a Democrat.AMERICAN IMPERIALISM IN CUBA, PANAMA, AND THE PHILLIPINESThe SpanishAmerican WarCuban War for Independence (18951898) “Remember the Maine” (February 1898)Battle of Manilla Bay (May 1898) Cuba (July 1898, Theodore Roosevelt, Jack Pershing)The PhilippineAmerican War (18981902)Spoils of war+Puerto Rico+Cuba +The PhilippinesWhy keep the Philippines?+National prestige+Commercialism +Sense of racial superiorityElection of 1900William Mckinley wins presidency. Mckinley assassinated in 1901. His Vice President, Theodore Roosevelt takes over presidency.Operation of the Progressives Identify a social ill
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