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BGSU - GEOG 1250 - Class notes week 1 - 3 and 5 - Class Notes

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BGSU - GEOG 1250 - Class notes week 1 - 3 and 5 - Class Notes

School: Bowling Green State University
Department: Geography
Course: Weather and Climate
Professor: Marius Paulikas
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: weather, climate, #IntrotoWeatherandClimate, weather and climate, Climate and Weather, Geology, and geology notes
Name: Class notes week 1 - 3 and 5
Description: Class notes week 1 - 3 and 5
Uploaded: 02/09/2018
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background image Weather and Climate - GEOG 1250   Week 1-3 and 5   
 
Week 1: Weather maps/ basic variables  
● Climate - long term atmospheric conditions (years) 
● Weather - short term atmospheric conditions  
● Sun - the earth’s energy source (makes life and weather possible) 
○ Uneven amounts of energy cause differences in weather and climate around the  world  ● Energy content of the atmosphere = atmospheric temperature  ○ Higher energy = higher temp 
○ Lower energy = lower temp 
● Water content in the atmosphere = ex: clouds, humidity, rain, dew point 
● Force exerted by atmosphere = atmospheric pressure  
● Temperature = energy content in the atmosphere (daily cycles of the sun)  
● Dew point temp. = how much water vapor is present in the atmosphere 
  ○ Low dew point = low water present  
○ High dew point = high water 
● Pressure: more gas present = more weight = more pressure   ○ Molecules will transfer from areas with more molecules to air with less molecules  in order to fill the empty space → this movement creates wind flow    ● The station model = diagram on a weather map providing info for a given region      ● Pressure calculation:  ○ Average pressure: 1013mb 
○ # begins with 0, 1, 2 
■ Ex: 138mb → add 10 to the front (10138) → move decimal once (1013.8)  ○ # begins with 8 or 9  ■ Ex: 896 → add 9 to the front (9896) → move decimal once (989.6)  ● Average atmospheric pressure = 1000mb  ○ For every increase of 5.6km → mb decrease by ½ 
background image ○ @0km = 1000mb 
○ @5.6km = 500 mb 
○ @11.2km = 250 mb 
○ @16.8km = 125 mb 
○ @22.4km = 62.5 mb 
○ @28km = 31.25 mb 
○ @33.6km = 15.635 mb 
○ @39.2km = 7.8125 mb 
● Permanent gases = consistent in atmospheric conditions regardless of location (oxygen  and nitrogen)  ● Variable gases = fluctuate in concentrations depending on landscape, climate or both   ○ Water vapor (higher at the equator, lower at the poles) Depending on the  temperature may be highest in concentration in some areas  ○ CO2 (more in urban areas, less in vegetative areas because they absorb CO2)  ■ Emissions reach annual peak in winter (less plants to absorb) and annual  low in summer  ○ Methane (CH4) (cattle farms and factories) absorbs energy from the earth  
○ Ozone (O3) (more sunlight = more ozone → near equator)  
■ Airborne solids: dust, ash, etc. destroy the ozone  ● Atmospheric water vapor = Is constant and is influenced by long term climate condition  and landscape   ○ Warmer air carries more energy 
○ Water and warmer air = evaporation 
○ Greatest evaporation rates are over the ocean especially near the equator  
● Greenhouse gas = have ability to absorb outgoing radiative energy from the earth, this  absorption has a warming effect on the atmosphere   ○ Ex: water vapor, CO2, methane  ● Parts per million = “ppm”  ○ Ex: 5ppm 
○ Ppm = ([numerical value] / 1,000,000) x 100% 
○ Answer = (5 / 1,000,000) x 100 = 0.0005ppm 
● Percentage increase =  ([1st year data - 2nd year data] / [1st year data]) x 100% 
● Isotherms = lines of equal temp. 
● Isobars = lines of equal pressure  
○ “Iso” = same  ● Lapse rate = rate of change in temperature relative to the atmospheric height   ○ Lapse rate = (initial temp. - final temp.) / atmospheric distance  ● Inversion = warming of the atmosphere that occurs w increasing altitude  
● Pressure = weight of air in atmosphere 
● Air density = amount of molecules in a given area 
● Barometer → used to measure pressure  
○ Effects of change in pressure:boiling point change ( low pressure + low energy =  low boiling point), hard to breathe, ears popping, item travel further when thrown  
background image ● Atmosphere = mixture of gases, solid and liquid particles  ○ Border of the atmosphere and outer space @ 100km  ● Early atmosphere consisted mostly of hydrogen and helium    ○ Current atmosphere is formed by volcanic eruptions (water vapor, CO2, and  nitrogen) and photosynthesis (oxygen)  ● Layers of the atmosphere = are identified by their temperature   ○ Temp= average kinetic energy possessed by atoms  
○ Higher temp = faster molecule motion  
  ● Troposphere:   ○ 80% of all weather occurs 
○ Atmosphere frequently overturns  
● Stratopause:  ○ Protects from UV rays (ozone layer) 
○ Smooth air for planes 
● Mesosphere:  ○ Meteors burn up here→ large amount of molecules cause friction thus the meteor  burns up  ● Thermosphere:  ○ Low pressure and density  
○ Gasses get hot because of sun’s rays  
○ Molecules move very fast = higher temp. 
 
Week 2: Earth - sun relationships  
 
● Orbit of the sun - uneven distribution of solar energy is responsible for creating warmer  climates near the equator and colder near the poles  ● Earth orbits the sun at a distance of 150 kilometers (93 million miles) 

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School: Bowling Green State University
Department: Geography
Course: Weather and Climate
Professor: Marius Paulikas
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: weather, climate, #IntrotoWeatherandClimate, weather and climate, Climate and Weather, Geology, and geology notes
Name: Class notes week 1 - 3 and 5
Description: Class notes week 1 - 3 and 5
Uploaded: 02/09/2018
8 Pages 29 Views 23 Unlocks
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