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BYU-I - CHEM 101 - Study Guide - Midterm

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BYU-I - CHEM 101 - Study Guide - Midterm

School: Brigham Young University - Idaho
Department: Chemistry
Course: Introduction to General Chemistry
Professor: Robert Willis
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: General Chemistry
Name: EXAM 3 Study Guide and Notes
Description: Covalent and Ionic Bonds, Lewis Structures and VSEPER Diagrams. Special add-on for Polyatomic Ions
Uploaded: 02/09/2018
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background image EXAM 3 Study Guide! IONIC COMPOUNDS- a bond formed between positive and negative elements. 
Usually between a metal and a nonmetal. See periodic table for negative and 
positive charges. 
All you do for Ionics is to name and balance them.  Ex. KCl, Potassium=+1,  Chlorine=-1= Balanced.  Potassium Chloride.   Example- Sodium wants more to be a -2 ion, its more stable state, so it will easily 
give some electrons to other things. 
Octet rule-  - Associated with the stability of the noble gas, same electron configuration.  - He is stable with two electrons.  Naming-  - Metal comes first than nonmetal.  - Names of Metals do not change in compounds.  - For gases, an ide is added to the name. Nitride, Phosphide, Oxide, etc.  - Transition metals can form more than one positive ion.  - For those Metals, you add a roman numeral to identify which ionic charge it 
has. Ex. FeCl
2 = Iron(II) Chloride, Cu 2 S= Copper (I) Sulfide,  Metals whose charge that do not change- Alkaline, Alkaline Earth Metals, as 
well as Silver (+1), Zinc and Cadmium (+2) Aluminum (+3) 
Atom and Ion Size-  - Positive ions lose their electrons, smaller, about half its size, than the natural 
atom
- Negative ion increases the number of valence electrons, about twice as large 
as the original atom
Polyatomic Ions  AKA the Stuf you have to memorize- included on separate sheet.  - These come about when two ions mix together. Usually between two 
nonmetals, though there is some metals involved. 
Covalent Bonds and Lewis Structures Naming Covalent Compounds-  - Name the first nonmetal as the element.  - End the second nonmetal with an ide ending.  - Indicate the number of atoms with prefixes. 
background image - Ex. Mono=1, Di=2, Tri=3, Tetra=4, Penta=5, Hexa=6, Hepta=7, Octa=8, 
Nona=9, Deca=10 
- H 2 Cl = DiHydrogen TriChloride,  - Monoxide is only used rarely.  Lewis Structure helps show us where the electrons are being shared. A drawn-out 
diagram. 
- Order of bonded atoms in a covalent compound.  - The bonding pairs of electrons - The unshared alone valence electrons - Central atom with an octet Hydrogen= 1 bond
Boron= 3 bonds
Carbon and Silicon= 4 bonds
Nitrogen and Phosphorus- 3 bonds
Oxygen and Sulfur= 2 bonds
Halogens- 1 bond
Bonding- Single bond- one pair of electrons shared, Double bond- two pairs of 
electrons shared, triple bond is three pairs of electrons. 
HOW TO WRITE LEWIS STRUCTURE 1. Sum up the valence electrons for all atoms. If necessary, adjust to account for charge.  2. Central atom is generally the first atom listed, the first non-hydrogen  element, place the others around it. 3. Attach the central atom to each bonded atom using one pair of electrons.  Subtract electrons used from the total number of valence electrons available. 4. Beginning with surrounding non hydrogens, add electrons as lone pairs to  complete octets.  5. Add any leftover electrons as lone pairs on the central atom
6. If octets are still not complete, use a lone pair from a non-central atom to 
form a double or triple bond with the central atom.   Some elements always come in pairs, diatomic elements. H 2 , N 2 , O 2 , F 2 , Cl 2 , Br 2 , I 2  all come in twos. Names all stay the same.  Resonance Structures - Two or more electron-dot formulas for the same arrangement of atoms - Related by a double headed arrow   - Written by changing location of a double bond from the central atom to a 
different attached atom
- Sometimes written as a hybrid resonance structure   VSEPR Theory - how atoms are organized- Valence Shell Electron Pair  Repulsion Theory How groups of electrons gather around a central atom

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School: Brigham Young University - Idaho
Department: Chemistry
Course: Introduction to General Chemistry
Professor: Robert Willis
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: General Chemistry
Name: EXAM 3 Study Guide and Notes
Description: Covalent and Ionic Bonds, Lewis Structures and VSEPER Diagrams. Special add-on for Polyatomic Ions
Uploaded: 02/09/2018
5 Pages 44 Views 35 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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