LING 5307 Ped. Phonology
Quiz 1 Study Guide
Highlight = Important Principle Highlight = Important Concept Highlight = Key Term
Chapter 3 – Consonants
Phonemes and Allophones
phonemes use slanted lines / / and allophones use brackets [ ]
the English phoneme /p/ has 3 allophones: [pʰ] aspirated, [p] not aspirated, and [p˚] not released (final position).
See p. 53 for English consonants inventory
phonemes – sound differences that distinguish words (butter vs. batter) allophones – sounds that are perceptibly different but do not distinguish words (butter in British vs. American accent)
contrastive distribution – minimally distinctive units of sound that can alter the meaning of a word
positional variation – a phenomenon wherein the allophone of a phoneme that is produced depends on its position within a word
again, the [pʰ], [p], and [p˚] allophones mentioned above
phonemic alphabet – a system using a set of symbols that correspond one-to one with the sounds of a language
functional load – the respective importance of a given phoneme in making a distinction in meaning Don't forget about the age old question of Why did confederation articles not allow for amendments to be done?
See p. 61, Table 3.6, for classification of English consonants
voicing – whether vocal cords are vibrating or not
place of articulation – where the sound is made; where the contact with the articulator occurs
oral cavity – the mouth
nasal passageway – nose
articulator – the more moveable part of the articulatory system
uvula – the dangly flap at back of soft palate (that you didn’t know how to call when you were a kid)
velum – soft palate; moves to open/close nasal passageway
vocal cords – vibrating bands of tissue within the larynx (voice box)
alveolar ridge – area just behind front teeth, continues through hard
palate to velum
Main Points of Articulation (see Fig. 3.1 for visual, p. 57): dental, alveolar, palatal, velar, glottal. (also, not mentioned in the list, bilabial (lips) and Don't forget about the age old question of How does social security run?
labiodental (lip and teeth))
manner of articulation – how the airflow is affected
stop (or plosive) – airstream blocked completely before released (i.e., p, t, k, g…)
fricative – air moves through a narrow passageway created when
articulatory organ approach but do not touch, causing friction; can be
maintained as long as there is air in lungs (i.e., f, v, θ, ð, ꭍ…); a type of Don't forget about the age old question of What are negative feedback loops?
affricates – combination of a stop then a fricative (i.e., ʧ, ʤ…)
nasal – air passes through nasal cavity; they are also continuants. (m, n, ŋ)
approximant – airstream moves around the tongue and out the mouth relatively unobstructed
liquids /l/ and /r/
/l/ and be light/clear [l] or dark (velarized) [ɫ]
/r/ can be retroflexed in some NAE dialects (tongue tip
curls backwards behind the alveolar ridge)
glides (or semivowels) /y/ and /w/
Using a Communicative Framework to Teach Pronunciation
/l/ and /r/ activities
raise awareness of how they occur in English by choosing a topic (colors, directions, body parts, etc.)
practice listening discrimination with minimal pair sentences
Activities for Controlled practice/feedback: Colored Cuisenaire rods, Simon Says, directions and place names, using photos of familiar locations for discussion Guided practice with feedback: information-gap activity with monthly calendar (optionally famous people) If you want to learn more check out How is water related ro political conflict?
Communicative practice/feedback: using list of /r/ and /l/ words to create stories, role plays
Teaching Other Consonant Contrasts
5 steps to remember when developing communicative activities: see p. 72 1. Identify students’ specific problem areas
2. Find lexical / grammatical contexts with many natural occurrences of the problem sounds
3. Draw on these contexts to develop activities for analysis and listening that will assist Ss in understanding ad recognizing target sounds. Don't forget about the age old question of What role did the frenchindian war play in britishamerican tensions?
4. Using contexts chosen, develop a progression of controlled, guided, and communicative tasks that incorporate the sounds for practice.
5. For each stage of practice, develop two or three activities so the target sounds can be recycled and practiced again in new contexts.
/ʒ/ in word endings, see Table 3.11, p. 73
/θ/and /ð/, “The Family Tree”, Figure 3.8, 3.9
/ʧ/ and /ʤ/, Shopping interview, Figure 3.10
/n/ and /ŋ/, Figure 3.11
The Effect of Environment on Consonant Quality
Consonants can occur syllable initial, final, intervocalic, initial clusters, and final clusters
Not all consonants can occur in all environments
See Appendix 4 (p. 461) for list of where all consonants can occur
Phonemes can behave differently in different positions
Initial and Final Stop Consonants:
/p, t, k/ are different from /b, d, g/ in aspiration, the brief puff of air that accompanies allophones of these phonemes
/p, t, k/ are aspirated word initially We also discuss several other topics like How does ecg measure cardiac activity?
/p, t, k/ are aspirated in medial position if they begin a stressed syllable (opPOSE, apPALL)
/p, t, k/ and /b, d, g/ are often not released (process of articulation not completed) in final position (diacritic [˚])
In final position, the vowel before the stop is short if the stop is voiceless and lengthened ([ː]) if the stop is voiced (pick vs. pig)
vowel length – refers to if the vowel is short or long
NAE flap [ɾ]:
Flap replaces /t/ or /d/ when they occur after a vowel or /r/ and before an unstressed syllable (data, putting, started, ladder)
flap – tongue touches or flaps against alveolar ridge only very briefly Can occur word finally if next word starts with a vowel and is stressed /n/ can also become a nasalized flap (winter/winner)
Fricatives and Affricates:
sibilants (high turbulent sound) vs. nonsibilants (less friction and energy), see p. 81
Vowels are lengthened when voiced fricatives/affricates occur word finally (grace vs. graze), similar to the rule for stops
/n/ and /l/ can become syllabic, or vowel-like (kitten, tunnel)
notated by diacritic mark [ˌ]
glottal stop – a sound formed when vocal cords close tightly so that air cannot pass between them
See Figure 3.22 on p. 99 re: all consonant clustering options in English Even native speakers utilize cluster reduction (dropping a consonant to make it easier to pronounce) i.e., asked becomes /æst/
Native speakers also utilize resyllabification – moving the final consonant to the next word if it starts with a vowel
Chapter 4 - Vowels
NAE Vowel System and Classification
Vowels are the peak of a syllable. They are harder to define but require using vocal cords (in English anyway) with no obstruction in the vocal tract.
14 vowels, per textbook: 11 simple vowels (no accompanying glide movement) and vowel-glide combos (accompanied by /y/ or /w/ as in pain /ey/ or stone /ow/), and 3 diphthongs (vowel followed by nonadjacent glide within same syllable, as in boy). p. 115
NOTE: what the textbook refers to as vowel-glide combos, many other resources simply include as diphthongs.
The vowel quadrant: high, mid, low refers to how tongue rises and drops; front, central, back refers to where highest point of tongue is rising, from front to back of mouth. See Figs. 4.1, 4.2 on p. 116
Lips can be rounded, spread (in varying degrees), or neutral (neither rounded nor spread (Fig. 4.3)
Vowels can be tense or lax, referring to how much the lip/mouth muscles are engaged in producing the sound (p. 117)
Tense vowels tend towards diphthongization whereas the lax ones don’t. Tense can be open (syllables without a final consonant sound, ‘tea, law’) or closed syllables (syllables terminating in a consonant, ‘team, pop’); lax are only closed syllables
PER DANIEL, the book is not correct on this. Vowel classification is not about muscle tenseness or laxness. This was a former prevalent thought in the field, since disproven.
See Table 4.2 Classification of Vowels
vowels are lengthened before final voiced consonant
sonorant – voiced sound that can function as the peak of a syllable, e.g., all vowels, semivowls (glides) /w, y/, nasals, and liquids /l, r/
/r/-coloring occurs when a vowel immediately precedes an /r/ and they are the stressed syllable. See list on p. 127
/ɜʳ/ is the 15th vowel per textbook (‘bird’)
/l/-coloring: the dark /l/ at ending pulls vowel sounds back further into vocal tract. Often produces /ʊ/-like quality.
pool vs. pull (dark /l/= [ɫ]). Doesn’t change the vowel, the vowel is just being pulled back by the /l/
When nasal precedes vowel, slight nasal coloring occurs; when nasal follows vowel, there is more coloring. When vowel is sandwiched between 2 nasals, the most nasal coloring occurs.
nasalized – velum is partially open during vowel sound
reduced vowels – tendency of vowel to be reduced (usually to schwa) when in an unstressed position (‘able’ vs. ‘ability’)
/ə/ (schwa) is most commonly occurring reduced vowel (and its r-colored variant). There are 4 others: ɪ, i, o, u. Which one is uttered depends largely on dialect and context. citation form – form with a stressed vowel when the word is spoken alone, out of context reduced form – the version of the word that usually occurs in natural speech
Presenting the Vowel System to Students
Start with teaching articulatory characteristics
Due to the disparage between English vowel sounds and orthography, some system is needed to help students differentiate vowel sounds that does not rely on the written form.
Graphics for vowel lengthening
Phonetic symbols if students are more advanced
Color-coding system for lower level students (see Table 4.12, p. 138)
Listening Discrimination: start with a limited set of contrasting words then build up to the full set
Vowel discrimination worksheets: Circle the picture of the word you hear worksheets for lower level students or circle the word (see Figs. 4.10-12).
Controlled Practice and Feedback
After assessing students’ abilities to distinguish vowel sounds via some method like the discrimination worksheets, next should come oral production practice. For this to be “communicative” it’s important to find a way to elicit natural production in the classroom. How you go about this depends largely on the proficiency level of your students but generally starting with a category is good (body parts, countries, etc.)
Other ideas (p. 141-148): Dialogues, minimum pair sentences (partners), pronunciation bingo, drawing pictures, Bowen technique
Guided Practice with Feedback:
involves students taking more active role in producing language in at least sentence-long utterances
Ideas (p. 149-153): Family Tree activity, Information-gap activities, Simon Says, List of vowels with communicative meaning, chain drills, Who’s who info gap
Communicative Practice and Feedback
meant to put to practice the new info learned in controlled and guided practice more creatively and genuinely.
Ideas (p. 155-158): modified hangman (for young learners), strip story (arrange a story), using color cards or art cards, role play, poetry writing (with limerick template), computer dating match