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UTA / Linguistics / LING 5307 / How much the lip/mouth muscles are engaged in producing the sound?

How much the lip/mouth muscles are engaged in producing the sound?

How much the lip/mouth muscles are engaged in producing the sound?


School: University of Texas at Arlington
Department: Linguistics
Course: Pedagogical Phonology of English
Professor: Daniel scarpace
Term: Spring 2018
Tags: phonology and Linguistics
Cost: 50
Name: LING 5307 Quiz 1 Study Guide
Description: These notes cover what will be in our first test, e.g., Chapters 3-4.
Uploaded: 02/11/2018
5 Pages 50 Views 2 Unlocks

LING 5307 Ped. Phonology  

How much the lip/mouth muscles are engaged in producing the sound?

Quiz 1 Study Guide

Highlight = Important Principle Highlight = Important Concept Highlight = Key Term

Chapter 3 – Consonants

Phonemes and Allophones

 phonemes use slanted lines / / and allophones use brackets [ ]  

 the English phoneme /p/ has 3 allophones: [pʰ] aspirated, [p] not aspirated, and  [p˚] not released (final position).  

 See p. 53 for English consonants inventory  

 Key Terms:  

 phonemes – sound differences that distinguish words (butter vs. batter)   allophones – sounds that are perceptibly different but do not distinguish words  (butter in British vs. American accent)  

What are the classification of vowels?

 contrastive distribution – minimally distinctive units of sound that can alter the  meaning of a word  

 positional variation – a phenomenon wherein the allophone of a phoneme that is  produced depends on its position within a word  

 again, the [pʰ], [p], and [p˚] allophones mentioned above  

 phonemic alphabet – a system using a set of symbols that correspond one-to one with the sounds of a language  

 functional load – the respective importance of a given phoneme in making a  distinction in meaning  Don't forget about the age old question of Why did confederation articles not allow for amendments to be done?

Consonant Inventory  

 See p. 61, Table 3.6, for classification of English consonants  

 Key Terms:  

What are the 5 steps of communication process?

 voicing – whether vocal cords are vibrating or not  

 place of articulation – where the sound is made; where the contact with the  articulator occurs  

 oral cavity – the mouth  

 nasal passageway – nose  

 articulator – the more moveable part of the articulatory system  

 uvula – the dangly flap at back of soft palate (that you didn’t know how to  call when you were a kid)  

 velum – soft palate; moves to open/close nasal passageway  

 vocal cords – vibrating bands of tissue within the larynx (voice box)  

 alveolar ridge – area just behind front teeth, continues through hard  

palate to velum


 Main Points of Articulation (see Fig. 3.1 for visual, p. 57): dental, alveolar,  palatal, velar, glottal. (also, not mentioned in the list, bilabial (lips) and  Don't forget about the age old question of How does social security run?

labiodental (lip and teeth))  

 manner of articulation – how the airflow is affected  

 stop (or plosive) – airstream blocked completely before released (i.e., p, t,  k, g…)  

 fricative – air moves through a narrow passageway created when  

articulatory organ approach but do not touch, causing friction; can be  

maintained as long as there is air in lungs (i.e., f, v, θ, ð, ꭍ…); a type of  Don't forget about the age old question of What are negative feedback loops?


 affricates – combination of a stop then a fricative (i.e., ʧ, ʤ…)  

 nasal – air passes through nasal cavity; they are also continuants. (m, n,  ŋ)  

 approximant – airstream moves around the tongue and out the mouth  relatively unobstructed  

 liquids /l/ and /r/  

 /l/ and be light/clear [l] or dark (velarized) [ɫ]  

 /r/ can be retroflexed in some NAE dialects (tongue tip  

curls backwards behind the alveolar ridge)  

 glides (or semivowels) /y/ and /w/  

Using a Communicative Framework to Teach Pronunciation  

 /l/ and /r/ activities  

 raise awareness of how they occur in English by choosing a topic (colors,  directions, body parts, etc.)  

 practice listening discrimination with minimal pair sentences  

 Activities for Controlled practice/feedback: Colored Cuisenaire rods, Simon Says,  directions and place names, using photos of familiar locations for discussion   Guided practice with feedback: information-gap activity with monthly calendar  (optionally famous people)  If you want to learn more check out How is water related ro political conflict?

 Communicative practice/feedback: using list of /r/ and /l/ words to create stories,  role plays  

 Teaching Other Consonant Contrasts  

 5 steps to remember when developing communicative activities: see p. 72  1. Identify students’ specific problem areas  

2. Find lexical / grammatical contexts with many natural occurrences of the  problem sounds  

3. Draw on these contexts to develop activities for analysis and listening that  will assist Ss in understanding ad recognizing target sounds.  Don't forget about the age old question of What role did the french­indian war play in british­american tensions?

4. Using contexts chosen, develop a progression of controlled, guided, and  communicative tasks that incorporate the sounds for practice.  

5. For each stage of practice, develop two or three activities so the target  sounds can be recycled and practiced again in new contexts.  

 /ʒ/ in word endings, see Table 3.11, p. 73  

 /θ/and /ð/, “The Family Tree”, Figure 3.8, 3.9  

 /ʧ/ and /ʤ/, Shopping interview, Figure 3.10


 /n/ and /ŋ/, Figure 3.11  

The Effect of Environment on Consonant Quality  

 Positional Restriction:  

 Consonants can occur syllable initial, final, intervocalic, initial clusters, and final  clusters  

 Not all consonants can occur in all environments  

 See Appendix 4 (p. 461) for list of where all consonants can occur  

 Positional Variation:  

 Phonemes can behave differently in different positions  

 Initial and Final Stop Consonants:  

 /p, t, k/ are different from /b, d, g/ in aspiration, the brief puff of air that  accompanies allophones of these phonemes  

 /p, t, k/ are aspirated word initially  We also discuss several other topics like How does ecg measure cardiac activity?

 /p, t, k/ are aspirated in medial position if they begin a stressed syllable  (opPOSE, apPALL)  

 /p, t, k/ and /b, d, g/ are often not released (process of articulation not completed)  in final position (diacritic [˚])  

 In final position, the vowel before the stop is short if the stop is voiceless and  lengthened ([ː]) if the stop is voiced (pick vs. pig)  

 vowel length – refers to if the vowel is short or long  

 NAE flap [ɾ]:  

 Flap replaces /t/ or /d/ when they occur after a vowel or /r/ and before an  unstressed syllable (data, putting, started, ladder)  

 flap – tongue touches or flaps against alveolar ridge only very briefly   Can occur word finally if next word starts with a vowel and is stressed   /n/ can also become a nasalized flap (winter/winner)  

 Fricatives and Affricates:  

 sibilants (high turbulent sound) vs. nonsibilants (less friction and energy), see p.  81  

 Vowels are lengthened when voiced fricatives/affricates occur word finally (grace vs. graze), similar to the rule for stops  

 Syllabic consonants:  

 /n/ and /l/ can become syllabic, or vowel-like (kitten, tunnel)  

 notated by diacritic mark [ˌ]  

 glottal stop – a sound formed when vocal cords close tightly so that air cannot  pass between them  

Consonant Clusters  

 See Figure 3.22 on p. 99 re: all consonant clustering options in English   Even native speakers utilize cluster reduction (dropping a consonant to make it easier to  pronounce) i.e., asked becomes /æst/


 Native speakers also utilize resyllabification – moving the final consonant to the next  word if it starts with a vowel  

Chapter 4 - Vowels

NAE Vowel System and Classification

 Vowels are the peak of a syllable. They are harder to define but require using vocal  cords (in English anyway) with no obstruction in the vocal tract.  

 14 vowels, per textbook: 11 simple vowels (no accompanying glide movement) and  vowel-glide combos (accompanied by /y/ or /w/ as in pain /ey/ or stone /ow/), and 3  diphthongs (vowel followed by nonadjacent glide within same syllable, as in boy). p. 115  

 NOTE: what the textbook refers to as vowel-glide combos, many other resources  simply include as diphthongs.  

 The vowel quadrant: high, mid, low refers to how tongue rises and drops; front, central,  back refers to where highest point of tongue is rising, from front to back of mouth. See  Figs. 4.1, 4.2 on p. 116  

 Lips can be rounded, spread (in varying degrees), or neutral (neither rounded nor spread  (Fig. 4.3)  

 Vowels can be tense or lax, referring to how much the lip/mouth muscles are engaged in  producing the sound (p. 117)  

 Tense vowels tend towards diphthongization whereas the lax ones don’t. Tense  can be open (syllables without a final consonant sound, ‘tea, law’) or closed  syllables (syllables terminating in a consonant, ‘team, pop’); lax are only closed  syllables  

 PER DANIEL, the book is not correct on this. Vowel classification is not about  muscle tenseness or laxness. This was a former prevalent thought in the field,  since disproven.


 See Table 4.2 Classification of Vowels  

 vowels are lengthened before final voiced consonant  

 sonorant – voiced sound that can function as the peak of a syllable, e.g., all vowels,  semivowls (glides) /w, y/, nasals, and liquids /l, r/  

 /r/-coloring occurs when a vowel immediately precedes an /r/ and they are the stressed  syllable. See list on p. 127  

 /ɜʳ/ is the 15th vowel per textbook (‘bird’)  

 /l/-coloring: the dark /l/ at ending pulls vowel sounds back further into vocal tract. Often  produces /ʊ/-like quality.  

 pool vs. pull (dark /l/= [ɫ]). Doesn’t change the vowel, the vowel is just being  pulled back by the /l/  

 When nasal precedes vowel, slight nasal coloring occurs; when nasal follows vowel,  there is more coloring. When vowel is sandwiched between 2 nasals, the most nasal  coloring occurs.  

 nasalized – velum is partially open during vowel sound


Reduced Vowels

 reduced vowels – tendency of vowel to be reduced (usually to schwa) when in an  unstressed position (‘able’ vs. ‘ability’)  

 /ə/ (schwa) is most commonly occurring reduced vowel (and its r-colored variant). There  are 4 others: ɪ, i, o, u. Which one is uttered depends largely on dialect and context.   citation form – form with a stressed vowel when the word is spoken alone, out of context   reduced form – the version of the word that usually occurs in natural speech  

Presenting the Vowel System to Students

 Start with teaching articulatory characteristics  

 Due to the disparage between English vowel sounds and orthography, some system is  needed to help students differentiate vowel sounds that does not rely on the written  form.  

 Graphics for vowel lengthening  

 Phonetic symbols if students are more advanced  

 Color-coding system for lower level students (see Table 4.12, p. 138)  

 Listening Discrimination: start with a limited set of contrasting words then build up to the  full set  

 Vowel discrimination worksheets: Circle the picture of the word you hear  worksheets for lower level students or circle the word (see Figs. 4.10-12).  

 Controlled Practice and Feedback  

 After assessing students’ abilities to distinguish vowel sounds via some method  like the discrimination worksheets, next should come oral production practice.   For this to be “communicative” it’s important to find a way to elicit natural  production in the classroom. How you go about this depends largely on the  proficiency level of your students but generally starting with a category is good  (body parts, countries, etc.)  

 Other ideas (p. 141-148): Dialogues, minimum pair sentences (partners),  pronunciation bingo, drawing pictures, Bowen technique  

 Guided Practice with Feedback:  

 involves students taking more active role in producing language in at least  sentence-long utterances  

 Ideas (p. 149-153): Family Tree activity, Information-gap activities, Simon Says,  List of vowels with communicative meaning, chain drills, Who’s who info gap  

 Communicative Practice and Feedback  

 meant to put to practice the new info learned in controlled and guided practice  more creatively and genuinely.  

 Ideas (p. 155-158): modified hangman (for young learners), strip story (arrange a  story), using color cards or art cards, role play, poetry writing (with limerick  template), computer dating match


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