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GSU - PMAP 3060 - Class Notes - Week 3

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GSU - PMAP 3060 - Class Notes - Week 3

School: Georgia State University
Department: Journalism and Mass Communications
Course: Communication Law and Regulation
Professor: Christopher Toula
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: communication, regulation, and Law
Name: Broadcasting History
Description: Regulation, Internet, Broadcasting History
Uploaded: 02/11/2018
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background image Broadcast, Cable, and Internet Regulation Broadcast Regulation History o Radio act of 1912 U.S. federal law that required all 
seafaring vessels to maintain 24-hr 
radio watch and keep in contact with 
nearby ships and coastal radio stations
Required all amateur radio operators 
to be licensed
Allowed US Sec. of Commerce to award
licenses for radio stations & to assign 
spectrum of frequency
o Radio act of 1927 Established a 5 member Federal Radio 
Commission
Commission had the power to 
grant/deny radio station licenses, 
assign frequencies, and prevent 
interference 
Allowed the FRC to act in the “public 
interest, convenience or necessity”
o Communications Act of 1934 Established to continue jurisdiction 
over broadcasting, but also to simplify 
the regulatory process
Established the FCC Jurisdiction over radio and wire 
communications
o Telecommunications Act of 1996
background image Altered rules for cable, telephone, 
satellite transmissions, and other 
communication media
Rationale for Regulation o 1 st  Amendment Issues The court stated in FCC V Pacifica 
found that “of all forms of 
communication, it is broadcasting that 
has received the most limited 
protection”
o Rationales for Regulation Spectrum scarcity Concept of public trusteeship Persuasiveness Radio & tv are everywhere & that’s
why broadcaster should be treated 
differently under the 1
st   amendment Broadcasting’s intrusiveness & 
omnipresence make it unique
Special impact of broadcast media Broadcasting is uniquely accessible
to children even those too young to
read
Televised violence posted such a 
threat that the TV rating system 
was created in 1996
FCC Structure o Budget is allocated by Congress and must  be approved by the President o 5 members are selected by President and  Approved by Senate
background image o 2 Bureaus: 2 important to broadcasting Media Bureau: Administers policy and 
licensing programs to electronic mass 
media
Enforcement Bureau: resolves 
complaints involving radio frequency 
interference, indecent 
communications, and false distress 
signals
o Judicial Power Acts very much like a court when 
making decisions that affect individual 
licenses
“Initial Decision” and can be appealed Hearings include testimony, counsel, 
and evidence
o Executive Power May impose an array of penalties to 
enforce its rules
FCC typically choose to impose a fine Station Licensing o Evolving technologies means that demand  for space on the spectrum continues to 
grow
Tv broadcasters were asked to auction 
a chunk of their spectrum for mobile 
service operators
o All applicants for a license must be: Technically qualified Sufficient equipment and 
engineering personnel needed 
operate
background image Financially qualified Demonstrate sufficient financial 
banking
Legally qualified Cannot be foreign entity Must be of good character Cannot own more than a certain 
number of stations in any given 
market
Broadcast Networks o Networks distribute programs to stations  and stations broadcast the programs o Most station are affiliates because they  have contractual obligations to the 
network
o Networks aren’t licensed by the FCC, but  the FCC has indirect control because they 
license the stations
Regulation o Radio: One company may own as many  radio stations as they want throughout the 
country, but there are limits in the market
o Television: There is not a limit on the  number of TV stations one company may 
own, but they cannot control stations 
reaching more than 39% of the total US 
population
o Broadcast Networks The BIG 4 (NBC,CBS,Fox,ABC) cannot 
be owned by the same company, but 
that company can own other cable 
networks

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School: Georgia State University
Department: Journalism and Mass Communications
Course: Communication Law and Regulation
Professor: Christopher Toula
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: communication, regulation, and Law
Name: Broadcasting History
Description: Regulation, Internet, Broadcasting History
Uploaded: 02/11/2018
20 Pages 29 Views 23 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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