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UGA - VPHY 2200 - Class Notes - Week 6

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UGA - VPHY 2200 - Class Notes - Week 6

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background image Anatomy and Physiology I  Lectures 9, 10, and 11 (Week of 2/5/18)  Introduction: This lecture introduces organs and organ systems, including the integumentary 
system and the skeletal system.  
Key: Words in bold are vocabulary words  Main ideas:    Organs  o  Composed of 2 or more tissues  
o  Cooperate to perform certain functions 
    The stomach  o  Epithelial tissue lining (simple columnar) 
o  Walls are made of areolar (for nerves and blood vessels) and dense connective 
tissue (for shape and support) and are made of three layers of smooth muscle 
tissue (to contract and mix materials) 
o  Has nerve tissue to regulate contraction and gland secretion 
o  Overall, the stomach has 5 different kinds of tissue that work together to digest 
material 
 
  Body membranes  o  The result of epithelial tissue binding to an underlying connective tissue 
o  Found lining body cavities (space between the inner and outer walls of an organ) 
o  Cover visceral walls (the inner walls lining organs) 
o  Can be mucous, serous, cutaneous, synovial 
    Tissue repair (when a piece of tissue is damaged)  1.  Inflammation- the immediate response to damage, like swelling   a.  The injury triggers the release of inflammation chemicals like histamines  
b.  Blood vessels are dilated to increase blood flow to the  affected area 
c.  Vessels become more permeable to transport material and white blood cells to 
the affected are more easily  d.  Clotting occurs to form a scab  2.  Organization and restoring of blood supply  a.  Granulation tissue (tissue that secrete substances) replace the blood clot and  restore blood supply  b.  Epithelial tissue engages in mitosis to create more cells to replace the  damaged ones 
background image c.  Fibroblasts (cells that create dense connective tissue) produce collagen fibers  to connect the new tissue  d.  Debris is removed through phagocytosis by macrophages  3.  Regeneration and Fibrosis   a.  The scab falls off 
b.  Fibroblasts mature and the epithelium thickens 
c.  The site is fully regenerated with underlying scar tissue 
    How aging affects tissue  o  Cell reproduction and regeneration is slower 
o  Structure of collagen fibers becomes more irregular even if they are still 
increasing in number  o  Tendons and ligaments become more fragile and less flexible 
o  Elastic fiber fragments become less ionic after binding to calcium (causing artery 
walls and elastic ligaments to be less elastic)  o  Changes in collagen and elastin cause wrinkling in skin, fragile bones, and  reduced blood supply  o  Blood cell synthesis declines 
o  Injuries heal more slowly 
  Integumentary system      Functions of the integumentary system  o  Protection- chemical, physical, and biological     Secretes low pH (acidic mantle) to defend against bacteria (chemical) 
  Keratin and glycolipids block water and most water-soluble substances, 
and limiting penetration of lipid-soluble substances (physical)    Uses dendrite cells (part of immune system), macrophages (part of  immune system), and DNA (biological)  o  Maintain body temperature    Uses sweat gland activity and vasodilation/constriction cool and retain  heat  o  Cutaneous sensation (touch, pain, temperature) 
o  Metabolic 
  Synthesis of collagenase and vitamin D precursor 
  Chemically converts carcinogens and certain hormones 
Blood storage (holds 5% of body’s blood volume)  o  Excretion    Excretes nitrogenous waste and salt in sweat    
background image   Three parts of the skin (from superficial to deep)  o  Epidermis    Stratified squamous, keratinized 
  Cells in epidermis: 
-  Melanocytes:    Spider-shaped  
  In basale layer of skin 
  Produce pigment  
-  Keratinocytes:    Scale-like 
  Produce the protective protein keratin, which makes 
the skin harder  -  Epidermal dendrite cells     Macrophages 
  Help start immune system  
-  Tactile cells    Help perceive touch    Layers of epidermis (superficial to deep)  -  Stratum corneum    20-30 layers of dead cells (makes up most of  epidermis)    Flat membranes filled with keratin 
  Extracellular matrix contains glycolipids 
  Provides biological, chemical, physical barrier 
  Protects against water, penetration, abrasion 
-  Stratum lucidum (only in thick skin on palms of hands  and soles of feet)    Thin, transparent band of dead keratinocytes   -  Stratum granulosum    3-5 layers  
  Where cells begin to flatten 
  Secrete lipids (to help prevent water loss) 
  Where keratinization occurs (where cells fill with 
keratin)  -  Stratum spinosum    Layers of keratinocytes connected by desmosomes  (type of cell junction that uses filaments to connect 
thickened plasma membranes) 
  Intermediate filaments contain pre-keratin 
  Produce keratin 

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School: University of Georgia
Department: Physiology
Course: Anatomy & Physiology I
Professor: Massey
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: anatomy
Name: CBIO 2200 Week 6 Notes
Description: Hello everybody, Here are the notes from this past week. It covers the end of the unit on tissues, organs, the integumentary system, and the first part of the unit on the skeletal system.
Uploaded: 02/11/2018
11 Pages 40 Views 32 Unlocks
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